Glucosamine infusion in rats rapidly impairs insulin stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase but does not alter activation of Akt/protein kinase B in skeletal muscle

Y B Kim, J S Zhu, J R Zierath, H Q Shen, A D Baron, B B Kahn
Diabetes 1999, 48 (2): 310-20
Glucosamine, a metabolite of glucose via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, potently induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by impairing insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Activation of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase is necessary for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, and the serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) is a downstream mediator of some actions of PI 3-kinase. To determine whether glucosamine-induced insulin resistance could be due to impaired signaling, we measured insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation; PI 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1, IRS-2, and phosphotyrosine; and Akt activity and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of rats infused for 2 h with glucosamine (6.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or saline. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies (12 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1) insulin) in awake rats showed that glucosamine infusion resulted in rapid induction of insulin resistance, with a 33% decrease in glucose infusion rate (P < 0.01). Tissues were harvested after saline alone (basal), 1 min after an insulin bolus (10 U/kg), or after 2 h of insulin clamp in saline- and glucosamine-infused rats. After 1 min of insulin stimulation, phosphorylation of IRS-1 and insulin receptor increased 6- to 8-fold in saline-infused rats and 7- to 10-fold in glucosamine-infused rats. In saline-infused rats, 1 min of insulin stimulation increased PI 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1, IRS-2, or phosphotyrosine 7.6-, 6.4-, and 10-fold, respectively. In glucosamine-infused rats treated for 1 min with insulin, PI 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1 was reduced 28% (P < 0.01) and that associated with phosphotyrosine was reduced 43% (P < 0.01). Insulin for 1 min stimulated Akt/PKB activity approximately 5-fold in both saline- and glucosamine-infused rats; insulin-induced hyperphosphorylation of Akt/PKB was not different between groups. Glucosamine infusion alone had no effect on tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor or IRS-1 or on stimulation of PI 3-kinase or Akt/PKB activity. However, 2 h of insulin clamp reduced PI 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1, IRS-2, or phosphotyrosine to <30% of that seen with 1 min of insulin. No effect of glucosamine was seen on these signaling events when compared with 2 h of insulin clamp without glucosamine. Our data show that 1) glucosamine infusion in rats is associated with an impairment in the early activation of PI 3-kinase by insulin in skeletal muscle, 2) this insulin-resistant state does not involve alterations in the activation of Akt/PKB, and 3) prolonged insulin infusion under clamp conditions results in a blunting of the PI 3-kinase response to insulin.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"