Laparoscopic placement and revision of peritoneal dialysis catheters

K Skipper, R Dickerman, E Dunn
JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 1999, 3 (1): 63-5
Chronic peritoneal dialysis is an option for many patients with end stage renal disease. Laparoscopy offers an alternative approach in the management of dialysis patients. Over an 18-month period, laparoscopy was used for placement or revision of seven peritoneal dialysis catheters. All were placed in patients with end stage renal disease for chronic dialysis. Two catheters were initially placed using the laparoscope, and in five other patients, the position of the catheter was revised. Of the two patients who had their catheters placed initially, one patient had a previous lower mid-line incision and underwent laparoscopic placement of a catheter and lysis of pelvic adhesions. The second patient had hepatitis C and chronically elevated liver function tests. He underwent laparoscopic placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter and liver biopsy. Five patients had laparoscopic revision for non-functional catheters. Four were found to have omental adhesions surrounding the catheter. Three patients were found to have a fibrin clot within the catheter, and in one patient the small bowel was adhered to the catheter. All seven patients had general endotracheal anesthesia. There were no operative or anesthetic complications. The average operative time was 56 minutes. Four patients had their procedure in an ambulatory setting and were discharged home the same day. One patient was admitted for 23-hour observation, and two patients had their procedure while in the hospital for other reasons. In follow-up, there was one early failure at two weeks, which required removal of the catheter for infection. One catheter was removed at the time of a combined kidney/pancreas transplant eight months after revision. The other five catheters are still functional with an average follow-up of ten months. These results suggest that laparoscopy is another method for placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters and more importantly for revision in patients with nonfunctional catheters secondary to adhesions. It also provides an opportunity to evaluate the abdomen and perform concomitant procedures.

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