Lin Zhang, Tzu-Yu Lin, Wen-Tso Liu, Fangqiong Ling
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are any mycobacteria that do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. While the majority of NTM are harmless and some of them are considered probiotic, a growing number of people are being diagnosed with NTM infections. Therefore, their detection in the environment is of interest to clinicians, environmental microbiologists, and water quality researchers alike. This review provides a tutorial on the foundational approaches for taxonomic classifications, with a focus on the phylogenetic relationships among NTM revealed by the 16S rRNA gene, rpoB gene, and hsp65 gene, and by genome-based approaches...
May 15, 2024: ACS Environ Au
Birhanu Wubu, Yihenew Million, Mucheye Gizachew
BACKGROUND: Co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a major global public health issue, particularly in border areas of resource-limited nations, including Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence and associated variables of MTB/HIV co-infection among PTB presumptive patients in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: From February to August 2021, a cross-sectional institutional investigation was conducted at the Metema and Abrehajira hospitals...
May 30, 2024: Heliyon
Fatemeh Ghasemi, Jalil Kardan-Yamchi, Mohsen Heidary, Morteza Karami-Zarandi, Sousan Akrami, Abbas Maleki, Saeed Khoshnood, Hossein Kazemian
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial pathogen is responsible for the ongoing global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only currently approved TB vaccine, is successful in preventing disseminated disease in newborns. However, it has a variable efficacy against pulmonary TB in adults. This protective effect of the vaccine varies greatly among different populations and geographical areas, which the increased exposure of particular populations to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is considered as one of the reasons for this issue...
August 2024: Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases
Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Gebretsadik Berhe, Kibrom Gebreslasie Gebrehiwot, Afework Mulugeta
BACKGROUND: Although tuberculosis is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, millions of cases remain undetected using current diagnostic methods. To address this problem, researchers have proposed prediction rules. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed existing prediction rules for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and identified factors with a moderate to high strength of association with the disease. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of relevant databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Global Health for Reports, and Google Scholar) up to 14 November 2022...
2024: SAGE Open Medicine
Yulia Devina Suci, Ariani Permatasari, Winariani Koesomoprodjo
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis could affect many organs beside lung airway and parenchyma. The mycobacterium tuberculosis can invade area such as the pleural and pericardium by lymphogenic, hematogenic, or direct infection. Patient with history exposure with silica (SiO2) have a high-risk factor developing tuberculosis or extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, this study presents a rare case of pulmonary silicosis in a 38 years-old-man with tuberculosis pericarditis and pleuritis. The amount of silica particle found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was 39,95 ppm SiO2, while the ADA test from the pericardium and pleural fluids was 35...
2024: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Jiang Zhi-Yong, Xie Jian-Ping
Mycobacterium infection can affect the host's immune function by secreting extracellular effector proteins. ESX (or type VII) system plays an important role in the secretion of effector proteins. ESX system is the protein export system in mycobacteria and many actinomycetes. However, how ESX system secretes and underlying mechanism of action remain unclear. In this review, we introduce the components, function, classification of ESX system and the process of substrates transfer to the peripheral space via this system, and discuss the roles of ESX system in antibiotics resistance, persistence, host-phage interaction, new drug targets...
December 20, 2023: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Zhang Jin-Yi, He Yu-Mo, Zhou Jing-Yu, Weng Shu-Feng, Ma Hui-Xia, Lin Tai-Yue, Xu Ying
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a category of non-coding RNAs characterized by the absence of a 5'-cap and 3'-poly(A) tail, and participates in the physiological processes of various human diseases. Nonetheless, the diagnostic and functional significance of circRNAs in active pulmonary tuberculosis (ATB) remains uncertain. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether hsa_circ_0007460 can be employed as a potential diagnostic biomarker in ATB patients and explore its function. The result of real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR (RT-qPCR) validated a notable increase in the expression of hsa_circ_0007460 in the peripheral blood of 32 ATB patients, as well as in THP-1 human macrophages infected with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) which is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis...
