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high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

Benedikt Sagl, Martina Schmid-Schwap, Eva Piehslinger, Claudia Kronnerwetter, Michael Kundi, Siegfried Trattnig, Ian Stavness
Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are common dysfunctions of the masticatory region and are often linked to dislocation or changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for TMJ imaging but standard clinical sequences do not deliver a sufficient resolution and contrast for the creation of detailed meshes of the TMJ disc. Additionally, bony structures cannot be captured appropriately using standard MRI sequences due to their low signal intensity...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Eugene Won, Jose-Alberto Palma, Horacio Kaufmann, Sarah S Milla, Benjamin Cohen, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, James S Babb, Yvonne W Lui
PURPOSE: Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that affects the development of sensory and autonomic neurons, including those in the cranial nerves. We aimed to determine whether conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could detect morphologic changes in the trigeminal nerves of these patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of brain MRI of patients with genetically confirmed FD and age- and sex-matched controls. High-resolution 3D gradient-echo T1-weighted sequences were used to obtain measurements of the cisternal segment of the trigeminal nerves...
February 19, 2019: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
M A Ruffino, R Faletti, M Fronda, M Gatti, L Bergamasco, L Gibello, G Varetto, D Righi, P Rispoli, P Fonio
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence and the time of onset of early micro-embolism after CAS (carotid artery stenting) with two different mesh-covered stents and to assess the role of DW-MRI (Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging) in their prediction. METHODS: Single-institution prospective study including 50 patients (33 male, median age 74 years) who underwent CAS with Roadsaver® or CGuard™. All patients with primary stenosis (37/50, 74%) had carotid plaque DW-MRI pre-procedure, with both qualitative evaluation of the hyperintensity and ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) measurement of the plaque...
February 19, 2019: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Ittai Shamir, Omri Tomer, Zvi Baratz, Galia Tsarfaty, Maya Faraggi, Assaf Horowitz, Yaniv Assaf
The layer composition of the cerebral cortex represents a unique anatomical fingerprint of brain development, function, connectivity, and pathology. Historically, the cortical layers were investigated solely ex-vivo using histological means, but recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that T1 relaxation images can be utilized to separate the layers. Despite technological advancements in the field of high-resolution MRI, accurate estimation of whole-brain cortical laminar composition has remained limited due to partial volume effects, leaving some layers far beyond the image resolution...
February 19, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
Bastian Cheng, Philipp Dietzmann, Robert Schulz, Marlene Boenstrup, Lutz Krawinkel, Jens Fiehler, Christian Gerloff, Götz Thomalla
Following acute ischemic stroke, isolated subcortical lesions induce gray matter atrophy in anatomically connected, yet distant cortical brain regions. We expand on previous studies by analyzing cortical thinning in contralesional, homologous regions indirectly linked to primary stroke lesions via ipsilesional cortical areas. For this purpose, stroke patients were serially studied by magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion tensor imaging and high-resolution anatomical imaging) in the acute (days 3-5) and late chronic stage one year after stroke...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Nomeda Rima Valevičienė, Guoda Varytė, Jolita Zakarevičienė, Eglė Kontrimavičiūtė, Diana Ramašauskaitė, Dileta Rutkauskaitė-Valančienė
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as a clarifying technique after a high-resolution ultrasound examination during pregnancy. Combining ultrasound with MRI, additional diagnostic information is obtained or ultrasound diagnosis is frequently corrected. High spatial resolution provides accurate radiological imaging of internal organs and widens possibilities for detecting perinatal development disorders. The safety of MRI and the use of intravenous contrast agent gadolinium are discussed in this article...
