Nishita Mistry, Rajdip Bandyopadhyaya, Sarika Mehra
Tuberculosis treatment requires a multidrug combination for the long-term, associated with adverse effects which lead to nonpatient compliance and the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Thus, mannose-anchored rifampicin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (M-RIF-SLNs) were developed to enhance the effect of rifampicin by selectively delivering to the macrophage, which led to the high intracellular killing of mycobacteria. The synthesized M-RIF-SLNs show a particle size of ∼100 nm and a drug loading of ∼8%...
November 28, 2022: ACS Applied Bio Materials
Vishant Boradia, Andrew Frando, Christoph Grundner
The mechanisms by which nutrients traverse the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) outer membrane remain mostly unknown and, in the absence of classical porins, likely involve specialized transport systems. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are an important nutrient and serve as a second messenger in eukaryotes, but whether bacteria have similar Ca2+ signaling systems is not well understood. To understand the basis for Ca2+ transport and signaling in Mtb, we determined Mtb's transcriptional response to Ca2+. Overall, only few genes changed expression, suggesting a limited role of Ca2+ as a transcriptional regulator...
November 28, 2022: PLoS Biology
Ayinalem Alemu, Zebenay Workneh Bitew, Getachew Seid, Getu Diriba, Emebet Gashu, Nega Berhe, Solomon H Mariam, Balako Gumi
BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 overwhelmed tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control, resulting in a decrease in TB detection rate and an increase in TB deaths. Furthermore, the temporary immunosuppressive effects, lung inflammation, and the corticosteroids used to treat COVID-19, may play a direct role in immunosuppression, leading to reactivation of either previous infection or latent TB or the development of new TB. Thus, the aim of this study was to review TB incidence in individuals who recovered from COVID-19...
2022: PloS One
Khalda Mohamed Khamis, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Rosliza Abdul Manaf, Hamdan Mustafa Hamdan
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure and disease relapse among tuberculosis (TB) patients are commonly caused by non-adherence. It can lead to prolonged infection, increased transmission, drug resistance, and loss of life. Even though the causative microorganism of TB has been identified for more than a century, the disease is still a substantial public health problem worldwide. This research aims to devise, implement, and assess an educational intervention to improve adherence to TB treatment...
2022: PloS One
C U Wickramasinghe, D M G Fernando, S Wijetunge, H R S D Sumanasekara
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, with manifestations ranging from numbness and blindness to paralysis. Typical MS is a slowly progressive demyelinating disease, causing significant morbidity spanning over many years. In contrast, "Marburg's disease" is a rare variant of MS which demonstrates a malignant monophasic disease progression leading to death within weeks to months. We present a rapidly fatal demyelinating disease with the clinicopathological findings on par with the handful of reported cases of "Marburg's disease" in the literature...
November 28, 2022: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Caroline Asiimwe, Robin Fatch, Debbie M Cheng, Nneka I Emenyonu, Christine Ngabirano, Winnie R Muyindike, Judith A Hahn
Alcohol use is especially problematic for people living with HIV (PLWH) and was likely to be impacted by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its restrictions. In a study of PLWH with latent tuberculosis infection, we measured unhealthy alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and bar attendance. We analyzed data collected before and after COVID-19 restrictions, and used Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression models to evaluate changes in unhealthy alcohol use...
November 28, 2022: AIDS and Behavior
Sandra P Palma Albornoz, Thais F C Fraga-Silva, Renan V H de Carvalho, Tamara S Rodrigues, Ana Flávia Gembre, Rômulo S de Oliveira, Fernanda Mesquita de Souza, Giseli Furlan Corrêa, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Daniela Carlos, Danilo C de Almeida, Niels O S Câmara, Dario S Zamboni, Viviani N Takahashi, Carlos A Sorgi, Lucia H Faccioli, Alexandra I Medeiros, Diego Luís Costa, Vânia L D Bonato
A low grade and persistent inflammation, which is the hallmark of obesity, requires the participation of NLRP3 and cell death. During Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, NLRP3 signaling is important for bacterial killing by macrophages in vitro, but was shown to be dispensable for host protection in vivo. We hypothesized that during obesity-tuberculosis comorbidity, NLRP3 signaling might play a detrimental role by inducing excessive inflammation. We employed a model of high fat diet-induced obesity, followed by M...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Pathology
Nyasatu G Chamba, Kenneth C Byashalira, Dirk L Christensen, Kaushik L Ramaiya, Eliakimu P Kapyolo, PendoMartha J Shayo, Troels Lillebaek, Nyanda E Ntinginya, Blandina T Mmbaga, Ib C Bygbjerg, Stellah G Mpagama, Rachel N Manongi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common comorbidity among people with tuberculosis (TB). Despite the availability of guidelines on how to integrate dual TB/DM in Tanzania, the practice of integration at various healthcare levels is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the participants' experiences and perceptions on the pathway towards clinical management of dual TB/DM. METHOD: The research was carried out in Dar es Salaam, Iringa, and Kilimanjaro regions between January and February 2020...
