Hayato Idei, Shingo Murata, Yuichi Yamashita, Tetsuya Ogata
Neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by heterogeneous and non-specific nature of their clinical symptoms. In particular, hyper- and hypo-reactivity to sensory stimuli are diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorder and are reported across many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, computational mechanisms underlying the unusual paradoxical behaviors remain unclear. In this study, using a robot controlled by a hierarchical recurrent neural network model with predictive processing and learning mechanism, we simulated how functional disconnection altered the learning process and subsequent behavioral reactivity to environmental change...
February 12, 2021: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Charles H Bombardier, Robert W Motl, Ralph H B Benedict, Nancy Temkin, Peiqing Qian, Katharine Alexander, Annabeth Evans, Andrea Thomas, Kristin Toms, Cathea M Carey, George H Kraft
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment in approximately 50% of cases. Disease modifying medications and cognitive rehabilitation produce only small positive effects on cognition in MS. Converging animal and human research suggests that aerobic exercise may improve cognition in people with MS, but definitive trials are lacking. We describe the design of the GET Smart study, a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of aerobic exercise versus stretching and toning on cognition in MS...
February 27, 2021: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Shuang Pan, Juan Peng, Zhiqun Lin
The ability to rapidly and deliberately pattern nanomaterials of interest over a large area provides an effective route for device manufacturing. Herein, we report the meniscus-assisted self-assembly (MASA)-enabled rapid positioning of hierarchically assembled dots and stripes composed of luminescent conjugated polymer over two length scales. Specifically, periodically arranged conjugated polymer (poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorenes); PFOs) dots, punch-holes and stripes are yielded at microscopic scale via MASA in conjunction with concurrent self-assembly of PFOs into two-dimensional lenticular crystals within each dot, punch-hole and stripe at nanoscopic scale...
March 1, 2021: Angewandte Chemie
Patcharanun Chaiamornsup, Naohiko Iwasaki, Yumi Tsuchida, Hidekazu Takahashi
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The lost-wax technique is commonly used for fabricating partial fixed dental prostheses. The casting patterns can be fabricated by using vat photopolymerization (a type of additive manufacturing), but the adaptation of these casting patterns has not been elucidated. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of build orientation on the adaptation of casting patterns fabricated by digital light projection (DLP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 3-unit partial fixed dental prosthesis with mandibular left second premolar and second molar abutment teeth was scanned and virtually designed with a computer-aided design software program...
February 26, 2021: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Elise Bizouerne, Julia Buitink, Benoît Ly Vu, Joseph Ly Vu, Eddi Esteban, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Jérôme Verdier, Olivier Leprince
BACKGROUND: During maturation seeds acquire several physiological traits to enable them to survive drying and disseminate the species. Few studies have addressed the regulatory networks controlling acquisition of these traits at the tissue level particularly in endospermic seeds such as tomato, which matures in a fully hydrated environment and does not undergo maturation drying. Using temporal RNA-seq analyses of the different seed tissues during maturation, gene network and trait-based correlations were used to explore the transcriptome signatures associated with desiccation tolerance, longevity, germination under water stress and dormancy...
March 1, 2021: BMC Plant Biology
Giovanni Renzone, Gianfranco Novi, Andrea Scaloni, Simona Arena
Environmental conditions and timing of egg storage highly affect raw material quality. Aging and endogenous processing of constituent proteins can determine important changes in specific functions and technological properties of inner egg compartments. We here used integrated peptidomic procedures to identify peptide markers of egg freshness. At first, peptides extracted from egg white and yolk plasma taken from eggs stored for different times were subjected to a label-free untargeted quantitation procedure based on nanoLC-ESI-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS, which identified 836 and 1974 unique variable molecules, respectively...
February 2021: Food Research International
K Knemeyer, R Baumgarten, P Ingale, R Naumann d'Alnoncourt, M Driess, F Rosowski
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an industrially applied technique for thin film deposition. The vast majority of processes target flat substrates rather than powders. For ALD on powders, new processes are needed, as different reaction conditions are required. Here, two setups are described in detail, which enhance the ALD process development for powders. The first setup described is capable of directly measuring the vapor pressure of a given precursor by a capacitance diaphragm gauge. Promising precursors can be pre-selected, and suitable precursor saturation temperatures can be determined...