February 17, 2019: Medicina
Lilac Amirav, Shai Berlin, Shunit Olszakier, Sandip K Pahari, Itamar Kahn
The development of imaging methodologies for single cell measurements over extended timescales of up to weeks, in the intact animal, will depend on signal strength, stability, validity and specificity of labeling. Whereas light-microscopy can achieve these with genetically-encoded probes or dyes, this modality does not allow mesoscale imaging of entire intact tissues. Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), outperform light microscopy in field of view and depth of imaging, but do not offer cellular resolution and specificity, suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and, in some instances, low temporal resolution...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Guang-Xian Wang, Ming-Fu Gong, Dong Zhang, Sheng Lei, Jin-Bo Yin, Zi-Li Gong, Li Wen
PURPOSE: To study the association of the enhancement ratio (ER) of aneurysmal wall enhancement (AWE) with symptomatic intracranial aneurysms (IAs), we hypothesized that the ER of AWE would be stronger in symptomatic IAs than in asymptomatic IAs, as assessed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2016 and February 2018, 80 consecutive patients with 89 unruptured IAs were reviewed. Patients and IAs were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups...
March 2019: European Journal of Radiology
Milanka M Visser, Bénédicte Maréchal, Peter Goodin, Thomas P Lillicrap, Carlos Garcia-Esperon, Neil J Spratt, Mark W Parsons, Christopher R Levi, Andrew Bivard
Background and Purpose- Poststroke fatigue affects a large proportion of stroke survivors and is associated with a poor quality of life. In a recent trial, modafinil was shown to be an effective agent in reducing poststroke fatigue; however, not all patients reported a significant decrease in fatigue with therapy. We sought to investigate clinical and radiological predictors of fatigue reduction with modafinil therapy in a stroke survivor cohort. Methods- Twenty-six participants with severe fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 ≥60) underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and during the last week of a 6-week treatment period of 200 mg modafinil taken daily...
February 19, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Han Deng, Wenting Shang, Guanhua Lu, Pengyu Guo, Ting Ai, Chihua Fang, Jie Tian
Continuously updated diagnostic methods and advanced imaging methods have led to an increase in the early detection rate of small liver cancer,however, even with current diagnosis methods, it is still challenging to accurately judge a nodule with a diameter less than 2 cm whether it is hepatocellular carcinoma or liver cirrhosis. To solve this issue, a new technology is needed to distinguish above two kinds of liver nodules. There is an emerging imaging method that improves tissue resolution and sensitivity to detect micro-nodules with diameters less than 2 cm...
February 19, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Helena Posch, Katharina Erb-Eigner
Today, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the diagnostic tool of choice for eye and orbital pathologies. In this article, the MR image characteristics of relevant pathologies are illustrated with case-based examples in the context of clinical findings. Vascular pathologies (such as capillary and cavernous hemangioma), inflammatory diseases (such as endocrine orbitopathy), and neoplasms (such as lymphoma, uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, and ocular/orbital metastasis) are described. Additionally, the role of MRI in the acute clinical setting and in trauma are discussed...
February 18, 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Gilbert Hangel, Saurabh Jain, Elisabeth Springer, Eva Hečková, Bernhard Strasser, Michal Považan, Stephan Gruber, Georg Widhalm, Barbara Kiesel, Julia Furtner, Matthias Preusser, Thomas Roetzer, Siegfried Trattnig, Diana M Sima, Dirk Smeets, Wolfgang Bogner
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the feasibility of 7 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), combined with patch-based super-resolution (PBSR) reconstruction, for high-resolution multi-metabolite mapping of gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas (6/4, male/female; 45 ± 9 years old) were prospectively measured between 2014 and 2018 on a 7 T whole-body MR imager after routine 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)...
February 14, 2019: NeuroImage
Tomohiro Shimizu, Ana Cruz, Matthew Tanaka, Kenji Mamoto, Valentina Pedoia, Andrew J Burghardt, Ursula Heilmeier, Thomas M Link, Jonathan Graf, John B Imboden, Xiaojuan Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between changes in radiological quantitative assessment with changes in clinical and functional assessment from baseline to 3 months in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with RA [methotrexate (MTX) and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) group with high disease activity (n = 18); and MTX group with low disease activity (n = 10)] underwent assessments at baseline and 3 months: clinical [28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28)], functional [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ)], and imaging-based [3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT)]...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rheumatology
Jerry E Murphy, Julio A Yanes, Lauren A J Kirby, Meredith A Reid, Jennifer L Robinson
Given the amygdala's role in survival mechanisms, and its pivotal contributions to psychological processes, it is no surprise that it is one of the most well-studied brain regions. One of the common methods for understanding the functional role of the amygdala is the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI tends to be acquired using resolutions that are not optimal for smaller brain structures. Furthermore, standard processing includes spatial smoothing and motion correction which further degrade the resolution of the data...
