John Sanders, Yue Xie, David Gazzola, Hanchen Li, Ambily Abraham, Kelly Flanagan, Florentina Rus, Melanie Miller, Yan Hu, Sierra Guynn, Austin Draper, Sridhar Vakalapudi, Katherine H Petersson, Dante Zarlenga, Robert W Li, Joseph F Urban, Gary R Ostroff, Anne Zajac, Raffi V Aroian
Haemonchus contortus is a critical parasite of goats and sheep. Infection by this blood-feeding gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite has significant health consequences, especially in lambs and kids. The parasite has developed resistance to virtually all known classes of small molecule anthelmintics used to treat it, giving rise in some areas to multidrug resistant parasites that are very difficult to control. Thus, new anthelmintics are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein 5B (Cry5B), a naturally occurring protein made by a bacterium widely and safely used around the world as a bioinsecticide, represents a new non-small molecule modality for treating GINs...
November 19, 2020: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Rebecca E Short, Daniel T C Cox, Yin Ling Tan, Alison Bethel, Jacqualyn F Eales, Ruth Garside
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is increasing scientific evidence of critical links between the oceans and human health, with research into issues such as pollution, harmful algal blooms and nutritional contributions. However, Oceans and Human Health (OHH) remains an emerging discipline. As such these links are poorly recognized in policy efforts such as the Sustainable Development Goals, with OHH not included in either marine (SDG14) or health (SDG3) goals. This is arguably short-sighted given recent development strategies such as the EU Blue Growth Agenda...
November 23, 2020: Environment International
Mohammed A Rohaim, Rania F El Naggar, Emily Clayton, Muhammad Munir
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are causing a number of human and animal diseases because of their zoonotic nature such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These viruses can infect respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and central nervous systems of human, livestock, birds, bat, mouse, and many wild animals. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly emerging respiratory virus and is causing CoVID-19 with high morbidity and considerable mortality...
November 23, 2020: Microbial Pathogenesis
Joanna K Strzelczyk, Piotr Cuber, Benjamin Bochon, Krzysztof Gajdzik, Janusz Strzelczyk, Łukasz Krakowczyk, Andrzej Wiczkowski, Aleksander Jerzy Owczarek, Zofia Ostrowska
Colorectal cancer is a common malign disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The cancer survival rate depends on the stage of the disease at detection time. It is well known that several molecular mechanisms are involved in cancer and some molecules might affect or modulate cancerogenesis. The aim of the study was to assess the levels of sICAM-1, sELAM-1, TNFα and sTNFR1 protein in tumor and corresponding normal mucosa in a group of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and also associations of these parameters with demographic and clinical profiles of the patients...
November 26, 2020: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Shreyasee Karmakar, Naveen Mummudi, Sarbani Ghosh-Laskar, Anil Tibdewal, Rajiv Kumar, Prachi Patil, Shaesta Mehta, Vanita Noronha, Kumar Prabhash, Nilendu Purandare, Saleem Pathuthara, Jai Prakash Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Response assessment after chemo-radiotherapy (CTRT) in locally advanced esophageal cancer is usually performed using a PET-CT scan, an upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) and histological correlation with biopsy or cytology. We aim to study the incremental value of brush cytology in addition to PET-CT for response assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, 40 patients with Stage II- IV carcinoma esophagus treated with radical intent between June 2015 and August 2019 were included...
November 26, 2020: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Kosuke Kanemitsu, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Kohei Yamashita, Yoshihiro Komohara, Takeshi Morinaga, Shiro Iwagami, Kojiro Eto, Yohei Nagai, Junji Kurashige, Yoshifumi Baba, Naoya Yoshida, Hideo Baba
Family 1: a 39-year-old woman and her sister were admitted to our hospital for fundic gland polyps (FGPs). Their mother died of gastric cancer with FGPs. We performed repeated biopsies at close intervals, suspecting gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). After a 1-year follow-up, the sisters were diagnosed with gastric cancer with FGP. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomies with D1+lymph node dissection. Promoter 1B (exon 1B) of the APC gene (chr5: 112,043,224 T>C) contained a point mutation...
