The effect of blood on the antiviral activity of sodium hypochlorite, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound

D J Weber, S L Barbee, M D Sobsey, W A Rutala
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1999, 20 (12): 821-7

OBJECTIVE: To assess the virucidal activity of three disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound) in the presence and absence of blood.

METHODS: Disinfectants at varying concentrations (hypochlorite: 5,000, 500, or 50 ppm; phenolic: 1:10 or 1:128 dilution; quaternary ammonium compound: 1:10 or 1:128 dilution) were added to either saline or whole blood (final concentration, 80% or 20% blood) and mixed. Test organisms included an attenuated vaccine strain of poliovirus type 1 (prototype for relatively resistant hydrophilic viruses) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (prototype for relatively susceptible lipophilic viruses). Virus was added to create a viral-blood suspension. Viral survival was tested at room temperature at the following times: 0, 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes. A neutralizer stopped the reaction, and virus was assayed using a plaque technique.

RESULTS: In the absence of blood, complete inactivation of HSV was achieved within 30 seconds with 5,000 (1:10 dilution of bleach) and 500 (1:100 dilution of bleach) ppm chlorine, 1:10 and 1:128 diluted phenolic (use dilution), and 1:10 and 1:128 diluted quaternary ammonium compound (use dilution). In the presence of 80% blood, only 5,000 ppm hypochlorite, 1:10 phenolic, and 1:10 or 1:128 quaternary ammonium compound were effective. In the absence of blood, complete inactivation of polio was achieved within 30 seconds by 5,000 and 500 ppm chlorine and 1:10 quaternary ammonium compound. In the presence of 80% blood, no solution tested was capable of completely inactivating poliovirus within 10 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that, in the absence of visible blood, environmental surfaces may be disinfected with a diluted hypochlorite solution (1:10 or 1:100), a phenolic, or a quaternary ammonium compound. Based on our studies using HSV, which has similar susceptibilities to disinfectants as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), phenolics at their use dilution and 1:100 diluted hypochlorite are unlikely to inactivate HIV or hepatitis B virus reliably in the presence of blood. Hypochlorite at a final concentration of 5,000 ppm (1:10 dilution) should be used to decontaminate blood spills, but, even after decontamination, care should be used to avoid sharps injuries.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"