February 1, 2021: Review of Scientific Instruments
Hao Chi, Wenpei Hao, Xia Qi, Ting Zhang, Yanling Dong, Hua Gao, Chao Wei, Weiyun Shi
Mooren's ulcer (MU) is a refractory autoimmune corneal ulcer with a high recurrence rate. So far, its molecular profiles and pathomechanisms remain largely unknown. Therefore, we aim to characterize the protein profiles of MU specimens by data-independent-acquisition (DIA) mass spectrometry (MS), and to define the functions of differentially-expressed proteins (DEPs). Through LC-MS/MS, 550 DEPs were identified between MU biopsies and age-matched controls (Ctrl). KEGG analysis revealed that the significantly enriched pathways of the up-regulated proteins mainly covered lysosomes, antigen processing and presentation, and phagosomes...
February 26, 2021: Experimental Eye Research
Amir Yarahmadi, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed Modaghegh, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour, Negar Azarpira, Alireza Mousavian, Shokoufeh Bonakdaran, Lida Jarahi, Alireza Samadi, Meghdad Peimani, Daryoush Hamidi Alamdari
OBJECTIVE: The current study assesses the effects of platelet-rich plasma-fibrin glue (PRP-FG) dressing along with oral vitamin E and C on wound healing and biochemical markers in patients with non-healing diabetic foot ulcers (non-healing DFU). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on twenty-five patients with non-healing DFU. Patients were treated with PRP-FG dressing plus oral vitamin E and C (intervention group) or PRP-FG dressing plus placebo (control group) for eight weeks...
March 1, 2021: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Anna Egorova, Mary Jackson, Victor Gavrilyuk, Vadim Makarov
The Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a group of emerging pathogens that are difficult to treat. There are no effective drugs for successful M. abscessus pulmonary infection therapy, and existing drug regimens recommended by the British or the American Thoracic Societies are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, novel antibacterial drugs are urgently needed to contain this global threat. The current anti-M. abscessus small-molecule drug development process can be enhanced by two parallel strategies-discovery of compounds from new chemical classes and commercial drug repurposing...
March 1, 2021: Medicinal Research Reviews
Pamela Alves Castilho, Lívia Bracht, Lillian Barros, Bianca R Albuquerque, Maria Inês Dias, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Tamires Barlati Vieira da Silva, Rosane Marina Peralta, Anacharis Babeto de Sá-Nakanishi, Adelar Bracht
The purpose of this study was to perform a parallel and comparative investigation of the effects of a Myrciaria jaboticaba (common name jabuticaba) peel extract and of its constituent cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on the overall process of starch and triglyceride intestinal absorption. The peel extract inhibited both the porcine pancreactic α-amylase and the pancreatic lipase but was 13.6 times more potent on the latter (IC50 values of 1963 and 143.9 μg mL-1, respectively). Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside did not contribute significantly to these inhibitions...
March 1, 2021: Food & Function
Mark A Rutherford, Henrique von Gersdorff, Juan D Goutman
Ribbon-class synapses in the ear achieve analog to digital transformation of a continuously graded membrane potential to all-or-none spikes. In mammals, several auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) carry information from each inner hair cell (IHC) to the brain in parallel. Heterogeneity of transmission among synapses contributes to the diversity of ANF sound-response properties. In addition to the place code for sound frequency and the rate code for sound level, there is also a temporal code. In series with cochlear amplification and frequency tuning, neural representation of temporal cues over a broad range of sound levels enables auditory comprehension in noisy multi-speaker settings...
February 28, 2021: Journal of Physiology
Jake Reed, Laura A Kirkman, Björn F Kafsack, Christopher E Mason, Kirk W Deitsch
Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Recent work has implicated chromosome end stability and the repair of DNA breaks through telomere healing as potent drivers of variant antigen diversification, thus associating basic mechanisms for maintaining genome integrity with aspects of host-parasite interactions. Here we applied long-read sequencing technology to precisely examine the dynamics of telomere addition and chromosome end stabilization in response to double-strand breaks within subtelomeric regions...
