Lalit Patel, Colin C Pritchard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personalizing prostate cancer therapy requires germline and tumor molecular tests that predict who will respond to specific treatments and who may not. The review covers molecular testing of DNA damage response pathways, the first biomarker-driven precision target with clinical utility for treatment selection in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). RECENT FINDINGS: Recurrent somatic and germline variants cause deficiency of the mismatch repair (MMR) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways in about a quarter of CRPC patients...
March 7, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nikita Rednam, Vikas Kundra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recurrence post definitive local therapy by prostatectomy or radiation therapy is often detected via rise in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels; however, PSA rise does not localize the disease. Distinguishing local versus distant recurrence guides whether to choose subsequent local versus systemic therapy. The purpose of this article is to review imaging for prostate cancer recurrence post local therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Among imaging modalities, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is commonly used to assess for local recurrence...
March 6, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Theodore Gourdin, Arash Velayati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is designed to highlight recent research examining treatment progress in advanced prostate cancer while identifying ongoing challenges to clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent randomized trials suggest an overall survival advantage to treating some men with newly identified metastatic prostate cancer with a "triplet" of androgen deprivation therapy, docetaxel, and an androgen receptor axis-targeted agent. Questions remain about which men are best served by these combinations...
March 20, 2023: Current Opinion in Oncology
Menachem Laufer
In recent years, we witnessed significant changes in the way we diagnose prostate cancer and the options for management of low risk localized prostate cancer. This review discusses today's approach to men with elevated PSA. The use of biomarkers and or prostate MRI is strongly recommended prior to the decision on a biopsy. Following a suspicious finding in MRI the best approach is MRI-guided biopsy. Traditionally, biopsies are performed transrectally but the emerging transperineal biopsy has considerable advantage...
March 2023: Harefuah
Zi-Hao Zhang, Yue Wang, Ya Zhang, Sheng-Feng Zheng, Tao Feng, Xi Tian, Mierxiati Abudurexiti, Zhen-Da Wang, Wen-Kai Zhu, Jia-Qi Su, Hai-Liang Zhang, Guo-Hai Shi, Zi-Liang Wang, Da-Long Cao, Ding-Wei Ye
Kidney, bladder, and prostate cancer are the three major tumor types of the urologic system that seriously threaten human health. Circular RNAs (CircRNAs), special non-coding RNAs with a stabile structure and a unique back-splicing loop-forming ability, have received recent scientific attention. CircRNAs are widely distributed within the body, with important biologic functions such as sponges for microRNAs, as RNA binding proteins, and as templates for regulation of transcription and protein translation. The abnormal expression of circRNAs in vivo is significantly associated with the development of urologic tumors...
March 25, 2023: Molecular Cancer
Ting Martin Ma, Felix Y Feng, Seth A Rosenthal, Matthew B Rettig, Ann C Raldow, Daniel E Spratt, Michael Xiang, Amar U Kishan
It is unclear whether cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials have improved outcomes compared with non-study patients. We compared prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in patients in a real-world setting (SEER-Medicare database) versus on a trial (NRG/RTOG 0521). The 7-year freedom from PCSM was superior in trial patients (92.4% vs. 88.1%, sHR = 1.77 [95% CI 1.05-2.97], P = 0.03). Black trial patients had significantly superior freedom from PCSM than Black real-world patients (sHR 6...
March 25, 2023: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Jaime Poncel, Valeria Celis, Aref S Sayegh, Michael Eppler, Luis G Medina, Rene Sotelo
BACKGROUND: Simple prostatectomy has been established as a management option for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with glands larger than 80cc (1). Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) has been established as a safe and effective management option. This has been reported in multiple studies comparing it with the open approach where no statistically significant differences in complication rates have been found (2). The intrafascial approach is intended to add multiple benefits, such as not requiring continuous bladder irrigation and resection of a larger percentage of the adenoma, potentially leading to a lower reoperation rate and diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients in which this was missed preoperatively (3)...
