Abhinav Talwar, Gabriel Knight, Ali Al Asadi, Pouya Entezari, Richard Chen, Scott Resnick, Sri Komanduri, Ahmed Gabr, Bartley Thornburg, Riad Salem, Ahsun Riaz
PURPOSE: Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms (PSA) are relatively rare but associated with high mortality/morbidity when presenting acutely. Embolization has emerged as the treatment of choice. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of embolization for the treatment of splenic artery PSAs. METHODS: From 2007 to 2019, all patients that underwent embolization for splenic artery PSAs were included in this IRB-approved review. Evaluated outcomes included complications, morbidity/mortality rates, and 30-day white blood cell count...
July 26, 2021: Clinical Imaging
Eri Munekage, Satoshi Serada, Shigehiro Tsujii, Keiichiro Yokota, Keita Kiuchi, Kenji Tominaga, Minoru Fujimoto, Mizuki Kanda, Sunao Uemura, Tsutomu Namikawa, Taisei Nomura, Ichiro Murakami, Kazuhiro Hanazaki, Tetsuji Naka
An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a promising therapeutic modality because selective and effective delivery of an anti-cancer drug is achieved by drug-conjugated antibody-targeting cancer antigen. Glypican 1 (GPC1) is highly expressed in malignant tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Herein, we describe the usefulness of GPC1-targeting ADC. Humanized anti-GPC1 antibody (clone T2) was developed and conjugated with monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) via maleimidocaproyl-valine-citrulline-p-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl (mc-vc-PABC) linkers (humanized GPC1-ADC[MMAE])...
July 28, 2021: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Junzong Chen, Miaojuan Qiu, Shiqiang Zhang, Binbin Li, Dong Li, Xiuyu Huang, Zhirong Qian, Jing Zhao, Zhiyong Wang, Di Tang
Calcium based biomaterials were widely used for drug delivery application due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and high drug loading capacity. Herein, amino-capped polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was applied as a macromolecular template to form amino-modified calcium phosphate hollow sphere (CaPO-NH2 ). After loading with 5-fluorouracil (5Fu), this system performed synergistic cancer chemotherapy. In this study, the 5Fu/CaPO-NH2 particles could be efficiently uptaken by cancer cells, and then decompose into Ca2+ and release 5Fu drug in the cytoplasm; therefore calcium overload and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were found in PSN1 cells that could induce cell membrane damage and elicit cell apoptosis through a series of biochemical reactions including endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial apoptosis...
July 20, 2021: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xiaoxiao Zhu, Fei Bian, Yuchen Zhao, Yanyan Qin, Xiang Sun, Lanlan Zhou
AIMS: To assess the protective effects of combined treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and adenovirus mediated mouse insulin-like growth factor 1 (Adv-mIGF-1) gene on type 1 diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice at early stage. METHODS: To simultaneously restore the proportion of Th cells and block the interaction of B cells, NOD model mice were assigned to four groups which received PBS, Adv-mIGF-1 gene and anti-CD20 mAbs alone or combination, respectively...
July 28, 2021: Life Sciences
Jinshou Yang, Ruiyuan Xu, Chengcheng Wang, Jiangdong Qiu, Bo Ren, Lei You
Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant digestive system tumor with a poor prognosis. Most pancreatic cancer patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage or even metastasis due to its highly aggressive characteristics and lack of typical early symptoms. Thus, an early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is crucial for improving its prognosis. Currently, screening is often applied in high-risk individuals to achieve the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Fully understanding the risk factors of pancreatic cancer and pathogenesis could help us identify the high-risk population and achieve early diagnosis and timely treatment of pancreatic cancer...
July 31, 2021: Cancer Communications
Ferhat Bacaksız, Berat Ebik, Nazım Ekin, Jihat Kılıc
OBJECT: We aimed to evaluate the elevation of amylase and lipase enzymes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and their relationship with the severity of COVID-19. METHOD: In this study, 1378 patients with COVID-19 infection were included. Relation of elevated amylase and lipase levels and comorbidities with the severity of COVID-19 was analyzed. The effects of hemodynamic parameters and organ failure on pancreatic enzymes and their relations with prognosis were statistically analyzed...
July 31, 2021: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Stefano Crippa, Giulio Belfiori, Domenico Tamburrino, Stefano Partelli, Massimo Falconi
The extension of a partial pancreatectomy up to total pancreatectomy because of positive neck margin examined at intraoperative frozen section (IFS) analysis is an accepted procedure in modern pancreatic surgery with good accuracy. The goal of this practice is to improve the rate of radical (R0) resection in malignant tumors, mainly pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to completely resect pre-invasive neoplasms such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). In the setting of IPMNs there is a consensus for pancreatic re-resection when high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer are present at the neck margin...
