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[Preemptive analgesia or balanced periemptive analgesia?].

"Preemptive analgesia" means that analgesia given before the painful stimulus prevents or reduces subsequent pain. The concept of preemptive analgesia originates from basic science and experimental studies. However, in some clinical studies preemptive effect is not always present. The authors think that it happens for: differences among experimental models and clinical reality, wrong use of some pharmacological knowledges, some methodological errors in clinical research. The authors analyze these factors and review in a critical manner clinical studies on preemptive analgesia. In some operations, only one administration of an analgesic drug, before surgery, is not sufficient to produce an evident preemptive effect. Postoperative pain can be reduced making a pharmacological treatment before surgery, for the whole time of painful stimulus. For this reason, the term "preemptive analgesia", like "analgesia given before surgery" is not adequate. The authors suggest that the concept of prevention of postoperative pain is well defined by the term of "balanced periemptive analgesia"; it is a new approach that use many modalities of analgesia in different times to prevent and control painful stimulus for the whole time of its origin: before and/or during operation and, if necessary, in the postoperative period for the residual pain.

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