Comparison of venoarterial versus venovenous access in the cerebral circulation of newborns undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

S Fukuda, M Aoyama, Y Yamada, N Saitoh, T Honjoh, T Hasegawa, M Futamura, J Katoh, N Niimi, S Tanaka, M Nagaya
Pediatric Surgery International 1999, 15 (2): 78-84
This study was designed to compare venoarterial (VA) with venovenous (VV) access in the cerebral circulation of newborn infants during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Among 14 infants with VA ECMO, 7 had no intracranial complications (group 1), while the others (group 2) developed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In contrast, among 19 infants with VV ECMO, only 1 developed ICH. Serial echocardiograms were performed before and after 1, 6, 12, and 24 h and 2 and 3 days of ECMO. The mean cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocities were measured in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), right and left internal carotid arteries (Rt, Lt-ICA), basilar artery (BA), and right and left middle cerebral arteries (Rt, Lt-MCA). Ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) were also measured using standard echography. The velocity levels in the ACA, Rt-MCA, and Lt-MCA in VA ECMO were lower than those in VV ECMO, while those in the Lt-ICA and BA in VA ECMO were higher than those in VV ECMO. The EF, CO, and SV were lower in cases of VA ECMO than in VV ECMO. In cases of VA ECMO, there were no differences between groups 1 and 2 in velocities in the ACA, Rt-ICA, or Lt-ICA. However the velocities in group 2 in the BA, Rt-MCA, and Lt-MCA were lower than those in group 1 before and during ECMO. Similarly, the EF, CO, and SV were lower in group 2 (12.0%-31.0%, 0. 10-0.32 l/min, and 0.66-1.55 ml, respectively) than in group 1 (29. 5%-49.3%, 0.25-0.63 l/min, and 2.15-3.85 ml) during ECMO. However, in the infants on VV ECMO the CBF was either maintained or gradually increased before and during ECMO. Their cardiac parameters were: EF 46.1%-53.0%, CO 0.43-0.52 l/min, and SV 2.72-3.84 ml during ECMO. It is concluded that in VA ECMO CBF velocities, particularly in infants who developed ICH, decreased after the onset of ECMO in association with poor cardiac function, while in VV ECMO they were stable, probably due to normal systemic hemodynamics and cardiac function.

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