November 26, 2020: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Fatemeh Homayounieh, Ruhani Doda Khera, Bernardo Canedo Bizzo, Shadi Ebrahimian, Andrew Primak, Bernhard Schmidt, Sanjay Saini, Mannudeep K Kalra
PURPOSE: To assess if autosegmentation-assisted radiomics can predict disease burden, hydronephrosis, and treatment strategies in patients with renal calculi. METHODS: The local ethical committee-approved, retrospective study included 202 adult patients (mean age: 53 ± 17 years; male: 103; female: 99) who underwent clinically indicated, non-contrast abdomen-pelvis CT for suspected or known renal calculi. All CT examinations were reviewed to determine the presence (n = 123 patients) or absence (n = 79) of renal calculi...
November 26, 2020: Abdominal Radiology
Muhammad Owais, Muhammad Arsalan, Tahir Mahmood, Jin Kyu Kang, Kang Ryoung Park
BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases can lead to effective treatment and reduce the risk of many life-threatening conditions. Unfortunately, various small gastrointestinal lesions are undetectable during early-stage examination by medical experts. In previous studies, various deep learning-based computer-aided diagnosis tools have been used to make a significant contribution to the effective diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. However, most of these methods were designed to detect a limited number of gastrointestinal diseases, such as polyps, tumors, or cancers, in a specific part of the human gastrointestinal tract...
November 26, 2020: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Y Toya, S Yamada, S Yanai, S Miyajima, T Matsumoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2020: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Joseph Ryan Leach, Bryan Manoukian, Lygia Stewart
We present the case of a 60-year-old man with a complex medical history, presenting to the hospital with generalized weakness and found to be markedly hyperglycemic. Early in the patient's hospital course, he developed abdominal pain and was found to have a small bowel obstruction secondary to intraluminal migrated surgical mesh entrapped in the terminal ileum. The bowel obstruction was relieved surgically with uncomplicated mesh removal and ileocecectomy. Surgical mesh migration is a relatively rare complication of hernia repair and abdominal wall reconstruction, and intraluminal mesh migration is an even more rare variant...
November 25, 2020: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Jin Li, Yang Zhou, Xinxin Wang, Meijuan Zhou, Xi Chen, Kuan Luan
PURPOSE: To apply a multi-objective radiomics model based on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving diagnostic accuracy of LN metastasis in rectal cancer patients. METHODS: This study consisted of 91 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from April 2018 to March 2019. All patients underwent rectal MRI before surgery without any other treatment. Clinical data, subjective radiologist assessments, and radiomic features of LNs were obtained. A total of 1409 radiomic features were extracted from T2WI LN images...
November 25, 2020: Abdominal Radiology
Zhi-Jie Ma, Huan-Jun Wang, Xiao-Jing Ma, Yue Li, Hong-Jun Yang, Hui Li, Jian-Rong Su, Cong-En Zhang, Lu-Qi Huang
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is typically mediated by antibiotic therapy, which has increased in prevalence in recent years. Previous studies have suggested that ginger, a common spice and herbal medicine, can modulate the composition of gut microbiota and is beneficial against gastrointestinal disease. This study investigates the therapeutic effects of fresh ginger extract on AAD in a rat model. Gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function were also studied. Ginger was administered to rats with AAD...
