Molecular Genetics of Type 1 Glycogen Storage Diseases

Yang Chou J, Mansfield
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM 1999, 10 (3): 104-113
Glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1), also known as von Gierke disease, is caused by a deficiency in the activity of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). It is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, kidney enlargement, growth retardation, lactic acidemia, hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia. The disease presents with both clinical and biochemical heterogeneity consistent with the existence of two major subgroups, GSD-1a and GSD-1b, which have been confirmed at the molecular genetic level. GSD-1a, the most prevalent form, is caused by mutations in the G6Pase gene that abolish or greatly reduce enzymatic activity. The gene maps to chromosome 17q21 and encodes a microsomal transmembrane protein. Animal models of GSD-1a exist and are being exploited to delineate the disease more precisely. It has been proposed that GSD-1b is caused by a defect in the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter. The gene responsible for GSD-1b has been mapped to chromosome 11q23 and a cDNA encoding a microsomal transmembrane protein has been identified. The function of this putative GSD-1b protein remains to be determined. These recent developments, along with newly characterized animal models of GSD-1a, are increasing our understanding of the interrelationship between the components of the G6Pase complex and type 1 glycogen storage diseases.

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