Charles Tatter, Oscar Persson, Gustav Burström, Erik Edström, Adrian Elmi-Terander
BACKGROUND: Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) is a treatment option for several cervical pathologies. Various graft materials such as autografts, titanium mesh cages (TMC), or poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) cages are used. Additional posterior fixation (PF) to provide extra support and improve stability is sometimes performed initially, or later as supplementary treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe our retrospective study of 119 consecutive cases of ACCF with synthetic grafts, in 3 cohorts of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), infectious and neoplastic processes, and trauma, with special focus on need for supplementary PF...
July 31, 2020: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Ole M Hansen, Ronni Mikkelsen, Jennifer Rosenkjær Eskol, Ole Brink
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to expand the very limited data on Scandinavian paediatric poly-trauma patients by charactering patients from this population admitted to a Danish level-1 trauma centre. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients 15 years or younger who were admitted to the trauma centre at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark from January 2000 to May 2014. Injury severity was calculated using the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to determine significant differences between sexes...
July 1, 2020: Danish Medical Journal
Amanda K Huber, Nicole Patel, Chase A Pagani, Simone Marini, Karthik Padmanabhan, Daniel L Matera, Mohamed Said, Charles Hwang, Ginny Ching-Yun Hsu, Andrea A Poli, Amy L Strong, Noelle D Visser, Joseph A Greenstein, Reagan Nelson, Shuli Li, Michael T Longaker, Yi Tang, Stephen J Weiss, Brendon M Baker, Aaron W James, Benjamin Levi
Cells sense extracellular environment and mechanical stimuli and translate these signals into intracellular responses through mechanotransduction and alters cell maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation. Here we use a mouse model of trauma induced heterotopic ossification (HO) to examine how cell-extrinsic forces impact MPC fate. After injury, single cell (sc) RNA sequencing of the injury site reveals an early increase in MPC genes associated with pathways of cell adhesion and ECM-receptor interactions, and MPC trajectories to cartilage and bone...
July 16, 2020: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sijia Liu, Chengqi He
OBJECTIVES: To date, we have only limited evidence of the determinants of earthquake inpatient mortality-related factors. This study is among the first to explore related factors of inpatient deaths using data from multiple hospitals and multiple earthquakes. METHODS: We included and retrospectively analyzed data on 32,976 earthquake inpatients in the West China Earthquake Patients Database. Of these, we analyzed the records of 284 patients who died during hospitalization...
July 10, 2020: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Hye Jeong Choi, Hannah Grigorian, Alisa Garner, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
We examined sociodemographic and psychosocial risk factors that moderate the (poly) substance use and dating violence victimization and perpetration relationship among emerging adults. Using an ethnically diverse sample ( N = 698), we used latent class analyses to identify mutually exclusive groups based on monthly and past-year substance use. We then examined these groups as they relate to dating violence victimization and perpetration and the moderating effect of various risk factors. Five classes were identified based on substance use patterns: (a) Regular Alcohol use, (b) Polysubstance use, (c) Heavy Alcohol and Marijuana use, (d) Mild Alcohol use, and (e) Occasional Alcohol and Marijuana use classes...
July 8, 2020: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Xuan Zhou, Sara Tenaglio, Timothy Esworthy, Sung Yun Hann, Haitao Cui, Thomas J Webster, Hicham Fenniri, Lijie Grace Zhang
Cartilage damage caused by ageing, repeated overloading, trauma, and diseases can result in chronic pain, inflammation, stiffness, and even disability. Unlike other types of tissues (bone, skin, muscle, etc.), cartilage tissue has an extremely weak regenerative capacity. Currently, the gold standard surgical treatment for repairing cartilage damage includes autografts and allografts. However, these procedures are limited by insufficient donor sources and the potential for immunological rejection. After years of development, engineered tissue now provides a valuable artificial replacement for tissue regeneration purposes...
June 30, 2020: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kaamini M Dhanabalan, Vishal K Gupta, Rachit Agarwal
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease characterized by progressive damage of articular cartilage and the adjoining subchondral bone. Chondrocytes, the primary cells of the cartilage, have limited regenerative capacity and when they undergo stress due to trauma or with aging, they senesce or become apoptotic. Rapamycin, a potent immunomodulator, has shown promise in OA treatment. It activates autophagy and is known to prevent senescence. However, its clinical translation for OA is hampered due to systemic toxicity as high and frequent doses are required...
