TaeWoo Kwon, Sang Pyo Lee, Dongmin Kim, Jinseong Jang, Myungjae Lee, Shin Uk Kang, Heejin Kim, Keunyoung Oh, Jinhee On, Young Jae Kim, So Jeong Yun, Kwang Nam Jin, Eun Young Kim, Kwang Gi Kim
OBJECTIVE: The chest X-ray (CXR) is the most readily available and common imaging modality for the assessment of pneumonia. However, detecting pneumonia from chest radiography is a challenging task, even for experienced radiologists. An artificial intelligence (AI) model might help to diagnose pneumonia from CXR more quickly and accurately. We aim to develop an AI model for pneumonia from CXR images and to evaluate diagnostic performance with external dataset. METHODS: To train the pneumonia model, a total of 157,016 CXR images from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Korean National Tuberculosis Association (KNTA) were used (normal vs...
2021: PloS One
Ying Zhou, Tianying Zhong, Wenjing Wei, Zhuhua Wu, Anping Yang, Ning Liu, Ming Wang, Xiaoli Zhang
Tuberculosis caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains a significant threat to global health. Elucidating the mechanisms of essential MTB genes provides an important theoretical basis for drug exploitation. Gene mtsp17 is essential and is conserved in the Mycobacterium genus. Although Mtsp17 has a structure closely resembling typical steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) family proteins, its biological function is different. This study characterizes the transcriptomes of Mycobacterium smegmatis to explore the consequences of mtsp17 downregulation on gene expression...
2021: PloS One
Dhian Satya Rachmawati, Nursalam Nursalam, Rachmat Hargono, Bambang Widjanarko Otok
psychosocial problems that cause stress, such as loss of hope, sleep disorders and interruption in period of rest. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the Quality of Life (QoL) and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) of pulmonary TB patients and the affecting factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: An analytical observational design with a cross sectional approach was used and a total of 73 respondents were randomly selected from 89 patients with pulmonary TB. Furthermore, a questionnaire was used as study instrument and data analysis was carried out using Partial Least Square...
April 14, 2021: Journal of Public Health Research
Iqrar Ahmad, Harsha Jadhav, Yashodeep Shinde, Vilas Jagtap, Rukaiyya Girase, Harun Patel
Since the last 4 decades, Bedaquiline has been the first drug discovered as a new kind of anti-tubercular agent and received FDA approval in December 2012 to treat pulmonary multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). It demonstrates excellent efficacy against MDR-TB by effectively inhibiting mycobacterial ATP synthase. In addition to these apparent assets of Bedaquiline, potential disadvantages of Bedaquiline include inhibition of the hERG (human Ether-à-go-related gene; KCNH2), potassium channel (concurrent risk of cardiac toxicity), and risk of phospholipidosis due to its more lipophilic nature...
2021: In Silico Pharmacology
Thanyathorn Jungrungrueng, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Supanun Lauhasurayotin, Kanhatai Chiengthong, Hansamon Poparn, Darintr Sosothikul, Piti Techavichit
Objective: The study aimed to describe the pattern of causative microorganisms, drug susceptibility, risk factors of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, and clinical impact of these organisms on pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of oncologic patients aged less than 15 years who were diagnosed with febrile neutropenia in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital was conducted between January 2013 to December 2017...
2021: Journal of Pathogens
Sumanta Kumar Naik
Sumanta K. Naik works in the tuberculosis field, with a specific interest in the host immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In this mSphere of Influence article, he reflects on how the paper "IRGM1 links mitochondrial quality control to autoimmunity" by Prashant Rai et al. (Nat Immunol, 22:312-321, 2021, impacted his research by revealing new roles for Irgm1 in immune responses.