March 23, 2023: Urology
Tarik Benidir, Zaeem Lone, Andrew Wood, Nour Abdallah, Rebecca Campbell, Petar Bajic, Andrei Purysko, Jane K Nguyen, Jihad Kaouk, Georges-Pascal Haber, Mohamed Eltemamy, Robert Stein, Samuel Haywood, Eric A Klein, Nima Almassi, Steven C Campbell, Robert Abouassaly, Christopher J Weight
OBJECTIVE: To assess how IsoPSA, a structure-based serum assay which has been prospectively validated in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa), can help the biopsy decision process when combined with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (PI-RADS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients receiving IsoPSA testing for elevated PSA (>4.0ng/mL). Patients were included if they had received an IsoPSA test and prostate MRI within one year of IsoPSA testing, and subsequently underwent prostate biopsy...
March 23, 2023: Urology
Harshini Ashar, Ashish Ranjan
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing sonic energy-based therapeutic technology for inducing thermal and non-thermal effects in tissues. Depending on the parameters, HIFU can ablate tissues by heating them to >55 °C to induce denaturation and coagulative necrosis, improve radio- and chemo-sensitizations and local drug delivery from nanoparticles at moderate hyperthermia (~41-43 °C), and mechanically fragment cells using acoustic cavitation (also known as histotripsy)...
March 23, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yufan Wang, Alexandra L McCarthy, Sandra C Hayes, Louisa G Gordon, Vivian Chiu, Tom G Bailey, Elizabeth Stewart, Haitham Tuffaha
While there is good evidence that exercise is an effective adjunct therapy to cancer care, little is known about its value for money. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the available evidence pertaining to the cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions following cancer. A search of eight online databases (CINAHL, the Cochrane Library (NHSEED), Econlit, Embase, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of science) was first conducted on 26 March 2021 and updated on 8 March 2022. Only economic evaluations with results in the form of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were included...
March 23, 2023: Preventive Medicine
Roberto Silvestri, Vanessa Nicolì, Priyadarsini Gangadharannambiar, Francesco Crea, Martin D Bootman
Cancer cells proliferate, differentiate and migrate by repurposing physiological signalling mechanisms. In particular, altered calcium signalling is emerging as one of the most widespread adaptations in cancer cells. Remodelling of calcium signalling promotes the development of several malignancies, including prostate cancer. Gene expression data from in vitro, in vivo and bioinformatics studies using patient samples and xenografts have shown considerable changes in the expression of various components of the calcium signalling toolkit during the development of prostate cancer...
March 24, 2023: Nature Reviews. Urology
Clara Cerrato, Savio Domenico Pandolfo, Riccardo Autorino, Andrea Panunzio, Alessandro Tafuri, Antonio Benito Porcaro, Alessandro Veccia, Vincenzo De Marco, Maria Angela Cerruto, Alessandro Antonelli, Ithaar H Derweesh, Maria Carmen Mir Maresma
PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant genetic syndrome resulting in a wide spectrum of malignancies caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes (MMR). Gene mutations have different effects and penetrance between the two genders. The aim of this review is to offer a gender-specific evidence-based clinical guide on diagnosis, screening, surveillance, and counselling of UTUC patients with LS. METHODS: Using MEDLINE, a non-systematic review was performed including articles between 2004 and 2022...
March 24, 2023: World Journal of Urology
Jian-Guo Zhong, Lin Shi, Jing Liu, Fang Cao, Yan-Qing Ma, Yang Zhang
To develop MRI-based radiomics model for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 4-10 ng/mL, to compare the performance of radiomics model and PI-RADS v2.1, and to further verify the predictive ability of radiomics model for lesions with different PI-RADS v2.1 score. 171 patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL were divided into training (n = 119) and testing (n = 52) groups. PI-RADS v2.1 score was assessed by two radiologists...
March 24, 2023: Scientific Reports
Christina Guo, Ines Figueiredo, Bora Gurel, Antje Neeb, George Seed, Mateus Crespo, Suzanne Carreira, Jan Rekowski, Lorenzo Buroni, Jon Welti, Denisa Bogdan, Lewis Gallagher, Adam Sharp, Maria D Fenor de la Maza, Pasquale Rescigno, Daniel Westaby, Khobe Chandran, Ruth Riisnaes, Ana Ferreira, Susana Miranda, Bianca Calì, Andrea Alimonti, Silvia Bressan, Alana H T Nguyen, Michael M Shen, Jessica E Hawley, Aleksandar Obradovic, Charles G Drake, Claudia Bertan, Chloe Baker, Nina Tunariu, Wei Yuan, Johann S de Bono
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2023: European Urology
Ayatun Nesa, Md Mostafijur Rahman, Md Tahminur Rahman, Yearul Kabir
One of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in males is prostate cancer. The latest molecular studies revealed the interconnection of genetic polymorphism of N acetyltransferase (NAT) and Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) gene in the genesis of prostate cancer. The study's aim was to find out the association of NAT2, GSTT1, and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer in the Bangladeshi population. This case-control study included 207 histopathologically diagnosed cases of prostate cancer and 200 age-matched healthy controls...