June 29, 2020: Biomaterials Science
Edidiong Inyang, Aneetta Elizabeth Kuriakose, Bo Chen, Kytai Truong Nguyen, Michael Cho
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to alter the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Blunt force or explosive blast impacting the brain can cause neurological sequelae through the mechanisms that remain yet to be fully elucidated. For example, shockwaves propagating through the brain have been shown to create a mechanical trauma that may disrupt the BBB. Indeed, using tissue engineering approaches, the shockwave-induced mechanical injury has been shown to modulate the organization and permeability of the endothelium tight junctions...
June 23, 2020: ACS Omega
Salah Abood Salem, Zahra Rashidbenam, Mohd Hafidzul Jasman, Christopher Chee Kong Ho, Ismail Sagap, Rajesh Singh, Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof, Zulkifli Md Zainuddin, Ruszymah Bt Haji Idrus, Min Hwei Ng
BACKGROUND: The urinary tract can be affected by both congenital abnormalities as well as acquired disorders, such as cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation, and iatrogenic injuries, all of which may lead to organ damage requiring eventual reconstruction. As a gold standard, gastrointestinal segment is used for urinary bladder reconstruction. However, one major problem is that while bladder tissue prevents reabsorption of specific solutes, gastrointestinal tissue actually absorbs them...
June 24, 2020: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Preeti J Muire, Lauren H Mangum, Joseph C Wenke
Single trauma injuries or isolated fractures are often manageable and generally heal without complications. In contrast, high-energy trauma results in multi/poly-trauma injury patterns presenting imbalanced pro- and anti- inflammatory responses often leading to immune dysfunction. These injuries often exhibit delayed healing, leading to fibrosis of injury sites and delayed healing of fractures depending on the intensity of the compounding traumas. Immune dysfunction is accompanied by a temporal shift in the innate and adaptive immune cells distribution, triggered by the overwhelming release of an arsenal of inflammatory mediators such as complements, cytokines and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from necrotic cells...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Cheng Lei, Yu Wang, Jia Zhao, Kexun Li, Hua Jiang, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypoalbuminemia can be life threatening among critically ill patients. In this study, we develop a patient-specific monitoring and forecasting model based on deep neural networks to predict concentrations of albumin and a set of selected biochemical markers for critically ill patients in real-time. METHODS: Under the assumption that metabolism of a patient follows a patient-specific dynamical process that can be determined from sufficient prior data taken from the patient, we apply a machine learning method to develop the patient-specific model for a critically ill, poly-trauma patient...
June 6, 2020: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Timothy Guenther, Tanya Rinderknecht, Ho Phan, Curtis Wozniak, Victor Rodriquez
Pericardial rupture with cardiac herniation is a rare traumatic injury with an estimated incidence of 0.37% after blunt trauma. Most commonly occurring after high-speed impact, such as in motor vehicle or motorcycle collisions, pericardial rupture is associated with a high mortality rate. Radiologic diagnosis can be challenging; cross-sectional imaging findings can be suggestive of pericardial rupture but are often non-specific, and echocardiography windows are often obscured. Definitive diagnosis is generally made intra-operatively...
June 2020: Trauma Case Reports
Philine Marchetta, Dorit Möhrle, Philipp Eckert, Katrin Reimann, Steffen Wolter, Arianna Tolone, Isabelle Lang, Markus Wolters, Robert Feil, Jutta Engel, François Paquet-Durand, Michaela Kuhn, Marlies Knipper, Lukas Rüttiger
In the inner ear, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling has been described as facilitating otoprotection, which was previously observed through elevated cGMP levels achieved by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition. However, to date, the upstream guanylyl cyclase (GC) subtype eliciting cGMP production is unknown. Here, we show that mice with a genetic disruption of the gene encoding the cGMP generator GC-A, the receptor for atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides, display a greater vulnerability of hair cells to hidden hearing loss and noise- and age-dependent hearing loss...
2020: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jenifer Goldman Fraser, Carmen Rosa Noroña, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Jie Zhang, Joseph Spinazzola, Jessica L Griffin, Crystaltina Montagna, Marybeth Todd, Ruth Bodian, Beth Barto
Young children who experience abuse, neglect, domestic violence, and other interpersonal forms of trauma are at risk for developing complex psychological trauma. Timely referrals by child welfare services for trauma evaluation and intervention is critical, particularly during the developmentally-sensitive period of birth to three. However, few screening instruments exist that are feasible for implementation in child welfare services and none have reported psychometric data for children under three. The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to examine developmental differences in detection rates of two brief trauma screening scales, comparing outcomes for toddlers (age 1 and 2 years) and preschoolers (age 3 to 6 years), using the evaluation data from a statewide child welfare demonstration project...