February 11, 2019: Neuroscience Research
Vincenzo Catrambone, Alberto Greco, Giuseppe Averta, Matteo Bianchi, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo
Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified specific neural patterns related to three different categories of movements: intransitive (i.e., meaningful gestures that do not include the use of objects), transitive (i.e., actions involving an object), and tool-mediated (i.e., actions involving a tool to interact with an object). However, fMRI intrinsically limits the exploitation of these results in a real scenario, such as a brain-machine interface (BMI). In this study, we propose a new approach to automatically predict intransitive, transitive, or tool-mediated movements of the upper limb using electroencephalography (EEG) spectra estimated during a motor planning phase...
February 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh, Ju-Hong Min, Byoung Joon Kim, Yikyung Kim
PURPOSE: To describe the causes of third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies in children and adolescents. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, a total of 66 patients aged 0-19 years with third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies seen in strabismus and neuro-ophthalmic practice from 2010 to 2017 were included. Causes of palsies were determined based on clinical assessment, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory work-up. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients had sixth cranial nerve palsy, 14 patients had third cranial nerve palsy (7 partial, 7 complete), 13 patients had fourth cranial nerve palsy, and 4 patients had combined cranial nerve palsies in this study...
February 13, 2019: Eye
M Grade, H Flebbe, B M Ghadimi
Over the past four decades, the treatment algorithms for rectal cancer have fundamentally changed, which resulted in a considerable improvement of oncological outcomes. In this context, the surgical concept of total mesorectal excision and the implementation of multimodal treatment strategies represent key milestones. These improvements were complemented by a standardized histopathological work-up of the surgical specimen and the introduction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics...
February 13, 2019: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Gin S Malhi, Pritha Das, Tim Outhred, Carol Dobson-Stone, Lauren Irwin, Danielle Gessler, Richard Bryant, Zola Mannie
OBJECTIVE: Adolescence is a time of increased susceptibility to environmental stress and mood disorders, and girls are particularly at risk. Genes interacting with the environment (G × E) are implicated in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, hippocampal volume changes and risk or resilience to mood disorders. In this study, we assessed the effects of stress system G × E interactions on hippocampal volumes and cortisol secretion in adolescent girls. METHODS: We recruited 229 girls aged 12-18 years, and scans were obtained from 202 girls...
February 13, 2019: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Ziqiang Wen, Yan Chen, Xinyue Yang, Baolan Lu, Yiyan Liu, Bingqi Shen, Shenping Yu
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for distinguishing different histopathological subtypes and grades of rectal carcinoma and to compare DKI with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS: This prospective study involved 132 patients with rectal carcinoma, comprising 116 with adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (AC) and 16 with mucinous carcinoma (MC). High spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) and DKI sequences (b values of 0, 600, 1000, 1500 and 2000 s/mm2 ) were performed for pretreatment evaluation...
February 11, 2019: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Stanislau Hrybouski, Melanie MacGillivray, Yushan Huang, Christopher R Madan, Rawle Carter, Peter Seres, Nikolai V Malykhin
The functional role of the hippocampal formation in episodic memory has been studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for many years. The hippocampus can be segmented into three major anteroposterior sections, called head, body and tail, and into the Cornu Ammonis (CA), dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (Sub) subfields based on its transverse axis. However, the exact role of these subregions and subfields in memory processes is less understood. In the present study we combined ultra-high resolution structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 4...
February 8, 2019: NeuroImage
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