Hui Pan, Qi Huang, Shiyu Ban, Xiaoxia Du, Jingjing Su, Jianren Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a subcortical, inherited, cerebral small vessel disease. Several studies have revealed the involvement of specific cortical regions. However, the structural brain alterations and their clinical correlations remain largely undetermined. METHODS: We evaluated 22 CADASIL patients and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We used surface- and voxel-based morphometric data derived from 3...
September 16, 2020: Neuroscience Letters
Yun Im Lee, Min Goo Kang, Ryoung-Eun Ko, Taek Kyu Park, Chi Ryang Chung, Yang Hyun Cho, Kyeongman Jeon, Gee Young Suh, Jeong Hoon Yang
Although there have been several reports regarding the association between hypoxic hepatic injury and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), limited data are available in the setting of extracorporeal CPR (ECPR). Patients who received ECPR due to either in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from May 2004 through December 2018 were eligible. Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) was defined as an increased aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase level to more than 20 times the upper normal range...
September 16, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Akiko Watanabe-Hosomi, Ikuko Mizuta, Takashi Koizumi, Isao Yokota, Mao Mukai, Ai Hamano, Masaki Kondo, Akihiro Fujii, Masaru Matsui, Koushun Matsuo, Keita Ito, Satoshi Teramukai, Kei Yamada, Masanori Nakagawa, Toshiki Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an orphan disease clinically characterized by migraine, recurrent strokes, and dementia. Currently, there are no disease-modifying therapies, and it is difficult to prevent cerebral ischemic events in CADASIL patients by conventional antithrombotic medication. We hypothesized that an antimigraine agent, lomerizine hydrochloride, may prevent strokes in CADASIL patients, based on its effect on increasing cerebral blood flow...
September 2020: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Tihamer Molnar, Andrea Horvath, Zsuzsanna Szabo, Zoltan Vamos, Tamas Dóczi, Zsolt Illes
OBJECTIVES: Intravenous dipyridamole (DP) can induce transient perfusion abnormalities in the heart but also the brain indicated by brain SPECT. L-arginine can regulate the vascular tone via nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, we examined cerebral blood volume (CBV) by perfusion MRI and L-arginine level before and after DP stress in patients, who developed transient neurological signs, and compared these to unaffected patients. DESIGN: A total of nine patients with ischemic coronary disease after myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were selected for this prospective pilot study...
September 18, 2020: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Christopher D d'Esterre, Rani Gupta Sah, Zarina Assis, Aron S Talai, Andrew M Demchuk, Michael D Hill, Mayank Goyal, Ting-Yim Lee, Nils D Forkert, Philip A Barber
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements after endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke are important to distinguish early secondary injury related to persisting ischemia from that related to reperfusion when considering clinical response and infarct growth. METHODS: We compare reperfusion quantified by the modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction Score (mTICI) with perfusion measured by MRI dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion within 5 h of EVT anterior circulation stroke...
September 17, 2020: British Journal of Radiology
Kirill V Bulygin, Narasimha M Beeraka, Aigul R Saitgareeva, Vladimir N Nikolenko, Ilgiz Gareev, Ozal Beylerli, Leila R Akhmadeeva, Liudmila M Mikhaleva, Luis Fernando Torres Solis, Arturo Solís Herrera, Marco F Avila-Rodriguez, Siva G Somasundaram, Cecil E Kirkland, Gjumrakch Aliev
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Clinical manifestations of stroke are long-lasting and causing economic burden on the patients and society. Current therapeutic modalities to treat ischemic stroke (IS) are unsatisfactory due to the intricate pathophysiology and poor functional recovery of brain cellular compartment. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously expressed small non-coding RNA molecules, which can act as translation inhibitors and play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology associated with IS...
September 14, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qiaohui Zhang, Yan Liao, Zhenquan Liu, Yajie Dai, Yunxin Li, Yue Li, Yibo Tang
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine family that includes 6 members, IL-17A through IL-17F, most of them are reported to have pro-inflammatory role. Through binding to their receptors (IL-17Rs), IL-17 activates the intracellular signaling pathways to play an important role in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Ischemic stroke is a complex pathophysiological process mainly caused by regional cerebral ischemia. Inflammatory factors contribute to the physiological process of stroke that leads to poor prognosis...
