JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hypercalciuria and recurrent urinary tract infection in Venezuelan children

M M López, L A Castillo, J B Chávez, C Ramones
Pediatric Nephrology 1999, 13 (5): 433-7
10412865
Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) has not been widely recognized as a clinical manifestation of hypercalciuria in children. We studied 59 children with two or more episodes of UTI, a normal urinary tract, and with hypercalciuria. Clinical manifestations were fever, dysuria, straining with micturition, hematuria, polyuria, abdominal pain, and failure to thrive. Urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.36+/-0.15 mg/mg. Renal function studies included serum bicarbonate (21+/-3 mmol/l), urinary/blood PCO2 difference (11+/-11 mmHg), urinary net acid excretion (63+/-3 micromol/min per 1.73 m2), uric acid fractional excretion (13%+/-12%), and maximal urinary osmolality (920+/-236 mosmol/kg). Treatment included promotion of fluid intake, avoiding excessive salt and protein, and keeping dietary calcium between 900 and 1,200 mg/day. Potassium citrate or hydrochlorothiazide were indicated if hypercalciuria persisted. With this treatment, in 95% of the children, no further episodes of UTI occurred once normocalciuria was achieved. It is possible that hypercalciuria may play a predisposing role for recurrent UTI in children by promoting the formation of microcrystals which damage the uroepithelium. We advocate the investigation of urinary calcium excretion in children with recurrent UTI and a normal urinary tract.

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