Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome: polymerase chain reaction demonstration of parvovirus B19 DNA in cutaneous lesions and sera.
We report a typical case of papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome (PPGSS) in which primary infection by parvovirus B19 was demonstrated by seroconversion to this virus; parvovirus B19 DNA was also identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in the sera of the patient and in the cutaneous biopsy specimen, both taken 4 days after the onset of clinical manifestations. To our knowledge, this is the fourth published case in which parvovirus B19 DNA has been recovered from the skin by PCR. Serologic studies and PCR investigations in cutaneous biopsy for other viruses including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6, 7, and 8 were negative. Clinically, our case presented some additional features, which have not been previously described in cases of PPGSS, namely dysuria with vulvar edema and erythema, and unilateral petechial rash on the breast. The histopathologic findings of our case were nonspecific and consisted of an interface dermatitis with slight vacuolar degeneration at the dermoepidermal junction and a superficial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate mostly composed of lymphocytes, with numerous extravasated erythrocytes. We review the cases of PPGSS published in the literature with respect to the different viruses that have been proposed as etiologic agents and conclude that acute infection by parvovirus B19 is the only one that has been adequately proved.
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