September 16, 2020: Immunology
Alfia Khaibullina, Luis E F Almeida, Sayuri Kamimura, Patricia M Zerfas, Meghann L Smith, Sebastian Vogel, Paul Wakim, Olavo M Vasconcelos, Martha M Quezado, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Zenaide M N Quezado
Strokes are feared complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and yield significant neurologic and neurocognitive deficits. However, even without detectable strokes, SCD patients have significant neurocognitive deficits in domains of learning and memory, processing speed and executive function. In these cases, mechanisms unrelated to major cerebrovascular abnormalities likely underlie these deficits. While oxidative stress and stress-related signaling pathways play a role in SCD pathophysiology, their role in cerebral injury remains unknown...
September 4, 2020: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Amanda Costa, Verena Haage, Seulkee Yang, Stephanie Wegner, Burcu Ersoy, Bilge Ugursu, Andre Rex, Golo Kronenberg, Karen Gertz, Matthias Endres, Susanne A Wolf, Helmut Kettenmann
Microglia are the immune cells of the brain and become activated during any type of brain injury. In the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model, a mouse model for ischemic stroke, we have previously shown that microglia and invaded monocytes upregulate the expression of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (M3R) in the ischemic lesion. Here we tested whether this upregulation has an impact on the pathogenesis of MCAo. We depleted the m3R receptor in microglia, but not in circulating monocytes by giving tamoxifen to CX3CR1-CreERT+/+ M3Rflox/flox (M3RKOmi ) animals 3 weeks prior to MCAo...
September 11, 2020: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jiao Jiao, Leiyu Geng, Zhijun Zhang
BACKGROUND Due to the lack of validation for predictive scoring of stroke-associated pneumonia in both thrombolysis- and nonthrombolysis-treated ischemic stroke (IS) patients, this study aimed to evaluate 4 scoring methods in the 2 subgroups. MATERIAL AND METHODS The CerebroVascular Database Project database included data from patients with cerebral IS that were admitted in 2 hospitals from February 2016 to January 2018. A total of 138 thrombolysis-treated and 138 nonthrombolysis-treated IS patients were enrolled...
September 14, 2020: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ruyi He, Yibing Jiang, Yijie Shi, Jia Liang, Liang Zhao
The pathogenesis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease has revealed that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury often leads to aggravation of metabolic oxidative stress and blood-brain barrier (BBB) destruction, eventually causing secondary brain tissue damage. Accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in focal ischemia activate mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and damage the BBB by degrading tight junction proteins (TJPs). Herein, we report macrophage-derived exosomes (Ex) loaded with curcumin (cur) as a multifunctional biomimetic delivery vehicle (Ex-cur) for targeting ischemic brain tissue and alleviating cerebral I/R injury by inhibiting ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in a transient cerebral ischemia rat model...
December 2020: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Quang Linh Nguyen, Noriko Okuno, Takeru Hamashima, Son Tung Dang, Miwa Fujikawa, Yoko Ishii, Atsushi Enomoto, Takakuni Maki, Hoang Ngoc Nguyen, Van Tuyen Nguyen, Toshihiko Fujimori, Hisashi Mori, Johanna Andrae, Christer Betsholtz, Keizo Takao, Seiji Yamamoto, Masakiyo Sasahara
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα) induces hemorrhagic transformation (HT) downstream of tissue plasminogen activator in thrombolytic therapy of acute stroke. Thus, PDGFs are attractive therapeutic targets for BBB dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the role of PDGF signaling in the process of tissue remodeling after middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) in mice. Firstly, we found that imatinib increased lesion size after permanent MCAO in wild-type mice...
September 12, 2020: Angiogenesis
Bruna Nucera, Fabrizio Rinaldi, Raffaele Nardone, Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of seizures in adults and the elderly. So far, no drug is recommended as primary prevention of acute symptomatic poststroke seizures (ASPSS) or poststroke epilepsy (PSE). This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between the use of statins after stroke and the risk of developing ASPSS or PSE following cerebral infarct or hemorrhage (primary prevention). METHODS: We included studies evaluating the poststroke use of statins as primary prevention of ASPSS or PSE, irrespective of stroke type...
September 8, 2020: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yoon Jung Park, Myung Hwan Bae, Hyeon Jeong Kim, Bo Eun Park, Hong Nyun Kim, Se Yong Jang, Jang Hoon Lee, Dong Heon Yang, Hun Sik Park, Yongkeun Cho, Shung Chull Chae
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the impact of the occurrence of Osborn waves during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on the recurrence of future fatal arrhythmias in patients resuscitated after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). METHODS: Of all survivors of out-of-hospital SCA, 100 consecutive patients (mean age, 52 ± 15 years; 80% men) who received TH were included in this study. RESULTS: The most common first documented arrhythmia was ventricular fibrillation (VF) (77%), and ischemic heart disease (44%) and idiopathic VF (22%) were the most common causes of SCA in resuscitated patients...