September 2019: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
N Normann, G Tietz, A Kühn, C Fuchs, V Balau, K Schulz, J Kolata, T Schuerholz, A Petersmann, S Stentzel, L Steil, S O Kuhn, K Meissner, U Völker, M Nauck, I Steinmetz, D Raafat, M Gründling, B M Bröker
Infections are often caused by pathobionts, endogenous bacteria that belong to the microbiota. Trauma and surgical intervention can allow bacteria to overcome host defences, ultimately leading to sepsis if left untreated. One of the main defence strategies of the immune system is the production of highly specific antibodies. In the present proof-of-concept study, plasma antibodies against 9 major pathogens were measured in sepsis patients, as an example of severe systemic infections. The binding of plasma antibodies to bacterial extracellular proteins was quantified using a semi-automated immunoblot assay...
April 17, 2020: European Cells & Materials
Mithun R Suresh, Krystal K Valdez-Delgado, Christopher A VanFosson, Jennifer D Trevino, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas, Stacy A Shackelford, Amanda M Staudt
BACKGROUND: Role 2 forward surgical teams provide damage control resuscitation and surgery for life- and limb-threatening injuries. These teams have limited resources and personnel, so understanding the anatomic injury patterns seen by these teams is vital for providing adequate training and preparation prior to deployment. The objective of this study was to describe the spectrum of injuries treated at Role 2 facilities in Afghanistan. METHODS: Using Department of Defense Trauma Registry data, a retrospective, secondary data analysis was conducted...
April 8, 2020: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Marcus Deloney, Kyra Smart, Blaine A Christiansen, Alyssa Panitch
Inflammation following joint trauma contributes to cartilage degradation and progression of post traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Therefore, drug delivery vehicles that deliver effective anti-inflammatory treatments have the potential to prevent PTOA. We have developed solid and hollow, thermoresponsive nanoparticles for the controlled release of our anti-inflammatory MK2-inhibiting (MK2i) peptide for intra-articular injection to halt inflammation that contributes to the advancement of PTOA. This system exploits the thermosensitive characteristic of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm) to transition phases when passing through its lower critical solution temperature (LCST)...
April 9, 2020: Journal of Controlled Release
Yiyuan Duan, Honghao Zheng, Zehua Li, Yuejun Yao, Jie Ding, Xuemei Wang, Jayachandra Reddy Nakkala, Deteng Zhang, Zhaoyi Wang, Xingang Zuo, Xiaowen Zheng, Jun Ling, Changyou Gao
The immune system responds immediately to tissue trauma and to biomaterial implants under the participation of M1/M2 macrophages polarization. The surface properties of biomaterials can significantly influence the tissue repair progress through modulating the macrophage functions. In this study, the surface of poly(propylene fumarate) polyurethane films (PPFU) is grafted with a same density of enantiomeric poly-l-lysine (PPFU-g-PLL) and poly-d-lysine (PPFU-g-PDL), leading to a similar level of enhanced surface wettability for the PPFU-g-PLL and PPFU-g-PDL...
July 2020: Biomaterials
Yunsheng Dong, Huahong Zhuang, Yan Hao, Lin Zhang, Qiang Yang, Yufei Liu, Chunxiao Qi, Shufang Wang
Introduction: Chronic trauma repair is an important issue affecting people's healthy lives. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel is injectable in situ and can be used to treat large-area wounds. In addition, antioxidants play important roles in promoting wound repair. Methods: The purpose of this research was to prepare a novel thermo-sensitive hydrogel-poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide)/poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PP) loaded with superoxide dismutase (SOD) to improve the effect for trauma treatment...
2020: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Monica B Setien, Kylie R Smith, Kaleb Howard, Kathleen Williams, Steve T Suhr, Erin K Purcell
BACKGROUND: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be an advantageous source of neuronal cells to repair damage due to neurological disorders or trauma. Additionally, they are promising candidates to develop models to study underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. While successful neural differentiation of iPSCs has been reported in mice, protocols detailing the generation of neural cells from rat iPSCs are relatively limited, and their optimization by manipulating cell culture methods has remained unexplored...
March 18, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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