Induction of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, intermediates in the formation of advanced glycation end-products, during heat-sterilization of glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids

C G Schalkwijk, N Posthuma, H J ten Brink, P M ter Wee, T Teerlink
Peritoneal Dialysis International 1999, 19 (4): 325-33

OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids, their concentration in effluents with increasing dwell time, and their role in the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs).

MEASUREMENTS: Dicarbonyl compounds in heat- and filter-sterilized PD fluids were quantified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after derivatization to dimethoxyquinoxaline derivatives. Kinetics of the in vitro formation of AGEs upon incubation of 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds or PD fluids with albumin, with or without aminoguanidine, were measured by AGE fluorescence (excitation/emission wavelengths of 350 nm/430 nm).

PATIENTS: AGEs and dicarbonyl compounds were measured in effluents collected from standardized 4-hour dwells from 8 continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis patients.

RESULTS: In PD fluids, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) has been identified as the major dicarbonyl compound formed during the process of heat sterilization. The process also formed glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), with the amount of 3-DG being approximately 25-60 times higher than GO and MGO. When incubated with albumin, the identified 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds rapidly formed AGEs. The formation of AGEs was more pronounced in conventional heat-sterilized PD fluids compared with filter-sterilized PD fluids, and was completely inhibited by aminoguanidine. In effluents, the concentration of MGO, GO, and 3-DG decreased with increasing dwell time, with a concomitant increase in AGE fluorescence.

CONCLUSIONS: The dicarbonyl compounds 3-DG, MGO, and GO are potent promoters of AGE formation. The presence of these and possibly other dicarbonyl compounds formed during heat sterilization of glucose-based PD fluids is, to a large extent, responsible for the in vitroAGE formation by these fluids, as evidenced by the speed of AGE formation in PD fluids and the complete inhibition by aminoguanidine. Because 3-DG, MGO, and GO are rapidly cleared from PD fluids during dialysis, these compounds may contribute to the in vivo AGE formation in PD patients.

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