July 31, 2021: Updates in Surgery
Itaru Naitoh, Takahiro Nakazawa
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is used to evaluate the narrowing of the main pancreatic duct in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and biliary stricture in IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). Intraductal ultrasonography enables detailed visualization of the thickening of the bile duct wall in IgG4-SC. Pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and primary sclerosing cholangitis are important mimicking conditions of AIP and IgG4-SC. Diffuse or segmental stricture without marked upstream dilatation is a typical pancreatographic finding in AIP...
July 31, 2021: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Hyun Kyung Yang, Mi-Suk Park, Miyoung Choi, Jaeseung Shin, Seung Soo Lee, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Shin Hye Hwang, Sang Hyun Choi
PURPOSE: To assess the CT diagnostic performance for evaluating resectability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after neoadjuvant therapy and identify the factor(s) that affect(s) diagnostic performance. METHODS: Databases were searched to identify studies published from January 1, 2000, to November 5, 2019 that evaluated the CT diagnostic performance for assessing resectability of post-neoadjuvant PDAC. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the study quality...
July 31, 2021: Abdominal Radiology
Ji Young Bang, C Mel Wilcox, Juan Pablo Arnoletti, Shajan Peter, John Christein, Udayakumar Navaneethan, Robert Hawes, Shyam Varadarajulu
OBJECTIVES: Although lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) are being increasingly used in lieu of plastic stents, clinical approach to endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) is poorly standardized. We compared outcomes of approaches over two time intervals, initially using plastic stents and later integrating LAMS. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, before-after study of prospectively collected data on consecutive patients with symptomatic PFCs managed over two time periods...
July 31, 2021: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Masahiro Tanabe, Hideko Onoda, Mayumi Higashi, Ryoko Morooka, Kenichiro Ihara, Masaya Tanabe, Miwa Matsukuma, Etsushi Iida, Matakazu Furukawa, Katsuyoshi Ito
BACKGROUND: To resolve drawbacks of navigator triggering (NT) three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), several approaches were proposed to obtain 3D MRCP within a single breath-hold (BH). However, reduced field-of-view technique in the phase-encoding direction combined with two-dimensional spatially selective radiofrequency excitation pulses has not yet been applied to 3D BH MRCP. PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and the complementary value of 3D BH zoomed MRCP to conventional 3D NT MRCP in patients with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) of the pancreas...
July 31, 2021: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Piotr Zelga, Jonathan Rees, Edoardo Iaculli, Colin Johnson, Asif Jah
AIM: A minimally invasive retroperitoneal pancreatic necrosectomy (MIRPN) decreases morbidity and mortality from necrotizing acute pancreatitis. However, the impact of MIRPN on patient reported outcomes (PRO) was not investigated yet. METHODS: Patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent MIRPN between January 2010 and December 2016 were identified and invited to participate completing the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC PAN-28(CP) questionnaires. PROs were compared using Pearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA (significance p < 0...
July 30, 2021: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Li Li, Yun Sun, Yinong Zhang, Weixi Wang, Cuifang Ye
Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) have an increased incidence of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction have not been entirely clarified. Revealing the pathogenesis of diabetes can provide a novel understanding of the onset and progression of HD, as well as potential clues for the development of new therapeutics. Here, we demonstrated that the mouse pancreatic insulinoma cell line NIT-1 expressing N-terminal mutant huntingtin (mHTT) containing 160 polyglutamine (160Q cells) displayed lower cell proliferative ability than the cells expressing N-terminal wild-type HTT containing 20 polyglutamine (20Q cells)...
July 31, 2021: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Xin Chen, Herbert J Zeh, Rui Kang, Guido Kroemer, Daolin Tang
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating gastrointestinal cancer characterized by late diagnosis, limited treatment success and dismal prognosis. Exocrine tumours account for 95% of pancreatic cancers and the most common pathological type is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The occurrence and progression of PDAC involve multiple factors, including internal genetic alterations and external inflammatory stimuli. The biology and therapeutic response of PDAC are further shaped by various forms of regulated cell death, such as apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis and alkaliptosis...
July 30, 2021: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Iram Fatima, Susmita Barman, JayaPrakash Uppada, Shailender Chauhan, Sanchita Rauth, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Moorthy Palanimuthu Ponnusamy, Lynette Smith, Geoffrey Talmon, Amar B Singh, Surinder K Batra, Punita Dhawan
Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths primarily due to its inherent potential of therapy resistance. Checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as promising anti-cancer agents when used in combination with conventional anti-cancer therapies. Recent studies have highlighted a critical role of the Greatwall kinase (microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinase-like (MASTL)) in promoting oncogenic malignancy and resistance to anti-cancer therapies; however, its role in PC remains unknown...
