Nina Papalia, Susan Baidawi, Stefan Luebbers, Stephane Shepherd, James R P Ogloff
Child maltreatment research is increasingly recognizing the need to capture patterns of co-occurrence between different types of abuse/neglect and to consider their associations with psychosocial functioning. Few studies have examined these issues in justice-involved youth despite the fact that rates of maltreatment and trauma-related psychopathology are disproportionately high among this population. This study examined profiles of self-reported child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect among incarcerated juveniles in Victoria, Australia, using latent class analysis...
September 18, 2020: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Xiaoxuan Zhang, Helin Xing, Feng Qi, Hongchen Liu, Lizeng Gao, Xing Wang
Bone defects caused by trauma, tumor resection, congenital malformation and infection are still a major challenge for clinicians. Biomimetic bone materials have attracted more and more attention in science and industry. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been increasingly recognized as an inducible factor for osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Spatiotemporal release of insulin may serve as the promising strategy. Considering the successful application of nanoparticles in drug loading, various insulin delivery systems have been developed, including (poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA), hydroxyapatite (HA), gelatin, chitosan, alginate, and (γ-glutamic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate, γ-PGA/β-TCP)...
2020: Nanotheranostics
Sahin Yuceli, Gulce Naz Yazici, Renad Mammadov, Halis Suleyman, Mustafa Kaya, Selcuk Ozdogan
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of rutin, which is a vitamin P1 flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-edema effects, on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and edema in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 3 groups as sham group without brain trauma (SG), brain trauma without medication (BT) group and Rutin treated brain trauma (RBT) group. Fifty mg/kg rutin was administered to the RBT group once a day for three days. On the fourth day, rats were sacrificed...
September 2020: In Vivo
B Derbel, J Ziadi, Z Daoud, S Souiden, R Miri, M Ben Mrad, F Ghedira, S Ben Omrane, R Denguir
AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study was to review the population at risk of upper limb arterial injury, to determinate the rate of upper limb salvage and the predictive factors of limb loss. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, involving 128 patients with upper extremity arterial trauma operated between January first, 2006 and June 30, 2017. Exclusion criteria were arterial ligation, primary limb amputation and arterial iatrogenic injuries. End points were immediate technical success, primary patency and limb salvage rate...
August 25, 2020: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Zhimin Jiang, Lichi Zhao, Feixiang He, Haixin Tan, Yongling Li, Yu Tang, Xiaoqun Duan, Yingying Li
Hypertrophic scar (HS) has been considered as a great concern for patients and a challenging problem for clinicians as it can cause functional debility, cosmetic disfigurement and psychological trauma. Although many methods have been developed to prevent and treat HS, the scarless healing is still a worldwide medical problem. In this study, palmatine-loaded poly( ε -caprolactone)/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds (PCL/GE/PALs) were fabricated by electrospinning, and their effects on wound healing and HS formation were investigated...
August 16, 2020: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Gerrolt N Jukema, Faraneh Farokhzad, Jörk Volbracht, Klaus Steigmiller, Ulrike Held, Barbara Bretscher, Felicitas Jucker, Hans-Christoph Pape
Care Management for Polytrauma Patients in a Level-1 Trauma Centre Abstract. In our level-1 trauma institution, polytrauma patients with an Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher are facing waiting times for transfer to a rehabilitation facility, causing a negative financial outcome for our institution. The purpose of this study is to stimulate rapid transfer to a rehabilitation facility. In a single-centre case study, care management for (poly)trauma patients was started to ensure time-directed treatment for trauma patients related to Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG)...
August 13, 2020: Praxis
Ankit Goyal, Sanjeev Kumar, Pallav Mishra, Nitin Mehta, Deepak Joshi, Skand Sinha
Backgroud: Multi-ligamentous knee injuries have been a grey area due to unavailability of large scale control trials with a long term follow up. Several studies have documented good results with different protocols of management regarding time of treatment, repair versus reconstruction, choice of graft and sequence of repair. The author wishes to put forward long-term results of early (<6 weeks) single-stage surgery in multi ligamentous injuries. Methods: The prospective trial included 29 patients diagnosed with three or more ligaments involved...