March 22, 2023: Gene
Nathan Feiertag, Marc-Mina Tawfik, Justin Loloi, Rutul D Patel, Benjamin Green, Michael Zhu, Daniel Klyde, Alexander C Small, Kara L Watts
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature on plant-based and plant-forward diets and the prevention/treatment of the following common men's health conditions: prostate cancer (PCa), erectile dysfunction (ED), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses system (PRISMA) criteria were utilized to search PubMed and Medline databases for the following search terms: "Diet [Mesh]" OR "Diet Therapy [Mesh]" AND "Prostatic Hyperplasia [Mesh]" OR "Prostatic Neoplasm [Mesh]" OR "Erectile Dysfunction [Mesh]...
March 22, 2023: Urology
Michael Sadighian, Nizar Hakam, Gregory Amend, Nathan M Shaw, Peggy Tahir, I Elaine Allen, Behnam Nabavizadeh, Jordan Holler, William Shibley, Kevin D Li, Behzad Abbasi, Alexander Bell, Osama Mohamad, Benjamin N Breyer
OBJECTIVE: To systematically aggregate and summarize existing data on fistula prevalence among patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science on October 7, 2020 for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to radiation-induced fistulas in the pelvis. For meta-analysis, we used the random-effects model. We used the I2 statistic to quantify heterogeneity and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess risk of bias...
March 22, 2023: Urology
Marcin Miszczyk, Łukasz Magrowski, Tomasz Krzysztofiak, Rafał Stando, Wojciech Majewski, Konrad Stawiski, Oliwia Masri, Jakub Ciepał, Gabriela Depowska, Krystyna Chimiak, Gabriela Bylica, Barbara Czapla, Małgorzata Masri, Franciszek Cichur, Iwona Jabłońska, Marta Gmerek, Zuzanna Nowicka, Piotr Wojcieszek, Jacek Sadowski, Rafał Suwiński, Paweł Rajwa, Gregor Goldner, Matthias Moll
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite several prospective trials showing a clinical benefit of combining external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with brachytherapy boost (BTB) for the treatment of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients, none of these trials were designed to test for a survival difference. In this study, we aimed to collect a large multi-institutional database to determine whether BT boost was associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival and a reduction of distant metastases based on real-world data...
March 22, 2023: Radiotherapy and Oncology
Theis Voss, Mikela Krag, Frederik Martiny, Bruno Heleno, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen, John Brandt Brodersen
The degree of overdiagnosis in common cancer screening trials is uncertain due to inadequate design of trials, varying definition and methods used to estimate overdiagnosis. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the risk of overdiagnosis for the most widely implemented cancer screening programmes and assess the implications of design limitations and biases in cancer screening trials on the estimates of overdiagnosis by conducting an overview and re-analysis of systematic reviews of cancer screening. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library from their inception dates to November 29, 2021...
March 22, 2023: Cancer Epidemiology
Wei-Yu Chen, Phan Vu Thuy Dung, Hsiu-Lien Yeh, Wei-Hao Chen, Kuo-Ching Jiang, Han-Ru Li, Zi-Qing Chen, Michael Hsiao, Jiaoti Huang, Yu-Ching Wen, Yen-Nien Liu
Conventional treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) uses androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) to inhibit androgen receptor (AR) signaling-driven tumor progression. ADT-induced PCa recurrence may progress to an AR-negative phenotype with neuroendocrine (NE) histologic features, which are associated with metabolic disturbances and poor prognoses. However, the metabolic pathways that regulate NE differentiation (NED) in PCa remain unclear. Herein, we show a regulatory mechanism in NED-associated metabolism dysfunction induced by ADT, whereby overexpression of pyruvate kinase L/R (PKLR) mediates oxidative stress through upregulation of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (ROMO1), thereby promoting NED and aggressiveness...
March 21, 2023: Redox Biology
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