Chondromyxoid fibroma: a tumor showing myofibroblastic, myochondroblastic, and chondrocytic differentiation

G P Nielsen, S B Keel, G R Dickersin, M K Selig, A K Bhan, A E Rosenberg
Modern Pathology 1999, 12 (5): 514-7
Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare primary benign tumor of bone that demonstrates variable histologic features and is often confused with chondrosarcoma. Although the chondroid elements in CMF have been reported to be S-100 protein positive and to have chondrocytic features ultrastructurally, the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural profile of CMF, especially with respect to the peripheral nonchondroid elements, has not been extensively studied. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 10 CMFs were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies to vimentin, desmin, muscle actin, smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein, and CD34. Six tumors were also examined ultrastructurally. The chondroid areas showed variable staining for S-100 protein but did not stain for muscle actin or smooth muscle actin. The peripheral areas surrounding the chondroid areas stained diffusely for smooth muscle actin and muscle actin but did not stain for S-100 protein. CD34 highlighted the extensive vascularity that was especially prominent in the peripheral areas; no tumor cells stained for CD34. There was no staining for desmin. Ultrastructural examination showed three different cell types. Some cells showed the classic features of chondrocytes, other cells had the features of myofibroblasts, and the third cell type had the features of both chondrocytes and myofibroblasts ("myochondroblasts"). These findings support the conclusion that CMF is a tumor showing myofibroblastic, myochondroblastic, and chondrocytic differentiation.

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