April 14, 2021: MSphere
A Heine, V Hustig-Kittler, M Schröder, S Desole, M Boesche, A Obst, B Stubbe, R Ewert
Despite the use of enormous personnel and other resources in German weaning centers, approximately 20 % of patients currently fail to get weaned from mechanical ventilation (MV) and need out-of-hospital ventilation.Between 03/2015 and 11/2019, we carried out a pilot project with 33 patients (48 % female, mean age 68 ± 11 years at hospital admission) in order to re-evaluate their options of a possible weaning from MV. At this stage the patients had been invasively ventilated for 475 ± 775 days...
April 14, 2021: Pneumologie
T Bahmer, J Wälscher, C Fisser, E E Groth, T Schreiber, M Koch, M Raspe
BACKGROUND:  Demographic changes in the society and among doctors, as well as changing attitudes towards and norms of how living should be structured are creating challenges regarding the organization of work environment in the hospital. In addition, organization of medical training is increasingly being influenced by economic considerations as well as a high level of medical specialization. We asked young respiratory physicians how they assessed their current situation with respect to quality of medical training and organization of their work environment...
April 14, 2021: Pneumologie
Juliana Veiga Costa Rabelo, Pedro Daibert de Navarro, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Isabela Neves de Almeida, Camila Stefânie Fonseca Oliveira, João Paulo Amaral Haddad, Silvana Spindola de Miranda
The World Health Organization highlights the importance of health services organization and performance in tuberculosis (TB) control activities. This study aimed to assess the performance of primary healthcare services in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in TB control activities in the dimensions Structure and Process, before and after the use of a validated instrument called Stratification by Degree of Clinical Risk and Tuberculosis Treatment Dropout (ERTB). This was a descriptive and prospective study with two interviews (455 professionals), the second of which after the ERTB...
2021: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Olga Spekker, Luca Kis, Andrea Deák, Eszter Makai, György Pálfi, Orsolya Anna Váradi, Erika Molnár
Ancient human remains exhibiting bony changes consistent with osteoarticular tuberculosis (OATB) indicate that the disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. Nonetheless, not many pediatric OATB cases have been published in the paleopathological literature-from Hungary, only three cases have been described up to now. In our paper, we demonstrate a child (S0603) from the Árpádian Age cemetery of Győrszentiván-Révhegyi tag (northwestern Hungary), who represents a unique case of OATB regarding both the pattern and severity of the observed bony changes...
2021: PloS One
Ninfa Marlen Chaves-Torres, Santiago Fadul, Jesus Patiño, Eduardo Netto
BACKGROUND: Multidrug- and rifampicin (RMP)-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) requires prolonged and expensive treatment, which is difficult to sustain in the Colombian health system. This requires the joint action of different providers to provide timely health services to people with TB. Identifying factors associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes in patients with MDR/RR-TB who received drug therapy between 2013 and 2015 in Colombia can help guide the strengthening of the national TB control program...
2021: PloS One
Karoon Sadorn, Siriporn Saepua, Nattawut Boonyuen, Wilunda Choowong, Pranee Rachtawee, Pattama Pittayakhajonwut
Thirteen tetrahydroxanthone dimers, atrop -ascherxanthone A ( 1 ), ascherxanthones C-G ( 2 - 6 ), and confluxanthones A-G ( 7 - 13 ), were isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia confluens BCC53152. The chemical structures were determined based on analysis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 7 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments, while the configurations of other compounds were assigned based upon evidence from NOESY and NOEDIFF experiments, modified Mosher's method, and ECD spectroscopic data together with biogenetic considerations...
April 14, 2021: Journal of Natural Products
Pengxu Wang, Sarah M Batt, Bin Wang, Lei Fu, Rongfei Qin, Yu Lu, Gang Li, Gurdyal S Besra, Haihong Huang
In this study, we report the design and synthesis of a series of novel thiophene-arylamide compounds derived from the noncovalent decaprenylphosphoryl-β-d-ribose 2'-epimerase (DprE1) inhibitor TCA1 through a structure-based scaffold hopping strategy. Systematic optimization of the two side chains flanking the thiophene core led to new lead compounds bearing a thiophene-arylamide scaffold with potent antimycobacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. Compounds 23j , 24f , 25a , and 25b exhibited potent in vitro activity against both drug-susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0...