February 19, 2021: IScience
Iván Sciscenko, Hoàng Thị Mỹ Hắng, Carlos Escudero-Oñate, Isabel Oller, Antonio Arques
In this work, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), in combination with the chemometric tool and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), have been proposed as an unexplored methodology to follow the removal of the fluorescent contaminants of emerging concern, fluoroquinolones (FQs). Ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin were degraded by different advanced oxidation processes employing simulated sunlight ( h ν): photolysis, H2 O2 / h ν, and photo-Fenton. All experiments were performed in ultrapure water at three different pH values: 2...
February 23, 2021: ACS Omega
Jing-Xian Wang, Jun-Ichiro Hayashi, Shusaku Asano, Shinji Kudo
The present study investigated oxidation of pulverized Japanese cedar with O2 in hot-compressed alkaline water, employing a newly developed flow-through fixed-bed reactor (percolator). It allowed us to determine the rate of the primary extraction that was free from the secondary reactions of extract in the aqueous phase and those over the residual solid, solubility of extractable matter, and mass transport processes. Quantitative kinetic analysis revealed that the cedar consisted of three kinetic components (C1-C3) that underwent extraction in parallel following first-order kinetics with different rate constants...
February 16, 2021: ACS Omega
Javier Cabau-Laporta, Alex M Ascensión, Mikel Arrospide-Elgarresta, Daniela Gerovska, Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo
High-throughput cell-data technologies such as single-cell RNA-seq create a demand for algorithms for automatic cell classification and characterization. There exist several cell classification ontologies with complementary information. However, one needs to merge them to synergistically combine their information. The main difficulty in merging is to match the ontologies since they use different naming conventions. Therefore, we developed an algorithm that merges ontologies by integrating the name matching between class label names with the structure mapping between the ontology elements based on graph convolution...
2021: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Rodrigo M Burgos, Melissa E Badowski, Emily Drwiega, Samaneh Ghassemi, Nikki Griffith, Fischer Herald, Mikayla Johnson, Renata O Smith, Sarah M Michienzi
The unprecedented toll of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), jumpstarted the race towards the development and distribution of effective treatment and prevention options. With an urgent need to slow viral transmission, lessen disease severity, and reduce mortality, biopharmaceutical companies rapidly began investigating potential COVID-19 vaccinations. While typical vaccine development can take upwards of 10-15 years, COVID-19 vaccines were developed in less than a year after the identification of COVID-19...
2021: Drugs in Context
Mohsen Gavahian, Chaitanya Sarangapani, N N Misra
Pesticide and agrochemical residues in food and water are among hazardous chemicals that are associated with adverse health effects. Consequently, technologies for pesticide abatement in food and water remain in focus. Cold plasma is an emerging decontamination technology, that is being increasingly explored for the abatement of agrochemical and pesticide residue in food and water. In some cases, rapid and complete degradation of pesticide residues has come to light. Such promising results encourage exploring scale-up and commercialization...
March 2021: Food Research International
Andreas Maercker
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) was proposed several decades ago by scientist-practitioners, almost parallel to the first description of the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the previous International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10) issued by the World Health Organization (WHO), this symptom constellation was termed 'enduring personality change after catastrophic experience'. This diagnosis has not been clinically influential, nor has it been subjected to much research...
March 1, 2021: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Weiwei Guo, Tianqi Li, Qianru Chen, Junfeng Wan, Jie Zhang, Bo Wu, Yan Wang
The UV lights of different wavelengths were performed in boosting hydroxyl radicals (OH) generation from traditional Fenton reagent for the gaseous toluene removal. The Fenton, UV254 /Fenton and UV365 /Fenton processes were first adopted to eliminate gaseous toluene through the bubble column reactor, respectively. The stable toluene removal efficiency in 60 min was 85.31% in the UV365 /Fenton process, which was higher than other processes. The gaseous toluene was mainly oxidized into CO2 rather than other gaseous intermediates in the UV365 /Fenton process...
February 18, 2021: Chemosphere
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