Sharona L Rab, Roee Admon
Exposure to stressful events is omnipresent in modern human life, yet people show considerable heterogeneity in the impact of stress exposure(s) on their functionality and overall health. Encounter with stressor(s) is counteracted by an intricate repertoire of nervous-system responses. This narrative review starts with a brief summary of the vast evidence that supports heart rate variability, cortisol secretion, and large-scale cortical network interactions as kay physiological, endocrinological, and neural mechanisms of stress responsivity, respectively...
September 14, 2020: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Justin T Parizo, Shun Kohsaka, Alexander T Sandhu, Jay Patel, Paul A Heidenreich
Importance: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Veterans Affairs Health Care System provide incentives for hospitals to reduce 30-day readmission and mortality rates. In contrast with the large body of evidence describing readmission and mortality in the Medicare system, it is unclear how heart failure readmission and mortality rates have changed during this period in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Objectives: To evaluate trends in readmission and mortality after heart failure admission in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System, which had no financial penalties, in a decade involving focus on heart failure readmission reduction (2007-2017)...
September 1, 2020: JAMA Cardiology
Mila Benito, Laure Boutigny
Bikejöring is a type of dryland mushing requiring high-intensity aerobic effort, with speed peaks close to 42 km/h. Greysters (crosses between the German Shorthaired Pointer and the Greyhound) often participate in such events and perform well. The objective of this comparative study was to evaluate the clinical use of non-invasive methods in assessing the cardiovascular health of 22 Greyster dogs in physical training, by determining the differences between different cardiovascular parameters before and after physical training...
September 11, 2020: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Kristine Krajnak, Hong Kan, Kristen A Russ, Walter McKinney, Stacey Waugh, Wen Zheng, Michael L Kashon, Claud Johnson, Jared Cumpston, Jeffrey S Fedan
Hydraulic fracturing is used to access oil and natural gas reserves. This process involves the high-pressure injection of fluid to fracture shale. Fracking fluid contains approximately 95% water, chemicals and 4.5% fracking sand. Workers may be exposed to fracking sand dust (FSD) during the manipulation of the sand, and negative health consequences could occur if FSD is inhaled. In the absence of any information about its potential toxicity, a comprehensive rat animal model study (see Fedan, J.S., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol...
September 12, 2020: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Matthew Nayor, Ravi V Shah, Patricia E Miller, Jasmine B Blodgett, Melissa Tanguay, Alexander R Pico, Venkatesh L Murthy, Rajeev Malhotra, Nicholas E Houstis, Amy Deik, Kerry A Pierce, Kevin Bullock, Lucas Dailey, Raghava S Velagaleti, Stephanie A Moore, Jennifer E Ho, Aaron L Baggish, Clary B Clish, Martin G Larson, Ramachandran S Vasan, Gregory D Lewis
Background: While regular exercise exposure is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, mechanisms of exercise-mediated health benefits remain less clear. We used metabolite profiling before and after acute exercise to delineate the metabolic architecture of exercise response patterns in humans. Methods: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and metabolite profiling was performed on Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants (age 53±8 years, 63% women) with blood drawn at rest (n=471) and at peak exercise (n=411)...
September 15, 2020: Circulation
Tsai-Chung Li, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Shing-Yu Yang, Cheng-Chieh Lin
Prediction model mainly focused on specific diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or patients with cancer, or populations of Europe and America, thereby limiting its generalization. This study aimed to develop and validate a 10-year mortality risk score by using data from a population-representative sample of adults. Data were collected from 2,221 Taichung Community Health study participants aged ≥40 years. The baseline period of the study was 2004, and all participants were followed up until death or in 2016...
2020: PloS One
Mir Sohail Fazeli, Mir-Masoud Pourrahmat, Golshan Massah, Kelsey Lee, Pascal M Lavoie, Mirfarhang Fazeli, Alison Esser, Jean-Paul Collet
Background: Shift work is a necessary part of many industries; however, it can have detrimental effects on health over time. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of a massage intervention on the cardiac autonomic activity and blood inflammatory markers of healthy medical residents working night shifts. Setting: This trial was conducted at British Columbia Children's and Women's Hospital between February 2014 and June 2016. Participants: Included participants were generally healthy medical residents and were working rotating night shifts on a regular basis...