December 31, 2022: Global Health Action
Shayan Sirat Maheen Anwar, Anam Khan, Fahd Haroon, Farwa Mohsin
Salpingo-enteric fistula is a rare disease causing infertility. It occurs when there is a connection between fallopian tube and the intestine. It can be accurately diagnosed with hysterosalpingography. Fistulas mostly occur as a consequence of obstetric complications, however, inflammatory bowel disease, pelvic malignancy, pelvic radiation therapy, iatrogenic causes, and trauma are other potential causes. The possibility of tuberculous salpingitis as a possible cause of salpingo-enteric fistula should always be considered in the developing countries where tuberculosis is endemic...
February 2023: Radiology Case Reports
Ppavani Gundreddy, Sagar S Gaurkar
Cadaveric dissection is the most important learning tool in anatomy. Although many new modalities are coming up for learning anatomy, cadaveric dissection outstands all of these as it helps students to visualize the human body and remains the most realistic way of learning anatomy. The cadavers are preserved using formalin, a potent disinfectant. Even after embalming in 5-10% formalin, the cadaver might still be infectious while using it in the dissection hall (anatomy department). Numerous bacterial species and infectious pathogens might still be seen despite using fixative agents...
October 2022: Curēus
Xieraili Wumener, Yarong Zhang, Zhenguo Wang, Maoqun Zhang, Zihan Zang, Bin Huang, Ming Liu, Shengyun Huang, Yong Huang, Peng Wang, Ying Liang, Tao Sun
OBJECTIVES: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT has been widely used in tumor diagnosis, staging, and response evaluation. To determine an optimal therapeutic strategy for lung cancer patients, accurate staging is essential. Semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV) is known to be affected by multiple factors and may fail to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Lymph nodes (LNs) in the mediastinal and pulmonary hilar regions with high FDG uptake due to granulomatous lesions such as tuberculosis, which has a high prevalence in China, pose a diagnostic challenge...
2022: Frontiers in Oncology
Javier Ortega, Lucia de Juan, Iker A Sevilla, Joseba M Garrido, Álvaro Roy, Carlos Velasco, Beatriz Romero, Mercedes Domínguez, Bernat Pérez de Val, Carolina Nebot, José Luis Sáez-Llorente, Julio Álvarez, Javier Bezos
Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Caprine TB eradication programmes are based mainly on intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. Different factors may affect the performance of the TB diagnostic tests used in caprine herds and, therefore, their ability to detect infected animals. The present study evaluates the effect of the fraudulent administration of two anti-inflammatory substances, dexamethasone and ketoprofen, on the performance of the TB diagnostic techniques used in goats, as well as the suitability of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their detection in hair samples...
2022: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Saurabh Mishra, Kohta Saito
The clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) vary widely in severity, site of infection, and outcomes of treatment-leading to simultaneous efforts to individualize therapy safely and to search for shorter regimens that can be successfully used across the clinical spectrum. In these endeavors, clinicians and researchers alike employ mycobacterial culture in rich media. However, even within the same patient, individual bacilli among the population can exhibit substantial variability in their culturability...
2022: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jun Fang, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
Rv0790c is predicted to be a conserved hypothetical protein encoded by Mycobacterium tubercul osis ( Mtb ). However, its function in Mtb infection remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that Rv0790c promoted bacillary survival of M. smegmatis ( Ms ), both in vitro and in vivo . The bacillary burden of Ms exogenously expressing Rv0790c increased, whereas in Rv0790c-knockouts the bacillary burden decreased in infected macrophages. Multiple cellular processes were analyzed to explore the underlying mechanisms...