September 11, 2020: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Masashi Watanabe, Kanehisa Kohno, Tomoki Shinohara, Toshimoto Seno, Satoshi Fujiwara, Shinji Onoue, Shinya Fukumoto, Haruhisa Ichikawa, Shinji Iwata, Kensho Okamoto, Shiro Ohue
We report an extremely rare case of a 27-year-old woman presenting with ischemic stroke as an initial manifestation of moyamoya disease in the first trimester of pregnancy. We conducted an artificial abortion when her neurological symptoms rapidly became refractory to optimal antithrombotic treatments. The progression of neurologic deficits stopped immediately after abortion, resulting in recovery to independence, with slight motor aphasia and right hemiparesis due to improved cerebral flow. We highlight rapid artificial abortion combined with antithrombotic treatment for patients of moyamoya disease with pregnancy-associated ischemic stroke as an appropriate treatment to correct hemodynamic instability and suppress the progression of neurological symptoms...
October 2020: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
David S Liebeskind, Shyam Prabhakaran, Nizam Azhar, Edward Feldmann, Iszet Campo-Bustillo, Rajbeer Sangha, Sebastian Koch, Tatjana Rundek, Lauren Ostergren, Marc I Chimowitz, Jose G Romano
RATIONALE: Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the most common cause of ischemic stroke with the highest rate of recurrence, despite aggressive medical management. Diverse mechanisms may be responsible for ICAD-related cerebral ischemia, with potential therapeutic implications. Here we present the rationale, design and methods of the Mechanisms of Early Recurrence in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease (MyRIAD) study. The aim of MyRIAD is to determine the mechanisms of stroke in ICAD through physiologic imaging biomarkers that evaluate impaired antegrade flow, poor distal perfusion, abnormal vasoreactivity, artery to artery embolism, and their interaction...
October 2020: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Maciej Bladowski, Jakub Gawrys, Damian Gajecki, Ewa Szahidewicz-Krupska, Anna Sawicz-Bladowska, Adrian Doroszko
Ischemic stroke remains the fifth cause of death, as reported worldwide annually. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) manifesting with lower nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability leads to increased vascular tone, inflammation, and platelet activation and remains among the major contributors to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Moreover, temporal fluctuations in the NO bioavailability during ischemic stroke point to its key role in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, and some data suggest that they may be responsible for the maintenance of CBF within the ischemic penumbra in order to reduce infarct size...
2020: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xiaoxue Du, Yuzhen Xu, Shijia Chen, Marong Fang
Ischemia cerebral stroke is one of the common neurological diseases with severe inflammatory response and neuron death. The inhibition of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) which especially expressed in microglia/macrophage exerted neuroprotection in stroke. However, the underlying neuroinflammatory regulation effects of CSF1R in ischemia stroke are not clear. In this study, cerebral ischemia stroke mice model was established. The C57/B6J mice were administered with Ki20227, a CSF1R inhibitor, by gavage for 7 consecutive days (0...
2020: Neural Plasticity
Masayuki Suzuki, Kohei Furuya, Misato Ozawa, Kumiko Miura, Tadashi Ozawa, Kosuke Matsuzono, Takafumi Mashiko, Reiji Koide, Shigeru Fujimoto, Ryota Tanaka
AIM: Aortic arch atherosclerosis, particularly complex aortic arch plaques (CAPs), is an important source of cerebral emboli. CAPs and atrial fibrillation (AF) often co-exist; however, the prevalence and risk of CAPs in acute ischemic stroke patients with AF is unclear. METHODS: In patients with acute ischemic stroke with non-valvular AF admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital during April 2016 to September 2019, we retrospectively evaluated the presence of CAPs on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)...
September 10, 2020: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Fei Yang, Qing Ma, Motlalepula G Matsabisa, Hlupheka Chabalala, Fernão Castro Braga, Minke Tang
Panax notoginseng is the most widely used Chinese medicinal herb for the prevention and treatment of ischemic diseases. Its main active ingredients are saponins, including ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, and notoginsenoside R1, among others. This review provides an up-to-date overview on the pharmacological roles of P. notoginseng constituents in cerebral ischemia. The saponins of P. notoginseng induce a variety of pharmacological effects in the multiscale mechanisms of cerebral ischemic pathophysiology, including anti-inflammatory activity, reduction of oxidative stress, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of amino acid excitotoxicity, reduction of intracellular calcium overload, protection of mitochondria, repairing the blood-brain barrier, and facilitation of cell regeneration...
September 9, 2020: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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