September 2020: International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork
Ravinder Jerath, Connor Beveridge
Pulmonary ventilation and respiration are considered to be primarily involved in oxygenation of blood for oxygen delivery to cells throughout the body for metabolic purposes. Other pulmonary physiological observations, such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia, Hering Brewer reflex, cardiorespiratory synchronization, and the heart rate variability (HRV) relationship with breathing rhythm, lack complete explanations of physiological/functional significance. The spectrum of waveforms of breathing activity correlate to anxiety, depression, anger, stress, and other positive and negative emotions...
2020: Frontiers in Psychology
Eric E Solís-Montufar, Gonzalo Gálvez-Coyt, Alejandro Muñoz-Diosdado
The RR-interval time series or tachograms obtained from electrocardiograms have been widely studied since they reflect the cardiac variability, and this is an indicative of the health status of a person. The tachogram can be seen as a highly non-linear and complex time series, and therefore, should be analyzed with non-linear techniques. In this work, several entropy measures, Sample Entropy (SampEn), Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Fuzzy Entropy (FuzzyEn) are used as a measure of heart rate variability (HRV)...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Maria Meier, Eva Unternaehrer, Stephanie J Dimitroff, Annika B E Benz, Ulrike U Bentele, Sabine M Schorpp, Maya Wenzel, Jens C Pruessner
Health and disease are strongly linked to psychophysiological states. While stress research strongly benefits from standardized stressors, no established protocol focuses on the induction of psychophysiological relaxation. To maintain health, functioning regenerative systems are however likely as important as functioning stress systems. Thus, the identification of validated relaxation paradigms is needed. Here, we investigated whether standardized massages are capable of reliably inducing physiological and psychological states of relaxation...
September 8, 2020: Scientific Reports
Daniel Fuller, Emily Colwell, Jonathan Low, Kassia Orychock, Melissa Ann Tobin, Bo Simango, Richard Buote, Desiree Van Heerden, Hui Luan, Kimberley Cullen, Logan Slade, Nathan G A Taylor
BACKGROUND: Consumer-wearable activity trackers are small electronic devices that record fitness and health-related measures. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the validity and reliability of commercial wearables in measuring step count, heart rate, and energy expenditure. METHODS: We identified devices to be included in the review. Database searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, and SPORTDiscus, and only articles published in the English language up to May 2019 were considered...
September 8, 2020: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Chrisandra L Shufelt, Andy Kim, Sandy Joung, Lili Barsky, Corey Arnold, Susan Cheng, Shivani Dhawan, Garth Fuller, William Speier, Mayra Lopez, Mitra Mastali, Kelly Mouapi, Irene van den Broek, Janet Wei, Brennan Spiegel, Jennifer E Van Eyk, C Noel Bairey-Merz
Background Patients with stable ischemic heart disease represent a heterogeneous population at variable risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Because MACE typically occurs outside the hospital, we studied whether biometric and psychometric remote patient monitoring are associated with MACE risk biomarkers. Methods and Results In 198 patients with stable ischemic heart disease (mean age 65±11 years, 60% women), we evaluated baseline measures, including biometric (FitBit 2) and psychometric (acquired via smartphone-administered patient-reported outcomes) remote monitoring, in the PRE-MACE (Prediction, Risk, and Evaluation of Major Adverse Cardiac Events) study...
September 8, 2020: Journal of the American Heart Association
Shuai Yuan, Susanna C Larsson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to identify the causal risk factors for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We first conducted a review of meta-analyses and review articles to pinpoint possible risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Around 170 possible risk factors were identified of which 97 risk factors with available genetic instrumental variables were included in MR analyses. To reveal more risk factors that were not included in our MR analyses, we conducted a review of published MR studies of type 2 diabetes...
