Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in primary hyperparathyroidism before and after surgery

G Bernini, A Moretti, S Lonzi, C Bendinelli, P Miccoli, A Salvetti
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 1999, 48 (3): 298-300
Twenty consecutive unselected patients with proven primary hyperparathyroidism (PH), 26 essential hypertensive (EH) patients, and 13 normotensives were studied. Blood pressure (BP) and, under constant salt intake, plasma renin activity (PRA), parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary and plasma sodium, potassium, aldosterone (ALD), creatinine, total calcium, and phosphate were measured. Patients with PH were also studied 1 and 6 months after successful surgery. In patients with PH, systolic and diastolic BP was significantly lower (P < .001) than in EH patients and higher (P < .005) than in controls. Eight patients with PH (40%) had BP levels greater than 140/90 mm Hg. PTH and plasma and urinary calcium in patients with PH were significantly (P < .01) higher than in controls, while PRA, ALD, phosphate, potassium, and sodium were superimposable in the three groups. PTH in patients with PH was weakly correlated with PRA (positively) and with plasma potassium (negatively) and was not associated with ALD, calcium, sodium, and BP levels. Surgery was followed by a significant reduction (P < .01) in PTH, calcium, and urinary phosphate and an increase (P < .02) in plasma phosphate, potassium, and sodium, whereas PRA, ALD, urinary potassium and sodium, and BP showed no change. In hypertensive patients with PH, PTH, PRA, and plasma and urinary ALD, calcium, and sodium did not differ from the values in normotensive PH patients, and variations in these humoral parameters after surgery were comparable in the two groups. In conclusion, our results show that hypertension is frequently associated with PH. However, the present data raise doubts about the assumption of a renin-mediated causal relationship between hyperparathyroidism and high BP. Indeed, as a unique finding in favor of the hypothesis of a stimulating role of PTH in renin secretion, we observed only a weak relation between PTH and PRA. Thus, unknown and/or unassessed factors related to parathyroid disease cannot be ruled out to explain the hypertension observed in some patients with PH.

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