July 2020: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Charles Tatter, Oscar Persson, Gustav Burström, Erik Edström, Adrian Elmi-Terander
BACKGROUND: Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) is a treatment option for several cervical pathologies. Various graft materials such as autografts, titanium mesh cages (TMC), or poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) cages are used. Additional posterior fixation (PF) to provide extra support and improve stability is sometimes performed initially, or later as supplementary treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe our retrospective study of 119 consecutive cases of ACCF with synthetic grafts, in 3 cohorts of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), infectious and neoplastic processes, and trauma, with special focus on need for supplementary PF...
July 31, 2020: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Ole M Hansen, Ronni Mikkelsen, Jennifer Rosenkjær Eskol, Ole Brink
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to expand the very limited data on Scandinavian paediatric poly-trauma patients by charactering patients from this population admitted to a Danish level-1 trauma centre. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients 15 years or younger who were admitted to the trauma centre at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark from January 2000 to May 2014. Injury severity was calculated using the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to determine significant differences between sexes...
July 1, 2020: Danish Medical Journal
Amanda K Huber, Nicole Patel, Chase A Pagani, Simone Marini, Karthik Padmanabhan, Daniel L Matera, Mohamed Said, Charles Hwang, Ginny Ching-Yun Hsu, Andrea A Poli, Amy L Strong, Noelle D Visser, Joseph A Greenstein, Reagan Nelson, Shuli Li, Michael T Longaker, Yi Tang, Stephen J Weiss, Brendon M Baker, Aaron W James, Benjamin Levi
Cells sense extracellular environment and mechanical stimuli and translate these signals into intracellular responses through mechanotransduction and alters cell maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation. Here we use a mouse model of trauma induced heterotopic ossification (HO) to examine how cell-extrinsic forces impact MPC fate. After injury, single cell (sc) RNA sequencing of the injury site reveals an early increase in MPC genes associated with pathways of cell adhesion and ECM-receptor interactions, and MPC trajectories to cartilage and bone...
July 16, 2020: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sijia Liu, Chengqi He
OBJECTIVES: To date, we have only limited evidence of the determinants of earthquake inpatient mortality-related factors. This study is among the first to explore related factors of inpatient deaths using data from multiple hospitals and multiple earthquakes. METHODS: We included and retrospectively analyzed data on 32,976 earthquake inpatients in the West China Earthquake Patients Database. Of these, we analyzed the records of 284 patients who died during hospitalization...
July 10, 2020: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Hye Jeong Choi, Hannah Grigorian, Alisa Garner, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
We examined sociodemographic and psychosocial risk factors that moderate the (poly) substance use and dating violence victimization and perpetration relationship among emerging adults. Using an ethnically diverse sample ( N = 698), we used latent class analyses to identify mutually exclusive groups based on monthly and past-year substance use. We then examined these groups as they relate to dating violence victimization and perpetration and the moderating effect of various risk factors. Five classes were identified based on substance use patterns: (a) Regular Alcohol use, (b) Polysubstance use, (c) Heavy Alcohol and Marijuana use, (d) Mild Alcohol use, and (e) Occasional Alcohol and Marijuana use classes...
July 8, 2020: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Xuan Zhou, Sara Tenaglio, Timothy Esworthy, Sung Yun Hann, Haitao Cui, Thomas J Webster, Hicham Fenniri, Lijie Grace Zhang
Cartilage damage caused by ageing, repeated overloading, trauma, and diseases can result in chronic pain, inflammation, stiffness, and even disability. Unlike other types of tissues (bone, skin, muscle, etc.), cartilage tissue has an extremely weak regenerative capacity. Currently, the gold standard surgical treatment for repairing cartilage damage includes autografts and allografts. However, these procedures are limited by insufficient donor sources and the potential for immunological rejection. After years of development, engineered tissue now provides a valuable artificial replacement for tissue regeneration purposes...
June 30, 2020: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kaamini M Dhanabalan, Vishal K Gupta, Rachit Agarwal
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease characterized by progressive damage of articular cartilage and the adjoining subchondral bone. Chondrocytes, the primary cells of the cartilage, have limited regenerative capacity and when they undergo stress due to trauma or with aging, they senesce or become apoptotic. Rapamycin, a potent immunomodulator, has shown promise in OA treatment. It activates autophagy and is known to prevent senescence. However, its clinical translation for OA is hampered due to systemic toxicity as high and frequent doses are required...
