Imaging evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism

M B Gotway, K J Edinburgh, V A Feldstein, J Lehman, G P Reddy, W R Webb
Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology 1999, 28 (5): 129-84
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disorder that is difficult to diagnose clinically but carries significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. Additionally, although demonstrated to be of benefit in cases of proven deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), anticoagulation therapy is not without risk. Because the clinical exam is known to be unreliable for the detection of both DVT and PE, many imaging modalities have been used in the diagnostic imaging algorithm for the detection of VTE, including chest radiography, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy, pulmonary angiography, and recently, spiral computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Chest radiographic findings in acute PE include focal oligemia, vascular enlargement, atelectasis, pleural effusions, and air space opacities representing pulmonary hemorrhage or infarction. The chest radiograph can occasionally be suggestive of PE but is more often nonspecifically abnormal. The main use of the chest radiograph in the evaluation of suspected PE is to exclude entities that may simulate PE and to assist in the interpretation of V/Q scintigraphy. Lower extremity venous compression ultrasonography (CU) is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of femoropopliteal DVT, and the value of negative CU results has been established in outcomes studies. However, the reliability of CU for the detection of isolated calf vein thrombosis is not well established, and the clinical significance of such thrombi is debatable. Additional methods such as color and spectral Doppler analysis are also useful in the diagnostic evaluation of DVT but are best considered as adjuncts to the conventional CU examination rather than as primary diagnostic modalities themselves. Compression ultrasonography and Doppler techniques are useful in the evaluation of suspected upper extremity DVT; spectral Doppler waveform analysis is particularly useful to assess for the patency of veins that cannot be directly visualized and compressed with conventional gray-scale sonography. V/Q scintigraphy has been the initial modality obtained in patients suspected of PE for a number of years. Although many studies have investigated the role of V/Q scintigraphy in the evaluation of VTE, the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study has provided the most useful information regarding the utility of V/Q scintigraphy in this setting. A high probability scan interpretation is sufficient justification to institute anticoagulation, and a normal perfusion scan effectively excludes the diagnosis of PE. A normal/near normal scan interpretation also carries a sufficiently low prevalence of angiographically proven PE to withhold anticoagulation. Although the prevalence of PE in the setting of low probability scan interpretations is low and several outcomes studies have demonstrated a benign course in untreated patients with low probability scan results, patients with inadequate cardiopulmonary reserve do not necessarily have good outcomes. Such patients deserve more aggressive evaluation. Patients with intermediate probability scan results have a 20% to 40% prevalence of angiographically proven PE and thus require further investigation. The radionuclide investigation of DVT includes such techniques as radionuclide venography and thrombus-avid scintigraphy. Although these methods have not been as thoroughly evaluated as CU, studies thus far have indicated encouraging results, and further investigations are warranted. Pulmonary angiography has been the gold standard for the diagnosis of PE for decades. Studies have indicated that angiography has probably been underutilized by referring physicians for the evaluation of suspected PE, likely because of the perception of significant morbidity and mortality associated with the procedure. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

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