Lia C Scott, Shelton Bartley, Nicole F Dowling, Lisa C Richardson
The purpose of this study is to present a variety of measures that quantify equity in cancer outcomes, demonstrate how the measures perform in various cancer types, and identify counties, or Bright Spots, that meet the criteria of those measures. Using county-level age adjusted death rates for 2007-2016 from the National Center for Health Statistics, we determined counties that had both equitable and optimal outcomes for the black and white death rates across five cancer types, lung/bronchus, prostate, breast, colorectal, and liver cancers...
October 19, 2020: American Journal of Epidemiology
Xueying Hou, Yuelin Zhang, Siyuan Han, Baoxian Hou
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the western world. However, heterogeneity remains a pressing clinical problem. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was used to screen the prognostic signature. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify the target genes associated with high-risk characteristics. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to suggest the molecular mechanism of MYBL2 in PC...
October 19, 2020: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Yee Huang, Xiangdong Xue, Xiaocen Li, Bei Jia, Chong-Xian Pan, Yuanpei Li, Tzu-Yin Lin
Prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) carries is poor, and no effective therapeutic regimen is yet known. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway played a predominant role and may be a promising molecular target for CRPC. However, the toxicity of the dual PI3K inhibitors in clinical trials limits their clinical efficacy for CRPC. To solve this problem, we employed a highly integrated precision nanomedicine strategy to molecularly and physically target CRPC through synergistic effects, enhanced targeted drug delivery efficiency, and reduced unwanted side-effects...
October 2020: Advanced Therapeutics
Frédérique Gouriet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Jean-Paul Casalta, Sandrine Hubert, Serge Cammilleri, Alberto Riberi, Hubert Lepidi, Gilbert Habib, Didier Raoult
Background: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an imaging technique largely used in the management of infective endocarditis and in the detection and staging of cancer. We evaluate our experience of incidental cancer detection by PET/CT during IE investigations and follow-up. Methods and Findings: Between 2009 and 2018, our center, which includes an "endocarditis team," managed 750 patients with IE in a prospective cohort. PET/CT became available in 2011 and was performed in 451 patients...
2020: Frontiers in Medicine
Giorgia Gurioli, Vincenza Conteduca, Cristian Lolli, Giuseppe Schepisi, Stefania Gargiulo, Amelia Altavilla, Chiara Casadei, Emanuela Scarpi, Ugo De Giorgi
Introduction: Plasma androgen receptor ( AR ) copy number (CN) status identifies castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with worse outcome on abiraterone/enzalutamide. However, the impact of AR CN changes on clinical outcome in CRPC is unknown. Materials and Methods: Plasma samples from 73 patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide were collected at baseline and at the time of progression disease (PD). Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction was used to assess AR CN status. Results: We showed that 11 patients (15...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Toms Vengaloor Thomas, Xiaoshan Z Gordy, Seth T Lirette, Ashley A Albert, David P Gordy, Srinivasan Vijayakumar, Vani Vijayakumar
Background: Inconsistent findings have been reported in the literature regarding racial differences in survival outcomes between African American and white patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). The current study utilized a national database to determine whether racial differences exist among the target population to address this inconsistency. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed prostate cancer (PCa) patient data ( N = 1,319,225) from the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The data were divided into three groupings based on the metastatic status: (1) no metastasis ( N = 318,291), (2) bone metastasis ( N = 29,639), and (3) metastases to locations other than bone, such as brain, liver, or lung ( N = 952)...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Junru Chen, Yuchao Ni, Guangxi Sun, Banghua Liao, Xingming Zhang, Jinge Zhao, Sha Zhu, Zhipeng Wang, Pengfei Shen, Hao Zeng
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of current systemic combination therapies for patients with mHSPC and help select candidates for optimal treatment. Methods: Databases of MEDLINE and EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical were searched for eligible studies. Direct and network meta-analysis were conducted to compare various systemic combination therapies and the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was generated for treatment ranking. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the extent of metastasis...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Vincent J Gnanapragasam, Kelly Leonard, Michal Sut, Cristian Ilie, Jonathan Ord, Jacques Roux, Maria Consuelo Hart Prieto, Anne Warren, Priya Tamer
Objectives: To report the prospective multicentre clinical evaluation of a first-in-man disposable device, Cambridge Prostate Biopsy Device, to undertake local anaesthetic outpatient transperineal prostate biopsies. Material and methods: Disposable single-use Cambridge Prostate Biopsy devices were manufactured based on a previous prototype. The lead site developed a user training course and disseminated the method to other sites. The Cambridge Prostate Biopsy Device (CamPROBE) was offered as an alternative to transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy to men due for a biopsy as part of their clinical management...
September 2020: Journal of Clinical Urology
Jonas De Melio, Ilse Crevits
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a relatively rare entity, characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the retroperitoneal periaortic tissues. Due to this rarity, the diagnosis might be delayed or challenging, especially with atypical presentations of RPF. We report the imaging findings of an incidental finding of active RPF in an asymptomatic 84-year-old male patient. This patient was initially diagnosed with a perirenal hematoma due to an atypical imaging presentation on a routine staging computed tomography scan of the chest and the abdomen to stage a recently discovered prostate cancer...
