[Susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients with lower respiratory infectious diseases to antibiotics (1997)]

H Ikemoto, C Ito, T Yoshida, K Watanabe, T Mori, I Ohno, S Okada, J Igari, M Arakawa, K Igarashi, T Oguri, M Okada, K Ozaki, T Terai, N Aoki, H Inoue, T Nakadate, N Kitamura, O Sekine, Y Suzuki, M Ando, M Suga, K Sato, K Nakata, N Kusano
Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 1999, 52 (5): 353-97
The bacteria isolated from the patients with lower respiratory tract infections were collected by institutions located throughout Japan, since 1981. Ikemoto et al. have been investigating susceptibilities of these isolates to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics, and analyzed some characteristics of the patients and isolates from them each year. Results obtained from these investigations are discussed. In these 17 institutions around the entire Japan, 512 strains of presumably etiological bacteria were isolated mainly from the sputa of 440 patients with lower respiratory tract infections during the period from October in 1997 to September in 1998. MICs of various antibacterial agents and antibiotics were determined against 100 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 81 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 85 strains of Haemophilus influenzae. 71 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid strains), 27 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mucoid strains), 33 strains of Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis, 17 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae etc., and the susceptibilities of these strains were assessed except for those strains that died during transportation. S. aureus strains for which MICs of oxacillin (MPIPC) were higher than 4 micrograms/ml (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) accounted for 55.0%. The frequency of the drug resistant bacteria decreased comparing to the previous year's 67.3%. Arbekacin (ABK) and vancomycin (VCM) showed the most potent activities against MRSA. Imipenem (IPM) and panipenem (PAPM) of carbapenems showed the most potent activities with MIC80S of 0.063 microgram/ml against S. pneumoniae. The frequency of penicillin (PC)-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP)+PC-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) had decreased gradually, that is, in 1995 the frequency of it was 40.3%, but that was 30.9% in 1997. Against H. influenzae and M.(B.) catarrhalis, all the drugs showed good activities. But the sensitive strains of them against ceftazidime (CAZ) had decreased in 1997, compared those in 1995 and 1996. Meropenem (MEPM), IPM and tobramycin (TOB) showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid strains). And TOB and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) showed the most potent activities against P. aeruginosa (non-mucoid strains). All drugs except ampicillin (ABPC) were more active against K. pneumoniae in 1997 than that in 1996. Also, we investigated year to year changes in the characteristics of patients, their respiratory infectious diseases, and the etiology. The examination of age distribution indicated that the proportion of patients with ages over 70 years was 45.5% of all the patients showing a slight increase year by year. About the proportion of diagnosed diseases, not so particular changes were recognized as follows: Bacterial pneumonia and chronic bronchitis were the most frequent with 33.6% and 29.1%, respectively. Number of strains isolated from patients before administration of antibiotics were more than those after administration of them in chronic bronchitis, but these had reversed in bacterial pneumonia. The tendency in bacterial pneumonia had been acknowledged since 1995. The increase of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa (both mucoid and non-mucoid strains) isolated after administration of antibiotics, has suggested the decrease of the susceptibility of these strains against antibiotics. Administration of antibiotics has changed the results of the frequency of isolation of bacterial species. Bacterial isolations before administration of antibiotics were as follows: S. pneumoniae 24.5%, H. influenzae 21.4%, S. aureus 18.4% and P. aeruginosa 12.2%. The frequencies of S. aureus decreased after antibiotics administration over 15 days, but the frequencies of P. aeruginosa was not affected. The frequencies of P. aeruginosa was 47.8% after administration over 15 days. From patients administered antibiotics of penicillins and cephems. S. aureus was mainly detected with 31.7-58.3%, and from patients administere

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