June 29, 2020: Biomaterials Science
Edidiong Inyang, Aneetta Elizabeth Kuriakose, Bo Chen, Kytai Truong Nguyen, Michael Cho
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to alter the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Blunt force or explosive blast impacting the brain can cause neurological sequelae through the mechanisms that remain yet to be fully elucidated. For example, shockwaves propagating through the brain have been shown to create a mechanical trauma that may disrupt the BBB. Indeed, using tissue engineering approaches, the shockwave-induced mechanical injury has been shown to modulate the organization and permeability of the endothelium tight junctions...
June 23, 2020: ACS Omega
Salah Abood Salem, Zahra Rashidbenam, Mohd Hafidzul Jasman, Christopher Chee Kong Ho, Ismail Sagap, Rajesh Singh, Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof, Zulkifli Md Zainuddin, Ruszymah Bt Haji Idrus, Min Hwei Ng
BACKGROUND: The urinary tract can be affected by both congenital abnormalities as well as acquired disorders, such as cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation, and iatrogenic injuries, all of which may lead to organ damage requiring eventual reconstruction. As a gold standard, gastrointestinal segment is used for urinary bladder reconstruction. However, one major problem is that while bladder tissue prevents reabsorption of specific solutes, gastrointestinal tissue actually absorbs them...
June 24, 2020: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Preeti J Muire, Lauren H Mangum, Joseph C Wenke
Single trauma injuries or isolated fractures are often manageable and generally heal without complications. In contrast, high-energy trauma results in multi/poly-trauma injury patterns presenting imbalanced pro- and anti- inflammatory responses often leading to immune dysfunction. These injuries often exhibit delayed healing, leading to fibrosis of injury sites and delayed healing of fractures depending on the intensity of the compounding traumas. Immune dysfunction is accompanied by a temporal shift in the innate and adaptive immune cells distribution, triggered by the overwhelming release of an arsenal of inflammatory mediators such as complements, cytokines and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from necrotic cells...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Cheng Lei, Yu Wang, Jia Zhao, Kexun Li, Hua Jiang, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypoalbuminemia can be life threatening among critically ill patients. In this study, we develop a patient-specific monitoring and forecasting model based on deep neural networks to predict concentrations of albumin and a set of selected biochemical markers for critically ill patients in real-time. METHODS: Under the assumption that metabolism of a patient follows a patient-specific dynamical process that can be determined from sufficient prior data taken from the patient, we apply a machine learning method to develop the patient-specific model for a critically ill, poly-trauma patient...
June 6, 2020: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Timothy Guenther, Tanya Rinderknecht, Ho Phan, Curtis Wozniak, Victor Rodriquez
Pericardial rupture with cardiac herniation is a rare traumatic injury with an estimated incidence of 0.37% after blunt trauma. Most commonly occurring after high-speed impact, such as in motor vehicle or motorcycle collisions, pericardial rupture is associated with a high mortality rate. Radiologic diagnosis can be challenging; cross-sectional imaging findings can be suggestive of pericardial rupture but are often non-specific, and echocardiography windows are often obscured. Definitive diagnosis is generally made intra-operatively...
June 2020: Trauma Case Reports
Philine Marchetta, Dorit Möhrle, Philipp Eckert, Katrin Reimann, Steffen Wolter, Arianna Tolone, Isabelle Lang, Markus Wolters, Robert Feil, Jutta Engel, François Paquet-Durand, Michaela Kuhn, Marlies Knipper, Lukas Rüttiger
In the inner ear, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling has been described as facilitating otoprotection, which was previously observed through elevated cGMP levels achieved by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition. However, to date, the upstream guanylyl cyclase (GC) subtype eliciting cGMP production is unknown. Here, we show that mice with a genetic disruption of the gene encoding the cGMP generator GC-A, the receptor for atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides, display a greater vulnerability of hair cells to hidden hearing loss and noise- and age-dependent hearing loss...
2020: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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