December 2020: Radiology Case Reports
Zhoulei Li, Peng He, Ganhua Luo, Xinchong Shi, Gang Yuan, Bing Zhang, Christof Seidl, Andreas Gewies, Yue Wang, Yuan Zou, Yali Long, Dianchao Yue, Xiangsong Zhang
Background: The anticancer potential of pharmacologic ascorbic acid (AA) has been detected in a number of cancer cells. However, in vivo study suggested a strongly reduced cytotoxic activity of AA. It was known that pH could be a critical influencing factor for multiple anticancer treatments. In this study, we explored the influence of pH on the cytotoxicity of ascorbic acid. We employed castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines PC3 and DU145 to observe the therapeutic effect of AA on PCa cells that were cultured with different pH in vitro ...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
A Webster, A L Appelt, G Eminowicz
The meticulous selection and utilisation of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) are essential for optimal radiotherapy treatment delivery when using highly conformal treatment techniques in pelvic radiotherapy. Pelvic IGRT has several general IGRT issues to consider (such as choice of match strategy, prioritisation between multiple treatment targets and margin estimates) as well as issues specific to pelvic radiotherapy, in particular large inter-fraction organ variation. A range of interventions, including adaptive treatment strategies, have been developed to address these challenges...
October 16, 2020: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
J Rubio-Briones, B Pastor Navarro, L M Esteban Escaño, A Borque Fernando
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Within the paradigm shift of the last decade in the management of prostate cancer (PCa), perhaps the most relevant event has been the emergence of active surveillance (AS) as a mandatory strategy in low-risk disease. We carry out a critical review of the clinical, pathological and radiological improvements that allow optimizing AS in 2021. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Critical narrative review of the literature on improvement issues and controversial aspects of AS...
October 15, 2020: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Lars Egevad, Brett Delahunt, Bungo Furusato, Toyonori Tsuzuki, John Yaxley, Hemamali Samaratunga
The histopathological diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma is challenged by the existence of numerous benign mimics. Most of these lesions have no clinical significance and many do not need to be reported. Their clinical relevance lies in the risk that they are misinterpreted as cancer. This review presents the histopathological features of benign mimics and discusses their distinction from cancer. The lesions that are most often misdiagnosed as cancer are atrophy and its variants, including simple atrophy, partial atrophy and post-atrophic hyperplasia...
October 15, 2020: Pathology
Bumjin Lim, Kwang Suk Lee, Young Hwa Lee, Suah Kim, Choongki Min, Ju-Young Park, Hye Sun Lee, Jin Seon Cho, Sun Il Kim, Byung Ha Chung, Choung-Soo Kim, Kyo Chul Koo
Purpose: Decision-making for treatment of newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) is complex due to the multiple initial treatment modalities available. We aimed to externally validate the SCaP (Severance Study Group of Prostate Cancer) Survival Calculator that incorporates a long short-term memory artificial neural network (ANN) model to estimate survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment modality. Materials and Methods: The validation cohort consisted of clinicopathological data of 4,415 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven PCa between April 2005 and November 2018 at three institutions...
October 6, 2020: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Alexandria G Bauer, Melanie Jefferson, Georges J Nahhas, Stephen Savage, Richard Drake, Michael Lilly, Linda Ambrose, Susan Caulder, David Mahvi, Chanita Hughes Halbert
PURPOSE: To examine financial toxicity and strain among men in an equal access healthcare system based on social determinants and clinical characteristics. METHODS: Observational study among men receiving prostate cancer care (n = 49) at a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility. Financial hardship included overall financial strain and financial toxicity due to healthcare costs. Financial strain was measured with one item asking how much money they have leftover at the end of the month...
October 17, 2020: Cancer Medicine
Mitsuhisa Nishimoto, Kazutoshi Fujita, Takafumi Minami, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Hirotsugu Uemura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2020: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
William Thomas Hrinivich, Junghoon Lee
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) machine parameter optimization (MPO) approach based on deep-Q reinforcement learning (RL) capable of finding an optimal machine control policy using previous prostate cancer patient CT scans and contours, and applying the policy to new cases to rapidly produce deliverable VMAT plans in a simplified beam model. METHODS: A convolutional deep-Q network was employed to control the dose rate and multi-leaf collimator of a C-arm linear accelerator model using the current dose distribution and machine parameter state as input...
October 18, 2020: Medical Physics
Evi Comploj, Alexander Pycha, Emanuela Trenti, Salvatore Palermo, Matteo Bonatti, Philipp Krause, Decio Maria Folchini, Armin Pycha
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and long-term results of selective transarterial iliac embolization (STIE) in patients with intractable bladder haemorrhage (IBH). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with a median age of 84 (range 65-94) years underwent STIE because of IBH between 2002 and 2020. The median follow-up time was 3 (mean 13.9) months. Patients were treated because of bleeding bladder or prostate cancer, radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis, and other conditions...
October 16, 2020: Urologia Internationalis
Cao Fang, Yibin Kang
Metastasis is responsible for a large majority of death from malignant solid tumors. Bone is one of the most frequently affected organs in cancer metastasis, especially in breast and prostate cancer. Development of bone metastasis requires cancer cells to successfully complete a number of challenging steps, including local invasion and intravasation, survival in circulation, extravasation and initial seeding, and finally, formation of metastatic colonies after a period of dormancy or indolent growth. During this process, cancer cells often undergo a series of cellular and molecular changes to gain cellular plasticity that helps them adapt to various environments they encounter along the journey of metastasis...
October 15, 2020: Bone
Dmitry M Polikarpov, Douglas H Campbell, Maria E Lund, Yanling Lu, Yiqing Lu, Jiehua Wu, Bradley J Walsh, Andrei V Zvyagin, David A Gillatt
BACKGROUND: Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is an emerging method of cancer treatment based on the use of a photosensitizer near-infrared dye IRDye700DX (IR700) conjugated to a monoclonal antibody. The antibody selectively delivers IR700 to cancer cells, which can then be killed after photoexcitation. Glypican-1 (GPC-1) is a novel target expressed specifically in malignant tumors. We aimed to investigate whether anti-GPC-1 antibody Miltuximab® (Glytherix Ltd., Sydney, Australia) can be conjugated with IR700 for PIT of solid tumors...
October 15, 2020: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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