November 20, 2023: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Zhang Qi'ao, Wang Zi-Lu, Li Pei-Bo, Xie Jian-Ping
The transcription of interferon-stimulated gene 15 (isg15) is induced by type I interferons. ISG15 can covalently modify target proteins through the sequential action of enzymesE1, E2, and E3, a process known as ISGylation. The ISGylation of host proteins is widely involved in immune responses, such as host antiviral defence. Ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18), as a deubiquitinase (DUB), can remove ISG15 conjugated to target proteins and inhibit host immune responses by suppressing the type I interferon signaling...
November 20, 2023: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Udhav V Mhetre, Nitin B Haval, Giribala M Bondle, Sanket S Rathod, Prafulla B Choudhari, Jyothi Kumari, Dharmarajan Sriram, Kishan P Haval
In a quest to discover new antimalarial and antitubercular drugs, we have designed and synthesized a series of novel triazole-quinazolinone hybrids. The in vitro screening of the triazole-quinazolinone hybrid entities against the plasmodium species P. falciparum offered potent antimalarial molecules 6c, 6d, 6f, 6g, 6j &6k owing comparable activity to the reference drugs. Furthermore, the target compounds were evaluated in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv strain. Among the screened compounds, 6c, 6d and 6l were found to be the most active molecules with a MIC values of 19...
May 17, 2024: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
L Grandière, T Gille, P-Y Brillet, M Didier, O Freynet, H Vicaire, D Clero, E Martinod, A Mathian, Y Uzunhan
Relapsing polychondritis is a systemic auto-immune disease that mainly affects cartilage structures, progressing through inflammatory flare-ups between phases of remission and ultimately leading to deformation of the cartilages involved. In addition to characteristic damage of auricular or nasal cartilage, tracheobronchial and cardiac involvement are particularly severe, and can seriously alter the prognosis. Tracheobronchial lesions are assessed by means of a multimodal approach, including dynamic thoracic imaging, measurement of pulmonary function (with recent emphasis on pulse oscillometry), and mapping of tracheal lesions through flexible bronchoscopy...
May 17, 2024: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
F Alexandre, V Molinier, M Poulain, E Villiot-Danger, B Eichenauer, A Calvat, L Brandon, C Miffre, N Oliver, N Heraud
INTRODUCTION: Over recent years, a growing number of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of alternative models to centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) such as tele-PR or home-based unsupervised PR, offering perspectives for improved accessibility and adherence. Other studies have demonstrated the relevance and long-term benefits of maintenance PR programs. However, they remain poorly implemented in real-life settings. In order to encourage patient adherence to new PR models and to guide future orientations, we conducted a survey assessing patients' views on PR models and maintenance programs...
May 17, 2024: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Peter G Delaney, Zachary J Eisner, Heike Geduld
Injuries are the greatest single cause of surgical disease globally, disproportionately affecting low and middle-income countries and representing 10% of global mortality and 32% greater annual mortality than HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. Road traffic injuries are the single greatest contributor to the global injury burden and the leading cause of death for young people aged 5 to 29 years. In May 2023, the 76th World Health Assembly resolved that emergency, critical, and operative care services are an integral part of a comprehensive national primary health care approach and foundational for health systems to effectively address emergencies...
May 17, 2024: Surgery
Theresa S Ryckman, Samuel G Schumacher, Christian Lienhardt, Sedona Sweeney, David W Dowdy, Fuad Mirzayev, Emily A Kendall
BACKGROUND: With numerous trials investigating novel drug combinations to treat tuberculosis, we aimed to evaluate the extent to which future improvements in tuberculosis treatment regimens could offset potential increases in drug costs. METHODS: In this modelling analysis, we used an ingredients-based approach to estimate prices at which novel regimens for rifampin-susceptible and rifampin-resistant tuberculosis treatment would be cost-neutral or cost-effective compared with standards of care in India, the Philippines, and South Africa...