2022: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Bernadette Dian Novita, Yudy Tjahjono, Sumi Wijaya, Imelda Theodora, Ferdinand Erwin, Stefan Wilson Halim, Bobby Hendrawan, David Karunia Jaya, Paul L Tahalele
INTRODUCTION: C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2) and C-C chemokine ligand-5 (CCL-5) play an important role in the migration of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T cells against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Meanwhile, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3), activated by interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in tuberculosis (TB) infection, play an important role in phagocytosis, inflammation, and granulomatous-forming processes that may lead to TB treatment success or failure...
2022: Frontiers in Immunology
Elsa Du Bruyn, Sheena Ruzive, Patrick Howlett, Ashley J Jacobs, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Alan Sher, Katrin D Mayer-Barber, Daniel L Barber, Bongani Mayosi, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Robert J Wilkinson, Catherine Riou
Studies of the immune response at the site of disease in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) disease are scarce. In this study, we compared the cellular profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific T cells in pericardial fluid and peripheral blood in patients with pericardial TB (PCTB). Whole blood and pericardial fluid (PCF) samples were collected at the time of diagnostic sampling, with repeat blood sampling after completion of anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) in 16 PCTB patients, most of them being HIV-1 infected (n=14)...
2022: Frontiers in Immunology
Luciana Sobral, María B Arriaga, Alexandra B Souza, Mariana Araújo-Pereira, Beatriz Barreto-Duarte, Caio Sales, Michael S Rocha, Aline Benjamin, Adriana S R Moreira, Jamile G de Oliveira, Anna Cristina Carvalho, Renata Spener-Gomes, Marina C Figueiredo, Solange Cavalcante, Betina Durovni, José R Lapa-E-Silva, Afrânio L Kritski, Valeria C Rolla, Timothy R Sterling, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Bruno B Andrade
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden is in children. Identification, diagnosis, and early treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TBI) is critical to prevent progression to TB in children. The risk of TB, including severe disease, is highest in children <5 years old. We evaluated the cascade of TBI care among child and adolescent TB contacts to identify factors associated with losses in the cascade. METHODS: Close contacts ≤ 18 years old of pulmonary TB patients enrolled between 2015 and 2019 in a multi-centre Brazilian cohort were followed for up to 24 months and classified according to age groups: <5 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years and 15-18 years...
November 2022: Lancet Reg Health Am
M Korycka-Machała, M Kawka, J Lach, R Płocińska, A Bekier, B Dziadek, A Brzostek, P Płociński, D Strapagiel, M Szczesio, K Gobis, J Dziadek
It was recently reported that 4-substituted picolinohydrazonamides carrying hydrophilic cyclic amines, such as morpholine and pyrrolidine, at the end of their thiosemicarbazide chain have potent antimycobacterial activity in vitro at concentrations below 1 μg/ml. Here, two selected compounds, 2,4-disubstituted pyridine derivatives 11 and 15 , revealed significant bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis localized intracellularly within human macrophages, as well as against biofilm-forming tubercle bacilli...
2022: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mohammed Hasen Badeso, Falaho Sani Kalil, Yusuf Mohammed Ahmed, Shemsedin Abdulkadir Godie, Ashenafi Habtamu Regesu
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis is a common global public health problem. Ethiopia is among the thirty top Tuberculosis burden countries. Trends of tuberculosis disease in general and at the district level in the Bale Zone have not been assessed and no adequate information existed for informed decision-making. This study was to describe the trends and physical distribution of the tuberculosis disease in the Bale Zone from 2013 to 2018. METHODS: We reviewed the reported data of tuberculosis from 2013 to 2018 in March 2019 and extracted data of tuberculosis from the Bale Zone health information system database...
2022: Infection and Drug Resistance
Iris L Wu, Jennie Chen, Rita Shiau, Amit S Chitnis, Devan Jaganath
BACKGROUND: Older adults aged ≥65 years old represent an increasing proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States, but limited evidence exists on the characteristics and treatment outcomes that differentiate them from younger adults. METHODS: We evaluated Alameda County TB surveillance data from 2016 to 2019 and abstracted public health charts for older adult TB cases. Clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were compared in older and younger adults (15-64 years), and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess risk factors for TB treatment noncompletion among older adults...
November 2022: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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