July 30, 2021: Oncogene
Virginia Giuliani, Meredith A Miller, Chiu-Yi Liu, Stella R Hartono, Caleb A Class, Christopher A Bristow, Erika Suzuki, Lionel A Sanz, Guang Gao, Jason P Gay, Ningping Feng, Johnathon L Rose, Hideo Tomihara, Joseph R Daniele, Michael D Peoples, Jennifer P Bardenhagen, Mary K Geck Do, Qing E Chang, Bhavatarini Vangamudi, Christopher Vellano, Haoqiang Ying, Angela K Deem, Kim-Anh Do, Giannicola Genovese, Joseph R Marszalek, Jeffrey J Kovacs, Michael Kim, Jason B Fleming, Ernesto Guccione, Andrea Viale, Anirban Maitra, M Emilia Di Francesco, Timothy A Yap, Philip Jones, Giulio Draetta, Alessandro Carugo, Frederic Chedin, Timothy P Heffernan
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer that has remained clinically challenging to manage. Here we employ an RNAi-based in vivo functional genomics platform to determine epigenetic vulnerabilities across a panel of patient-derived PDAC models. Through this, we identify protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) as a critical dependency required for PDAC maintenance. Genetic and pharmacological studies validate the role of PRMT1 in maintaining PDAC growth. Mechanistically, using proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, we demonstrate that global inhibition of asymmetric arginine methylation impairs RNA metabolism, which includes RNA splicing, alternative polyadenylation, and transcription termination...
July 30, 2021: Nature Communications
Jungsun Kim, Taelor Ekstrom, Wenli Yang, Greg Donahue, Dmytro Grygoryev, Thuy Ngo, John L Muschler, Terry Morgan, Kenneth S Zaret
Previous transcriptome studies of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) compare non-cancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) with late-stage PDAC obtained from different patients, thus have limited ability to discern network dynamics that contribute to the disease progression. We demonstrated previously that the 10-22 cell line, an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-like line reprogrammed from late-stage human PDAC cells, recapitulated the progression from PanNs to PDAC upon transplantation into NOD/LtSz-scid/IL2R-gammanull mice...
July 30, 2021: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Andrew L Wolfe, Qingwen Zhou, Eneda Toska, Jacqueline Galeas, Angel A Ku, Richard P Koche, Sourav Bandyopadhyay, Maurizio Scaltriti, Carlito B Lebrilla, Frank McCormick, Sung Eun Kim
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2), the enzyme that synthesizes uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose, rests at the convergence of multiple metabolic pathways, however, the role of UGP2 in tumor maintenance and cancer metabolism remains unclear. Here, we identify an important role for UGP2 in the maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) growth in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models. We found that transcription of UGP2 is directly regulated by the Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP)-TEA domain transcription factor (TEAD) complex, identifying UGP2 as a bona fide YAP target gene...
August 3, 2021: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matthew Harwood, Fiona E Craig, Ming Yang
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare malignancy with morphological and immunophenotypic features of histocytes. We present a case of histiocytic sarcoma with multisystem involvement, including an obstructing pancreatic head mass. F18-FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool in staging and assessment of response to therapy in this rare entity. Knowing the diverse metastatic pattern of HS will help avoid imaging pitfalls for the diagnosis after pathologic diagnosis is made.
July 30, 2021: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Sandrina Martens, Katarina Coolens, Mathias Van Bulck, Tatjana Arsenijevic, Joan Casamitjana, Angel Fernandez Ruiz, Abdessamad El Kaoutari, Jaime Martinez de Villareal, Hediel Madhloum, Farzad Esni, Yves Heremans, Gunter Leuckx, Harry Heimberg, Luc Bouwens, Patrick Jacquemin, Diedert Luc De Paep, Peter In't Veld, Nicky D'Haene, Christelle Bouchart, Nelson Dusetti, Jean-Luc Van Laethem, Wim Waelput, Pierre Lefesvre, Francisco X Real, Meritxell Rovira, Ilse Rooman
OBJECTIVE: The aggressive basal-like molecular subtype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) harbours a ΔNp63 (p40) gene expression signature reminiscent of a basal cell type. Distinct from other epithelia with basal tumours, ΔNp63+ basal cells reportedly do not exist in the normal pancreas. DESIGN: We evaluated ΔNp63 expression in human pancreas, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and PDAC. We further studied in depth the non-cancerous tissue and developed a three-dimensional (3D) imaging protocol (FLIP-IT, Fluorescence Light sheet microscopic Imaging of Paraffin-embedded or Intact Tissue) to study formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples at single cell resolution...
July 30, 2021: Gut
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