June 2024: Lancet Global Health
Júlio Henrique Ferreira de Sá Queiroz, Marcelo Dos Santos Barbosa, Emily Vitória de Oliveira Perez, Bruna Oliveira da Silva, Gleyce Hellen de Almeida de Souza, Crhistinne Cavalheiro Maymone Gonçalves, Julio Croda, Simone Simionatto
Syphilis is a significant public health concern worldwide. According to the 2020 estimates, nearly 7.1 million new cases of syphilis have been reported globally, with over 30% of these cases reported from American nations, particularly Brazil. Concerns have been raised regarding the susceptibility of specific groups to syphilis due to challenges and vulnerabilities that place these groups at a higher risk of infections or complications in the treatment outcomes. The present study aimed to compare the seroprevalence and the factors associated with syphilis among such high-risk groups...
May 16, 2024: Acta Tropica
Felipe A Hernández, Carlos Tejeda, Brandon Aristizábal, Eduardo Raffo, Manuel Moroni, Miguel Salgado
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious-contagious disease with worldwide distribution, caused by the zoonotic pathogen Mycobacterium bovis. It is believed that the existence of wild cycles may hamper the success of bTB control strategies worldwide, where wildlife species could be reservoirs of this bacterial agent across their native (e.g., European badgers, wild boars) or non-indigenous (e.g., brushtail possum in New Zealand) ranges. However, further studies are required to understand the potential risk posed by non-native wildlife in becoming carriers of M...
May 16, 2024: Acta Tropica
Anis Belhaj, Ahmed Omry, Med Dheker Touati, Med Raouf Ben Othmane, Ahmed Saidani, Faouzi Chebbi
INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health concern, particularly in low-income countries like Tunisia, despite advancements in healthcare and antibiotic accessibility. Gastrointestinal tuberculosis, although rare, can affect various parts of the gastrointestinal tract, with perianal involvement being exceptionally uncommon. We present a case of isolated perianal tuberculosis, emphasizing the complexities in diagnosis and management. In this context, we present a case of isolated perianal tuberculosis in a 51-year-old male, highlighting the diagnostic challenges and emphasizing the need for early recognition and comprehensive management strategies...
May 17, 2024: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Elizabeth A Apiche, Eaindra Yee, Anoop Rama Damodaran, Ambika Bhagi-Damodaran
DosT and DosS are heme-based kinases involved in sensing and signaling O2 tension in the microenvironment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Under conditions of low O2 , they activate >50 dormancy-related genes and play a pivotal role in the induction of dormancy and associated drug resistance during tuberculosis infection. In this work, we reexamine the O2 binding affinities of DosT and DosS to show that their equilibrium dissociation constants are 3.3±1.0 μM and 0.46±0.08 μM respectively, which are six to eight-fold stronger than what has been widely referred to in literature...
April 26, 2024: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Buyisile Mkhize, Richard Court, Sandra Castel, Anton Joubert, Marthinus van der Merwe, Gary Maartens, Francesca Conradie, Lubbe Wiesner
We developed and validated a bioanalytical assay to quantify delamanid and its key metabolite (DM-6705) in breast milk and aimed to quantify the secretion of these compounds in breast milk. Due to the hydrophobic nature of the analytes, special care was taken during sample preparation to prevent the formation of fatty deposits during protein precipitation. This was followed by online solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for detection. A Restek Viva BiPh C18 column (1...
May 16, 2024: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Krittawan Tongkanarak, Camille Loupiac, Fabrice Neiers, Odile Chambin, Teerapol Srichana
Delamanid is an anti-tuberculosis drug used for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Since delamanid has a high protein bound potential, even patients with low albumin levels should experience high and rapid delamanid clearance. However, the interaction between delamanid and albumin should be better controlled to optimize drug efficacy. This study was designed to evaluate the binding characteristics of delamanid to human serum albumin (HSA) using various methods: fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and molecular docking simulation...
May 14, 2024: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Lin Zhu, Jingpeng Li, Jian Yang, Xiaodi Li, Da Lin, Meizhen Wang
Fermentation broth from fruit and vegetable waste (FFVW) has demonstrated remarkable ability as a soil amendment and in reducing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pollution. However, the potential of FFVW to mitigate other microbial contamination such as human bacterial pathogens (HBPs) and virulence factor genes (VFGs), which are closely associated with human health, remains unknown. In this study, metagenomic analysis revealed that FFVW reduced the HBPs with high-risk of ARGs and VFGs including Klebsiella pneumoniae (reduced by 40...
May 15, 2024: Environment International
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