Regulation of lysyl oxidase, collagen, and connective tissue growth factor by TGF-beta1 and detection in human gingiva

H H Hong, M I Uzel, C Duan, M C Sheff, P C Trackman
Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology 1999, 79 (12): 1655-67
Gingival overgrowth is characterized by excess extracellular matrix accumulation and elevated levels of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). The functional relationships between altered cytokine levels and extracellular matrix accumulation have not been extensively investigated in gingival cells and tissues. Lysyl oxidase catalyzes the final known enzymatic step required for cross-linking collagen and elastin in the synthesis of a functional extracellular matrix. This study investigated the regulation by TGF-beta1 of lysyl oxidase and its collagen and elastin substrates in early passage human gingival fibroblasts. In addition, TGF-beta1 regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was assessed in human gingival cells and tissues. The results show that TGF-beta1 increases lysyl oxidase enzyme activity and mRNA levels for lysyl oxidase and alpha-1-type I collagen, but not elastin, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximal stimulation of lysyl oxidase activity and mRNA levels for both lysyl oxidase and collagen occurs after 48 hours of treatment of gingival fibroblastic cells with 400 pM of TGF-beta1. This study shows for the first time that CTGF mRNA and protein are strongly and rapidly induced by TGF-beta1 in human gingival fibroblasts. Exogenous addition of 1 to 50 ng/ml CTGF to gingival fibroblasts stimulates production of lysyl oxidase enzyme activity up to 1.5-fold after 48 hours, and 50 ng/ml CTGF stimulated insoluble collagen accumulation 1.5- to 2.0-fold after 4, 11, and 18 days of treatment. It is interesting to note that the addition of CTGF-blocking antibodies in the presence of TGF-beta did not block TGF-beta stimulation of collagen mRNA levels. Thus, although CTGF itself contributes to increased insoluble collagenous extracellular matrix accumulation, CTGF does not mediate all of the effects of TGF-beta1 on stimulation of collagen mRNA levels in human gingival fibroblasts. Immunohistochemistry studies of gingival overgrowth tissue samples indicate for the first time detectable levels of CTGF protein in Dilantin-induced hyperplasia tissues also positive for TGF-beta1. CTGF was not found in TGF-beta1-negative samples. In addition, extracellular lysyl oxidase protein was detected in vivo. Taken together, these studies support mostly independent roles for TGF-beta1 and CTGF in stimulating collagenous extracellular matrix accumulation in human gingival fibroblasts and tissues.

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