Liana Fattore, Matteo Marti, Rafaela Mostallino, Maria Paola Castelli
Sex and gender deeply affect the subjective effects and pharmaco-toxicological responses to drugs. Men are more likely than women to use almost all types of illicit drugs and to present to emergency departments for serious or fatal intoxications. However, women are just as likely as men to develop substance use disorders, and may be more susceptible to craving and relapse. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown important differences between males and females after administration of "classic" drugs of abuse (e...
September 3, 2020: Brain Sciences
Celalettin Dagli, Ipek Duman
BACKGROUND: Deaths caused by recreational drug abuse have increased considerably in recent years. Therapeutic hypothermia offers the potential to improve neurological outcomes in post-resuscitation patients. CASE REPORT: A 19-year-old man was brought to our emergency department after suffering out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest. He was resuscitated at our emergency department again due to VF. Urine analysis showed high levels of amphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (ecstasy)...
July 22, 2020: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
OBJECTIVE: The assessment of clinical efficacy and toxicity is very important in pharmacology and toxicology. The effects of psychostimulants (e.g. amphetamine), psychotomimetics (e.g. Cannabis sativus) and snake antivenoms are sometimes unpredictable even at lower doses, leading to serious intoxication and fatal consequences. Hence, there is need to re-assess some formulas for calculation of therapeutic index, lethal time and safety margin with a view to identifying therapeutic agents with remarkable toxicity potentials...
June 16, 2020: BMC Research Notes
Ilchung Shin, Hyeyoung Choi, Seojin Kang, Jihyun Kim, Yuran Park, Wonkyung Yang
Selegiline is a selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, used for reducing symptoms in early-stage Parkinson's disease. The metabolites of selegiline include l-methamphetamine, l-amphetamine, and desmethylselegiline. The stereoisomers of selegiline metabolites, d-methamphetamine and d-amphetamine, are highly addictive psychostimulants and some of the most abused drugs in South Korea. In order to differentiate medical selegiline users form illicit methamphetamine abusers, it is important to distinguish between the l-isomers and d-isomers in urine samples...
May 30, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Ana Margarida Araújo, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Márcia Carvalho
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one of the most popular cathinone derivatives worldwide and has recently been associated with several intoxications and deaths, in which, similarly to amphetamines, hyperthermia appears to play a prominent role. However, there remains a huge information gap underlying the mechanisms associated with its hepatotoxicity, namely under hyperthermic conditions. Here, we use a sensitive untargeted metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the effect of subtoxic and toxic concentrations of MDPV on the metabolic profile of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH), under normothermic and hyperthermic conditions...
May 26, 2020: Toxicology
E C Klipsch, T Hathaway, R S Mangus
PURPOSE: In the field of lung transplantation, there is a high wait list mortality. Broader use of extended criteria donors would provide additional organs for transplantation. An increasing number of organ donors are dying from drug overdose. These donors are often considered "high risk" because of their exposure to infectious diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis B and C. However, these organ donors are often younger and healthier than those that die from stroke or cardiac arrest...
April 2020: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Ana Carolina Faria, Helena Carmo, Félix Carvalho, João Pedro Silva, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Diana Dias da Silva
Synthetic phenethylamines are widely abused drugs, comprising new psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones, but also well-known amphetamines such as methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy). Cathinones and amphetamines share many toxicodynamic mechanisms. One of their potentially life-threatening consequences, particularly of MDMA, is serotonin-mediated hyponatraemia. Herein, we review the state of the art on phenethylamine-induced hyponatremia; discuss the mechanisms involved; and present the preventive and therapeutic measures...
April 29, 2020: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
David Fabregat-Safont, Marie Mardal, Juan V Sancho, Félix Hernández, Kristian Linnet, María Ibáñez
Synthetic cathinones are new psychoactive substances that represent a health risk worldwide. For most of the 130 reported compounds, information about toxicology and/or metabolism is not available, which hampers their detection (and subsequent medical treatment) in intoxication cases. The principles of forensic analytical chemistry and the use of powerful analytical techniques are indispensable for stablishing the most appropriate biomarkers for these substances. Human metabolic fate of synthetic cathinones can be assessed by the analysis of urine and blood obtained from authentic consumers; however, this type of samples is limited and difficult to access...
April 2020: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Amvrosios Orfanidis, Helen Gika, Georgios Theodoridis, Orthodoxia Mastrogianni, Nikolaos Raikos
The analysis of blood samples for forensic or clinical intoxication cases is a daily routine in an analytical laboratory. The list of "suspect" drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals that should be ideally screened is large, so multi-targeted methods for comprehensive detection and quantification is a useful tool in the hands of a toxicologist. In this study the development of an UHPLC-MS-MS method is described for the detection and quantification of 84 drugs and pharmaceuticals in postmortem blood. The target compounds comprise pharmaceutical drugs (antipsychotics, antidepressants etc...
May 5, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
André L Castro, Sónia Tarelho, Dina Almeida, Lara Sousa, João Miguel Franco, Helena M Teixeira
Amphetamine and its derivatives' consumption is still an important public health issue, namely in terms of compounds variability and disposition to consumers. However, some of them, like MDMA, still live in the illicit market, with continuous success. Nevertheless, there is always new information and data on MDMA intoxication, both in vivo and in postmortem context. The authors report an intoxication case with MDMA, in an 18 year old male, considered a potential organ donor after a cardiac arrest. Whole blood samples were collected in vivo, at the Emergency Room (ER), and postmortem, at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences...