November 26, 2020: Food & Function
Christopher N Andrews, Marc Bradette
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder, which impacts the quality of life, work productivity and social activities of patients. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is one of several subtypes, and accounts for approximately one third of all cases. Currently available treatments are typically unable to alleviate the cardinal symptoms of IBS-D, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, and a clinical unmet need remains for an effective treatment which simultaneously relieves multiple symptoms...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Turki AlAmeel, Lee S Roth, Eman Al Sulais
Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders. A pooled analysis showed a global prevalence of 11.2%. Few studies looked at the prevalence of IBS in health care providers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IBS among board-certified physicians and surgeons. Methods: Board-certified physicians and surgeons in Saudi Arabia were invited to complete a web-based survey. It included questions regarding participant demographics, specialty, practice type and hours worked per week...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Adriana Lazarescu, Christopher N Andrews, Louis W C Liu, David Reed, William G Paterson, Stephen J Vanner, Daniel C Sadowski
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility and functional disorders comprise over two-third of referrals to GI specialists yet training programs are disproportionately focused on endoscopy, inflammatory bowel disease and liver disease. Trainees at many centres receive minimal or no formal training in motility disorders and have little or no exposure to motility testing. Our purpose was to develop an educational intervention to address this learning need. Methods: We designed a formal training program comprised of didactic sessions, workshops and hands-on motility sessions with live demonstrations designed to be held over the course of a weekend...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Sarvee Moosavi, Laura Gentile, Lovedeep Gondara, Colleen Mcgahan, Robert Alan Enns, Jennifer Telford
Objective: To assess the performance of a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) among participants of a population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program with one or more first-degree relatives (FDR) with CRC. Methods: Asymptomatic 50 to 74 years olds with a FDR diagnosed with CRC, enrolled in a colon screening program completed FIT (two samples, cut-off 20 µg Hemoglobin/gram feces) and underwent colonoscopy. FIT-interval CRCs were identified from the British Columbia cancer registry...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
David O Prichard, Zachary Hamilton, Thomas Savage, Matthew Smyth, Carlie Penner, Alam Lakhani, Matthew W Carroll, Ahmed Al Sarkhy, Daniel A Lemberg, Robert Enns, Douglas Jamieson, Kevan Jacobson
Aims: Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) are increasingly utilized to evaluate the small bowel (SB) in Crohn's disease (CD). The primary aims were to compare the ability of WCE and MRE to detect SB inflammation in children with newly diagnosed CD, and in the terminal ileum (TI) to compare them to ileo-colonoscopy. Secondary aims were to compare diagnostic accuracy of WCE and MRE and changes in Paris classification after each study. Methods: Patients (10 to 17 years of age) requiring ileo-colonoscopy for suspected CD were invited to participate...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Roberto Trasolini, Estello Nap-Hill, Matthew Suzuki, Cherry Galorport, Jordan Yonge, Jack Amar, Brian Bressler, Hin Hin Ko, Eric C S Lam, Alnoor Ramji, Gregory Rosenfeld, Jennifer J Telford, Scott Whittaker, Robert A Enns
Background: Nonpharmacologic factors, including patient education, affect bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Optimal cleansing increases quality and reduces repeat procedures. This study prospectively analyzes use of an individualized online patient education module in place of traditional patient education. Aims: To determine the effectiveness of online education for patients, measured by the proportion achieving sufficient bowel preparation. Secondary measures include assessment of patient satisfaction...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Noor Jawaid, Thurarshen Jeyalingam, Geoffrey Nguyen, Natasha Bollegala
Background: The optimal form of health care delivery for paediatric to adult inflammatory bowel disease transition of care is unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to establish current standard of care across Canada among adult gastroenterologists. Methods: Adult gastroenterologists interested in transition care were identified. Twenty-five anonymous surveys and 17 semistructured interviews representing 9 adult gastroenterology centers across 6 provinces were completed...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Elham Rahme, Hacene Nedjar, Waqqas Afif
Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with major health services utilization and costs. Between 2012 and 2015, ustekinumab was used off-label in Quebec, Canada for treatment of refractory CD. Aims: We assessed the direct medical cost of adult CD patients in the 1-year pre- and 1-year postustekinumab initiation. Methods: Data were obtained from the provincial administrative databases. CD patients dispensed subcutaneous ustekinumab in 2012 to 2014 were followed for 1 year from the date of initiation (index-date)...
December 2020: Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
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