April 14, 2021: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Rhys Grinter, Chris Greening
Many bacteria and archaea produce the redox cofactor F420. F420 is structurally similar to the cofactors FAD and FMN but is catalytically more similar to NAD and NADP. These properties allow F420 to catalyze challenging redox reactions, including key steps in methanogenesis, antibiotic biosynthesis, and xenobiotic biodegradation. In the last five years, there has been much progress in understanding its distribution, biosynthesis, role, and applications. Whereas F420 was previously thought to be confined to Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota, new evidence indicates it is synthesized across the bacterial and archaeal domains, as a result of extensive horizontal and vertical biosynthetic gene transfer...
April 14, 2021: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Jessica J C King, Timothy Powell-Jackson, Christina Makungu, James Hargreaves, Catherine Goodman
Overprovision-healthcare whose harm exceeds its benefit-is of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries, where the growth of the private-for-profit sector may amplify incentives for providing unnecessary care, and achieving universal health coverage will require efficient resource use. Measurement of overprovision has conceptual and practical challenges. We present a framework to conceptualize and measure overprovision, comparing for-profit and not-for-profit private outpatient facilities across 18 of mainland Tanzania's 22 regions...
April 14, 2021: Health Policy and Planning
Latika Gupta, Anusha S Bhatt, Varuna Mallya, Deepika Rana, Nita Khurana, Ishwar Singh
Background and Aims: The objective of this study was to analyze and review the clinical and histopathological aspects of oro-facial tuberculosis. Methods: Sixteen cases of oral mucosal biopsies diagnosed as granulomatous pathology consistent with tuberculosis were retrieved from the data base and clinical information and histopathological findings were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of the total 16 cases, 12 were males while 4 were females...
April 2021: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Igor D Duzhyi, Halyna P Oleshchenko, Ivan A Hnatenko, Stanislav O Holubnychyi
OBJECTIVE: The aim: Studying the features of the proteolytic system in patients with tuberculosis depending on the sensitivity of the pathogen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In the course of the research we studied the level of elastase in the blood of 111 patients. The first group consisted of 66 (59.5%) people with pulmonary tuberculosis (39 were sensitive to antibacterial drugs, 27 were resistant). The second group included 13 (11.7%) patients with tuberculous pleurisy...
2021: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Annette Bauer, Syster Hofmeyer, Maria Gere, Kenneth Nilsson, Tibor Tot
Granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of varying etiology. Tuberculosis and cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis caused by Corynebacterium are the best-established infectious examples. Despite the increasing incidence of Rickettsia-related diseases worldwide, granulomatous inflammation of breast parenchyma caused by Rickettsia has not yet been reported. We present a unique case of bilateral granulomatous mastitis documented with mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and core-needle biopsy...
April 13, 2021: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Prasanta Debnath, Pravin M Rathi
Background: Vedolizumab is a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody, which binds to α4β7 integrin on T lymphocytes, thus disturbing the interaction with mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 on the intestinal endothelial cells to interfere with lymphocyte trafficking to the gut. Summary: Vedolizumab is a safe and effective drug to induce and maintain clinical remission in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in both clinical trials and real-world data...
February 2021: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Yongchang Wu, Yishi Li, Yang Bai, Jinyue Jiang, Xiaohui Wang, Yi Chen, Xin Wang, Guichuan Huang, Yiling Gan, You Li, Shuliang Guo
Non-invasive strategies for monitoring post-tuberculosis (TB) tracheobronchial stenosis (PTTS) are clinically important but currently lacking. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and procollagen type I N-propeptide (PINP) have been identified as markers of fibrosis. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum TGF-β1 and PINP in PTTS. Serum samples were collected from 119 patients with tracheobronchial TB after the condition was treated for at least 6 months (59 patients with airway stenosis and 60 patients with no stenosis)...
June 2021: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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