September 8, 2020: Diabetologia
Priscilla Caetano Guerra, Danilo F Santaella, Vania D'Almeida, Rogerio Santos-Silva, Sergio Tufik, Claudio Arnaldo Len
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the impact of yogic meditation in sleep quality of healthy pediatric healthcare professionals. METHOD: Subjects were randomized into a meditation group (MG, n = 32), who attended a yogic meditation class held for eight weeks, or a control group (CG, n = 32). Polysomnography (PSG) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores were determined at baseline and after eight weeks. RESULTS: The PSQI overall score was lower (p = 0...
August 2020: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Lorenzo Nesti, Nicola Riccardo Pugliese, Paolo Sciuto, Andrea Natali
The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF) is well established. Early in the course of the diabetic disease, some degree of impaired exercise capacity (a powerful marker of health status with prognostic value) can be frequently highlighted in otherwise asymptomatic T2DM subjects. However, the literature is quite heterogeneous, and the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are far from clear. Imaging-cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a non-invasive, provocative test providing a multi-variable assessment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, muscular, and cellular oxidative systems during exercise, capable of offering unique integrated pathophysiological information...
September 5, 2020: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Charlotte M Roddick, Frances S Chen
BACKGROUND: Loneliness, the subjective experience of social isolation, represents one of the largest risk factors for physical illness and early death in humans. However, the mechanisms by which loneliness leads to adverse health outcomes are not well understood. PURPOSE: In this study, we examined altered parasympathetic nervous system function as a potential pathway by which chronic loneliness and state loneliness may "get under the skin" to impact cardiovascular physiology...
September 5, 2020: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Chen Chen, Shan Liu, Wei Dong, Yi Song, Mengtian Chu, Junhui Xu, Xinbiao Guo, Bin Zhao, Furong Deng
Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are of concern because of their high pulmonary deposition efficiency. However, present control measures are generally targeted at fine particles (PM2.5 ), with little effect on UFPs. The health effects of UFPs at different PM2.5 concentrations may provide a basic for controlling UFPs but remain unclear in polluted areas. School children spend the majority of their time in the classrooms. This study investigated the different short-term effects of indoor UFPs on school children in Beijing, China when indoor PM2...
August 18, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
João Chang Junior, Fábio Binuesa, Luiz Fernando Caneo, Aida Luiza Ribeiro Turquetto, Elisandra Cristina Trevisan Calvo Arita, Aline Cristina Barbosa, Alfredo Manoel da Silva Fernandes, Evelinda Marramon Trindade, Fábio Biscegli Jatene, Paul-Eric Dossou, Marcelo Biscegli Jatene
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease accounts for almost a third of all major congenital anomalies. Congenital heart defects have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health costs for children and adults. Research regarding the risk of pre-surgical mortality is scarce. OBJECTIVES: Our goal is to generate a predictive model calculator adapted to the regional reality focused on individual mortality prediction among patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery...
2020: PloS One
Ben Kim, Sandra M McKay, Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: Frailty has detrimental health impacts on older home care clients and is associated with increased hospitalization and long-term care admission. The prevalence of frailty among home care clients is poorly understood and ranges from 4.0% to 59.1%. Although frailty screening tools exist, their inconsistent use in practice calls for more innovative and easier-to-use tools. Owing to increases in the capacity of wearable devices, as well as in technology literacy and adoption in Canadian older adults, wearable devices are emerging as a viable tool to assess frailty in this population...
September 3, 2020: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Dara J Lundon, Brian D Kelly, Devki Shukla, Damien M Bolton, Peter Wiklund, Ash Tewari
Treatment decisions for both early and advanced genitourinary (GU) malignancies take into account the risk of dying from the malignancy as well as the risk of death due to other causes such as other co-morbidities. COVID-19 is a new additional and immediate risk to a patient's morbidity and mortality and there is a need for an accurate assessment as to the potential impact on of this syndrome on GU cancer patients. The aim of this work was to develop a risk tool to identify GU cancer patients at risk of diagnosis, hospitalization, intubation, and mortality from COVID-19...
August 30, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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