Claire M Di Bella, Lauren E Howard, Taofik Oyekunle, Amanda M De Hoedt, Joseph K Salama, Haijun Song, Stephen J Freedland, Emma H Allott
BACKGROUND: Fat distribution varies between individuals of similar body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that visceral obesity is more strongly associated with poor prostate cancer outcomes than overall obesity defined by BMI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We quantified abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA), and pelvic periprostatic adipose tissue area (PPAT), using computed tomography scans from radiation-treated prostate cancer patients at the Durham North Carolina Veterans Administration Hospital...
August 7, 2020: Prostate
Ahmet Murat Aydin, Kenneth Gage, Jasreman Dhillon, Salim K Cheriyan, Michael A Poch, Brandon J Manley, Roger Li, Wade J Sexton, Philippe E Spiess, Scott M Gilbert, Julio M Pow-Sang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of focal bipolar radiofrequency ablation in men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS: A review of 10 patients treated with a novel bipolar radiofrequency ablation probe integrated in a coil design (Encage; Trod Medical, Bradenton, FL, USA) between 2011 and 2017 in two prospective pilot trials. All men had clinical stage T1c prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen <10 ng/mL and Gleason score ≤7. Ablation was carried out under general anesthesia, and bipolar probes were inserted transperineally under transrectal ultrasound guidance...
August 6, 2020: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Derek J Gillies, Jessica R Rodgers, Igor Gyacskov, Priyanka Roy, Nirmal Kakani, Derek W Cool, Aaron Fenster
PURPOSE: Many interventional procedures require the precise placement of needles or therapy applicators (tools) to correctly achieve planned targets for optimal diagnosis or treatment of cancer, typically leveraging the temporal resolution of ultrasound (US) to provide real-time feedback. Identifying tools in two-dimensional (2D) images can often be time-consuming with the precise position difficult to distinguish. We have developed and implemented a deep learning method to segment tools in 2D US images in near real-time for multiple anatomical sites, despite the widely varying appearances across interventional applications...
August 6, 2020: Medical Physics
J-Y Zhang, Y-N Li, X Mu, Z-L Pan, W-B Liu
Since this article has been suspected of research misconduct and the corresponding authors did not respond to our request to prove originality of data and figures, "Targeted regulation of miR-195 on MAP2K1 for suppressing ADM drug resistance in prostate cancer cells, by J.-Y. Zhang, Y.-N. Li, X. Mu, Z.-L. Pan, W.-B. Liu, published in Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22 (24): 8599-8608-DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_201812_16623-PMID: 30575899" has been withdrawn. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Gergely Gyimesi, Jonai Pujol-Giménez, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Matthias A Hediger
Sodium glucose transporters (SGLTs) belong to the mammalian solute carrier family SLC5. This family includes 12 different members in human that mediate the transport of sugars, vitamins, amino acids, or smaller organic ions such as choline. The SLC5 family belongs to the sodium symporter family (SSS), which encompasses transporters from all kingdoms of life. It furthermore shares similarity to the structural fold of the APC (amino acid-polyamine-organocation) transporter family. Three decades after the first molecular identification of the intestinal Na+ -glucose cotransporter SGLT1 by expression cloning, many new discoveries have evolved, from mechanistic analysis to molecular genetics, structural biology, drug discovery, and clinical applications...
August 7, 2020: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Patrick Schelb, Xianfeng Wang, Jan Philipp Radtke, Manuel Wiesenfarth, Philipp Kickingereder, Albrecht Stenzinger, Markus Hohenfellner, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Klaus H Maier-Hein, David Bonekamp
OBJECTIVES: To simulate clinical deployment, evaluate performance, and establish quality assurance of a deep learning algorithm (U-Net) for detection, localization, and segmentation of clinically significant prostate cancer (sPC), ISUP grade group ≥ 2, using bi-parametric MRI. METHODS: In 2017, 284 consecutive men in active surveillance, biopsy-naïve or pre-biopsied, received targeted and extended systematic MRI/transrectal US-fusion biopsy, after examination on a single MRI scanner (3 T)...