May 5, 2020: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Guido Pelletti, Francesca Rossi, Marco Garagnani, Rossella Barone, Raffaella Roffi, Paolo Fais, Susi Pelotti
INTRODUCTION: Immunoassay (IA) tests are not widely applied in post-mortem samples, since they are based on technologies requiring relatively non-viscous specimens, and compounds originating from the degradation of proteins and lipids during the post-mortem interval can alter the efficiency of the test. However, since the extraction techniques for IA tests are normally rapid and low-cost, IA could be used as near-body drug-screening for the classes of drugs most commonly found in Italy and Europe...
April 18, 2020: Forensic Science International
Dino Luethi, Matthias E Liechti
Psychoactive substances with chemical structures or pharmacological profiles that are similar to traditional drugs of abuse continue to emerge on the recreational drug market. Internet vendors may at least temporarily sell these so-called designer drugs without adhering to legal statutes or facing legal consequences. Overall, the mechanism of action and adverse effects of designer drugs are similar to traditional drugs of abuse. Stimulants, such as amphetamines and cathinones, primarily interact with monoamine transporters and mostly induce sympathomimetic adverse effects...
April 6, 2020: Archives of Toxicology
Ana Sousa, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Modafinil is a nonamphetamine nootropic drug with an increasingly therapeutic interest due to its different sites of action and behavioral effects in comparison to cocaine or amphetamine. A review of modafinil (and of its prodrug adrafinil and its R -enantiomer armodafinil) chemical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, toxicological, clinical and forensic aspects was performed, aiming to better understand possible health problems associated to its unconscious and unruled use. Modafinil is a racemate metabolized mainly in the liver into its inactive acid and sulfone metabolites, which undergo primarily renal excretion...
2020: Substance Abuse
I A Larabi, N Fabresse, I Etting, L Nadour, G Pfau, J H Raphalen, P Philippe, Y Edel, J C Alvarez
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to describe the prevalence of NPS and conventional DOA in Paris and its suburbs over a six-year period using hair testing approach. METHOD: Hair was sampled in patients admitted to different departments of Paris hospitals between 2012 and 2017. Two high-risk populations were mainly considered: 1) drug-dependent and 2) acutely intoxicated patients. Segmental hair analysis was performed by validated LC-MS/MS method to screen for DOA and 83 NPS...
August 30, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Concepción Moll Tudurí, Emilio José Salgado García, Daniel Santana Moreno, Ona Escoda Turón, Rosa Escoda Turón, Santiago Nogué Xarau
OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology of emergency department visits for transient global amnesia (TGA) by itself or associated with substance abuse or sexual assault. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of cases treated from January to December 2018. Data for all patients with TGA were extracted, and cases were classified as associated with substance abuse (TGASUB), sexual assault (TGASEX), or neither (TGAONLY). RESULTS: A total of 287 TGA cases were found: 169 (58...
October 2019: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Carol B Cunradi, Juliet Lee, Anna Pagano, Raul Caetano, Harrison J Alter
Background: Urban emergency department (ED) patients have elevated smoking and substance use compared with the general population. We analyzed gender differences in smoking among an urban ED sample and assessed the contribution of substance use, demographic, and couple factors. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional, observational survey (N = 1037 participants) on drinking, drug use, and intimate partner violence (IPV)...
2019: Tobacco Use Insights
Sabrina Lehmann, Alissa Sczyslo, Judith Froch-Cortis, Markus Alexander Rothschild, Mario Thevis, Hilke Andresen-Streichert, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
The organ distribution of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), pyrazolam, diclazepam as well as its main metabolites delorazepam, lormetazepam and lorazepam, was investigated. A solid phase extraction (SPE) and a QuEChERS (acronym for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) - approach were used for the extraction of the analytes from human tissues, body fluids and stomach contents. The detection was performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system (LCMS/MS). The analytes of interest were detected in all body fluids and tissues...
September 12, 2019: Forensic Science International
Jorge Soares, Vera Marisa Costa, Helena Gaspar, Susana Santos, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, João Paulo Capela
Synthetic cathinones also known as β-keto amphetamines are a new group of recreational designer drugs. We aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of thirteen cathinones lacking the methylenedioxy ring and establish a putative structure-toxicity profile using differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, as well as to compare their toxicity to that of amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH). Cytotoxicity assays [mitochondrial 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lysosomal neutral red (NR) uptake] performed after a 24-h or a 48-h exposure revealed for all tested drugs a concentration-dependent toxicity...
December 2019: Neurotoxicology
Elisa N Shoff, Joseph H Kahl, George W Hime, Marta Coburn, Diane M Boland
The (±)-threo-4-fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) is a fluorinated analog of the prescription central nervous system stimulant medication, methylphenidate. This novel psychoactive substance was first detected in drug paraphernalia at the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department Toxicology Laboratory in 2016 but was not detected in a biological specimen until 2018. Limited literature is available on 4F-MPH, with predominate literature being published out of Europe, and no known toxicities reported in the USA...
September 10, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Katarzyna Palus, Krystyna Makowska, Jarosław Całka
In recent years, a significant increase in the consumption of products containing large amounts of acrylamide (e.g., chips, fries, coffee), especially among young people has been noted. The present study was created to establish the impact of acrylamide supplementation, in tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose and a dose ten times higher than TDI, on the population of galanin-like immunoreactive (GAL-LI) stomach neurons in pigs. Additionally, in the present study, the possible functional co-operation of GAL with other neuroactive substances and their role in acrylamide intoxication was investigated...
July 8, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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