Rate of incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis

M Chiaramonte, T Stroffolini, A Vian, M A Stazi, A Floreani, U Lorenzoni, S Lobello, F Farinati, R Naccarato
Cancer 1999 May 15, 85 (10): 2132-7

BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis of viral etiology due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current study evaluated the rate of incidence of HCC in patients with compensated cirrhosis of viral etiology.

METHODS: Two hundred fifty-nine cirrhotic patients (66 hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] positive, 166 HCV positive, and 27 HBsAg/HCV positive) were longitudinally examined every 6 months by serum alpha-fetoprotein test and liver ultrasonography. The rates of incidence of HCC were calculated by the person-years method. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative probability of HCC development. Differences in survival time were evaluated by a log rank test. Independent predictors of HCC development were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis.

RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 64.5 months, HCC developed in 51 (19.7%) patients: in 34 of 166 HCV positive subjects (20.5%) (mean follow-up, 66.3 months), in 6 of 66 of those HBsAg positive (9.1%) (mean follow-up, 55.06 months), and in 11 of 27 of those with dual HBsAg/HCV infection (40.7%) (mean follow-up, 76.4 months). The rate of incidence of HCC per 100 person-years of follow-up was 3.7 in HCV positive subjects, 2.0 in those HBsAg positive, and 6.4 in those with dual infection. Cumulative HCC appearance rates in HBsAg positive, HCV positive, and HBsAg/HCV positive subgroups were 10%, 21%, and 23% at 5 years, 16%, 28%, and 45% at 10 years, and 16%, 40%, and 55% at 13 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that age >50 years (hazard risk [HR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1-9.4), male gender (HR, 2.8; 95% CI = 1.1-5.3), and HBsAg/HCV coinfection (HR, 2.3; 95% CI = 1.1-4.6) were independent predictors of HCC development.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that male gender and more advanced age (>50 years) are risk factors for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. Furthermore, the data indicate that subjects with dual HBsAg/HCV infection are at highest risk for HCC. Surveillance programs for early detection of HCC should focus especially on these patients.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"