Pritee Taxak, Chithra Ram
Labyrinthitis most commonly results from an infectious and less commonly from an inflammatory process of the inner ear, but it can be associated with temporal bone trauma, hemorrhage, or tumor. This inflammation (regardless of the etiology) disrupts the transmission of sensory information from the ear to the brain. Labyrinthitis ossificans is the pathological ossification of the membranous labyrinthine spaces in response to an insult to the inner ear involving membranous labyrinth or the endosteum of the otic capsule...
May 2020: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Christopher Nabors, William H Frishman, Abhay Dhand, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Anila Kumar, Maryanne Pratt, Edward C Halperin
Phenomenon: Little is known about how participation in disaster relief impacts medical students. During the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, New York Medical College School of Medicine students witnessed the attacks and then became members of emergency treatment teams at St. Vincent's Hospital, the trauma center nearest to the World Trade Center. To date, only two reports describe how 9/11 influenced the lives of medical students. This study was designed to characterize the short- and long-term effects on NYMC students and to compare those effects between students assigned to St Vincent's Hospital and classmates assigned to rotations at facilities more remote from the attack site...
October 19, 2020: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Marta Rapado-Castro, Sarah Whittle, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Thompson, Barnaby Nelson, Eleni P Ganella, Ashleigh Lin, Renate L E P Reniers, Patrick D McGorry, Alison R Yung, Stephen J Wood, Cali F Bartholomeusz
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, has been associated with transition to psychosis in individuals at "ultra-high risk" (UHR). This study investigated whether the effects of various forms of childhood trauma on transition to psychosis are mediated by cortical thickness and surface area abnormalities. METHODS: This prospective study used data from 62 UHR individuals from a previous (PACE 400) cohort study. At follow-up, 24 individuals had transitioned to psychosis (UHR-T) and 38 individuals had not transitioned (UHR-NT)...
October 15, 2020: Schizophrenia Research
Lincoln M Tracy, Yvonne Singer, Rebecca Schrale, Jennifer Gong, Anne Darton, Fiona Wood, Rochelle Kurmis, Dale Edgar, Heather Cleland, Belinda J Gabbe
Introduction: The ageing global population presents a novel set of challenges for trauma systems. Less research has focused on the older adult population with burns and how they differ compared to younger patients. This study aimed to describe, and compare with younger peers, the number, causes and surgical management of older adults with burn injuries in Australia and New Zealand. Methods: The Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand was used to identify patients with burn injuries between 1 July 2009 and 31 December 2018...
January 2020: Scars, Burns & Healing
Tian Tian, Jia Li, Guiling Zhang, Jian Wang, Dong Liu, Changhua Wan, Jicheng Fang, Di Wu, Yiran Zhou, Wenzhen Zhu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may modulate the link between childhood trauma experience and psychopathology by altering trophic signaling on neuroplasticity. However, few multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) researches have investigated this gene-environment interaction on both structural and functional plasticity, thereby advancing knowledge about the etiology, prevention, and customized therapeutic directions of mental disease in individuals with childhood trauma experience...
October 11, 2020: Behavioural Brain Research
Yuko Otake, Teisi Tamming
Prior studies have traced sociality and temporality as significant features of African healing. However, association between the two has not been explicitly investigated. This paper explores how sociality and temporality are associated in local experiences of distress and healing among northern Rwandans. The ethnographic research, including in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions and participant observation, was conducted in 2015-2016, with 43 participants from the Musanze district who have suffered from not only the genocide but also post-genocide massacres...
October 12, 2020: Transcultural Psychiatry
Philipp Wolber, Sami Shabli, Andreas Anagiotos, Kathrin Moellenhoff, David Schwarz, Ruth Lang-Roth
BACKGROUND: Delayed complications after cochlear implant (CI) surgery can result in the need for revision surgery. Temporal bone computed tomography (tCT) is frequently used in the diagnostic work-up for these patients. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for the value of tCT in delayed complications after CI surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review including all patients with CI who were consecutively enrolled in our academic tertiary care centre and received a tCT due to delayed complications between January 2008 and December 2017...
October 13, 2020: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Philine Marchetta, Daria Savitska, Angelika Kübler, Giulia Asola, Marie Manthey, Dorit Möhrle, Thomas Schimmang, Lukas Rüttiger, Marlies Knipper, Wibke Singer
Age-related decoupling of auditory nerve fibers from hair cells (cochlear synaptopathy) has been linked to temporal processing deficits and impaired speech recognition performance. The link between both is elusive. We have previously demonstrated that cochlear synaptopathy, if centrally compensated through enhanced input/output function (neural gain), can prevent age-dependent temporal discrimination loss. It was also found that central neural gain after acoustic trauma was linked to hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
October 6, 2020: Brain Sciences
Davide Maraghelli, Maria Luisa Brandi, Marco Matucci Cerinic, Anna Julie Peired, Stefano Colagrande
The term edema-like marrow signal intensity (ELMSI) represents a general term describing an area of abnormal signal intensity at MRI. Its appearance includes absence of clear margins and the possibility of exceeding well-defined anatomical borders (for example, physeal scars). We can define "ELMSI with unknown cause" an entity where the characteristic MR appearance is associated with the absence of specific signs of an underlying condition. However, it is more often an important finding indicating the presence of an underlying disease, and we describe this case as "ELMSI with known cause...
