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Early predictors of myoglobinuria and acute renal failure following electrical injury.

Myoglobinuria-induced acute renal failure (ARF) is a potentially lethal consequence of electrical injury. We describe clinical variables that can predict the risk of myoglobinuria and ARF following electrical injury. This was a retrospective multivariate analysis of risk factors among electrically injured patients over a 26-year period. Urine myoglobin status was documented in 162 patients; 14% had myoglobinuria. No patient developed ARF. Multivariate modeling revealed that high-voltage exposure, prehospital cardiac arrest, full-thickness burns, and compartment syndrome were associated with myoglobinuria. Using a prediction rule defined as positive when a patient had > or = 2 risk factors yielded a sensitivity of 96% and negative predictive value of 99%. Electrical injury patients with myoglobinuria have little risk of developing ARF. A prediction rule can be used to screen out patients at low risk for myoglobinuria and identify high-risk patients who warrant early aggressive treatment and a more definitive myoglobin test.

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