August 7, 2020: European Radiology
Abrahim Hanjar, Yazan Fahmawi, Yasir Ahmed, Manoj Kumar, Lindsey Merritt, Meir Mizrahi
Radiation beams precisely directed at a tumor can attenuate the radiation to contiguous tissues. Image-guided radiation therapy using fiducials allows accurate delineation of tumor location. Traditionally, fiducials in the prostate have been placed by urologists or radiation oncologists. With the evolution of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), fiducials have been successfully placed under the EUS guidance in different organs. In this case series, fiducials were placed in 3 patients with prostate cancer. All patients completed their radiation therapy, and no complications were reported except mild dysuria in one case...
July 2020: ACG Case Reports Journal
Bo Zhang, Kaibo Guo, Xueer Zheng, Leitao Sun, Minhe Shen, Shanming Ruan
Background: Second primary malignancy (SPM) attracts a growing attention. However, the clinical features of colon cancer (CC) survivors with SPMs are not clear and could help guide clinicians to develop a better surveillance strategy. Methods: We reviewed 56,930 CC survivors treated with colectomy from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database during 1998-2011. Competing risk models and nomograms were conducted for predicting the risk of occurring SPMs. The clinical utility of the models was measured by decision curve analysis (DCA) using net benefit approaches...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Zijia Tao, Yiqiao Zhao, Xiaonan Chen
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications can be found in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and microRNA (miRNA). Several studies have demonstrated a close relationship between m6A modifications and cancer cells. Methyltransferase-like enzyme 3 (METTL3) and methyltransferase-like enzyme 14 (METTL14) are two major enzymes involved in m6A modifications that play vital roles in various cancers. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms of METTL3 and METTL14 in urological cancers are largely unknown...
2020: PeerJ
Dragos Radu Marcu, Lucian Iorga, Camelia Cristina Diaconu, Arsenie Dan Spinu, Dan Mischianu, Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu
Radical prostatectomy is one of the most frequent therapeutic options used for the management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Normal erectile function after radical prostatectomy is a great problem for numerous patients and a real challenge for urologists worldwide. The advancements that have been made over the years in terms of minimally invasive surgery, as well as in terms of surgical techniques, have reduced the incidence of erectile dysfunction, but even so, its rate remains high and the post-operative recovery of erectile function is a long and costly process...
September 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Takehiro Iwata, Takuya Sadahira, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Hideo Ueki, Takanori Sasaki, Peng Haung, Motoo Araki, Toyohiko Watanabe, Yasutomo Nasu, Masami Watanabe
REIC/Dkk-3 is a tumor suppressor, and its expression is significantly downregulated in a variety of human cancer types. A previous study performed yeast two-hybrid screening and identified the small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA), known as a negative modulator of cytoplasmic androgen receptor (AR) signaling, which is a novel interacting partner of REIC/Dkk-3. The previous study also indicated that the REIC/Dkk-3 protein interferes with the dimerization of SGTA and then upregulates the AR transport and signaling in human prostate cancer PC3 cells...
August 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
E David Crawford, Whitney Stanton, Divneet Mandair
Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for rising PSA after failed local therapy will often develop castrate resistance, and the appearance of metastases predicts a poor prognosis. Thus, researchers have long sought to prolong the onset of metastasis in patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until 2018, patients in this group had no FDA-approved treatment options. They were typically managed with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) to maintain castrate systemic testosterone levels and given approved therapies for metastatic CRPC once metastases appeared...
2020: Cancer Management and Research
Rui Chen, Yan Chen, Weiqing Zhao, Cheng Fang, Wenjie Zhou, Xin Yang, Mei Ji
Malignant solid tumors are the leading cause of death in humans, and epigenetic regulation plays a significant role in studying the mechanism of human solid tumors. Recently, histone lysine methylation has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of human solid tumors due to its epigenetic stability and some other advantages. The 90-kb protein methyltransferase nuclear receptor SET domain-containing 2 (NSD2) is a member of nuclear receptor SET domain-containing (NSD) protein lysine methyltransferase (KMT) family, which can cause epigenomic aberrations via altering the methylation states...
2020: OncoTargets and Therapy
Feng Sun, Ke Wu, Zhixian Yao, Xingyu Mu, Zhong Zheng, Menghao Sun, Yong Wang, Zhihong Liu, Yiyong Zhu
Background: Metastatic disease caused by prostate cancer (PCa) is the principal cause of PCa-related mortality. Long non-protein-coding RNAs may possess significant cellular functions. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), a long non-coding RNA encoded by the human PVT1 gene, is an oncogene, which can regulate several tumor-related genes. In PCa, the function and mechanism of PVT1 are unclear. NOP2 is being pursued as a prognostic marker for cancer aggressiveness, which promotes mouse fibroblast growth and tumor formation...
2020: OncoTargets and Therapy
Mayassa J Bou-Dargham, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical early step in cancer metastasis and a complex process that involves multiple factors. In this study, we used proteomics approaches to investigate the secreted proteins (secretome) of paired human androgen-repressed prostate cancer (ARCaP) cell lines, representing the epithelial (ARCaP-E) and mesenchymal (ARCaP-M) phenotypes. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses showed high levels of proteins involved in bone remodeling and extracellular matrix degradation in the ARCaP-M cells, consistent with the bone metastasis phenotype...
2020: PloS One
Lang Wu, Yaohua Yang, Xingyi Guo, Xiao-Ou Shu, Qiuyin Cai, Xiang Shu, Bingshan Li, Ran Tao, Chong Wu, Jason B Nikas, Yanfa Sun, Jingjing Zhu, Monique J Roobol, Graham G Giles, Hermann Brenner, Esther M John, Judith Clements, Eli Marie Grindedal, Jong Y Park, Janet L Stanford, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Christopher A Haiman, Rosalind A Eeles, Wei Zheng, Jirong Long
It remains elusive whether some of the associations identified in genome-wide association studies of prostate cancer (PrCa) may be due to regulatory effects of genetic variants on CpG sites, which may further influence expression of PrCa target genes. To search for CpG sites associated with PrCa risk, here we establish genetic models to predict methylation (N = 1,595) and conduct association analyses with PrCa risk (79,194 cases and 61,112 controls). We identify 759 CpG sites showing an association, including 15 located at novel loci...
August 6, 2020: Nature Communications
Sergey A Dyshlovoy, Moritz Kaune, Malte Kriegs, Jessica Hauschild, Tobias Busenbender, Larisa K Shubina, Tatyana N Makarieva, Konstantin Hoffer, Carsten Bokemeyer, Markus Graefen, Valentin A Stonik, Gunhild von Amsberg
Monanchoxymycalin C (MomC) is a new marine pentacyclic guanidine alkaloid, recently isolated from marine sponge Monanchora pulchra by us. Here, anticancer activity and mechanism of action was investigated for the first time using a human prostate cancer (PCa) model. MomC was active in all PCa cell lines at low micromolar concentrations and induced an unusual caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death. Kinase activity screening identified activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) to be one of the primary molecular mechanism of MomC anticancer activity...
August 6, 2020: Scientific Reports
Emanuele Rinninella, Maria Cristina Mele, Marco Cintoni, Pauline Raoul, Gianluca Ianiro, Lucia Salerno, Carmelo Pozzo, Emilio Bria, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Alessio Molfino, Antonio Gasbarrini
Nutritional guidelines suggest specific energy and protein requirements for patients with cancer. However, cancer patients, often malnourished, use self-made or web-based diets to ameliorate the prognosis of their disease. This review aimed to investigate the associations between post-diagnostic diet and prognostic outcomes in cancer patients. A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed and Web of Science databases from inception to 30 October 2019, based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria...
August 5, 2020: Nutrients
Narisa Dewi Maulany Darwis, Takahiro Oike, Nobuteru Kubo, Soehartati A Gondhowiardjo, Tatsuya Ohno
The rate and characteristics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce post-radiotherapy remain unclear. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis. Reports of PSA bounce post-radiotherapy with a cutoff of 0.2 ng/mL were searched by using Medline and Web of Science. The primary endpoint was the occurrence rate, and the secondary endpoints were bounce characteristics such as amplitude, time to occurrence, nadir value, and time to nadir. Radiotherapy modality, age, risk classification, androgen deprivation therapy, and the follow-up period were extracted as clinical variables...
August 5, 2020: Cancers
Jorge H Leitão
Cancer is a wide group of diseases, which was responsible for 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Cancer immunotherapies have become a reality, with the first approval for sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer therapy occurring in 2010. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, mostly known as a food-borne pathogen, capable of causing life-threatening and often fatal infections. However, since in the majority of cases the human immune system is able to mount potent innate and adaptive immune responses that control infections by Listeria monocytogenes , the microorganism has become an attractive vector for the development of cancer vaccines...
August 5, 2020: Vaccines
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