October 7, 2020: Skeletal Radiology
Shawn Wen-Yang Lim, Evelyn Wong
BACKGROUND This report presents the case of a woman with no known coagulopathy, use of anticoagulants, or history of trauma who spontaneously developed an epidural hematoma of the spine. This is an uncommon condition, with the potential for missed diagnosis and potential harm to the patient. CASE REPORT The patient was an elderly woman with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Of note, she had recently recovered from COVID-19. Because the woman presented with right-sided weakness and pain in the back of her neck, the stroke team was activated...
October 8, 2020: American Journal of Case Reports
Samer Asmar, Letitia Bible, Mohamad Chehab, Andrew Tang, Muhammad Khurrum, Molly Douglas, Lourdes Castanon, Narong Kulvatunyou, Bellal Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic hemorrhage is potentially lethal despite homeostatic interventions such as pre-peritoneal packing (PP), resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), surgery, and/or angioembolization. REBOA may be used as an alternative/adjunct to PP for temporizing bleeding in patients with pelvic fractures. Our study aims to compare the outcomes of REBOA and/or PP, as temporizing measures, in blunt pelvic fracture patients. We hypothesize that REBOA is associated with worsened outcomes...
September 11, 2020: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Nathaniel G Harnett, Jennifer S Stevens, Negar Fani, Sanne J H van Rooij, Timothy D Ely, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Lauren Hudak, Alex O Rothbaum, Rebecca Hinrichs, Sterling J Winters, Tanja Jovanovic, Barbara O Rothbaum, Lisa D Nickerson, Kerry J Ressler
BACKGROUND: Although aspects of brain morphology have been associated with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), limited work has investigated multimodal patterns in brain morphology that are linked to acute posttraumatic stress severity. In the present study, we utilized multimodal magnetic resonance imaging to investigate if structural covariance networks (SCNs) assessed acutely following trauma were linked to acute posttraumatic stress severity. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were collected around 1 month after civilian trauma exposure in 78 participants...
August 7, 2020: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Yue Hu, Burcu Seker, Carina Exner, Junping Zhang, Nikolaus Plesnila, Susanne M Schwarzmaier
Vasogenic brain edema formation remains an important factor determining the fate of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). The spatial and temporal development of VBE, however, remain poorly understood due to the lack of sufficiently sensitive measurement techniques. To close this knowledge gap, we directly visualized the full time course of vascular leakage following TBI by in vivo 2-photon microscopy (2-PM). Male C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group, 6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to sham-operation or brain trauma by Controlled Cortical Impact...
October 3, 2020: Journal of Neurotrauma
John Breeze, William G Gensheimer, Joseph J DuBose
INTRODUCTION: Military trauma registries can identify broad epidemiological trends from neck wounds but cannot reliably demonstrate temporal casualty from clinical interventions or differentiate penetrating neck injuries (PNI) from those that do not breach platysma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All casualties presenting with a neck wound to a Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility in Afghanistan between January 1, 2016 and September 15, 2019 were retrospectively identified using the Emergency Room database...
October 3, 2020: Military Medicine
Jie Hu, Zhi-Feng Zheng, Shu-Hang Wang, Dong-Lei Si, Ya-Qin Yuan, Bu-Lang Gao
OBJECTIVE: To analyze missed rib fractures and proper time for evaluation on CT at different ages and to determine factors that favor missed fractures. METHODS: One hundred patients with rib fractures who underwent CT were classified into three groups according to their age: young, middle-aged, and elderly. CT was performed within 1 to 6 weeks after trauma. The imaging features and temporal changes of rib fractures were analyzed. RESULTS: At the first CT during the initial week, 638 ribs were detected with one or several fractures, overall 838 fractures were confirmed, and 6 were suspected...
September 30, 2020: European Radiology
Geraldine Gvozdanovic, Erich Seifritz, Philipp Stämpfli, Antonietta Canna, Björn Rasch, Fabrizio Esposito
Traumatic events can produce emotional, cognitive and autonomous physical responses. This may ultimately lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a psychiatric syndrome which requires comprehensive treatment. Trauma exposure alters functional connectivity; however, onset and nature of these changes are unknown. Here, we explore functional connectivity changes at rest directly after experimental trauma exposure. Seventy-three healthy subjects watched either a trauma or a control film. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted before and directly after the film...
September 28, 2020: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Praveen Kumar Gupta, Mohammad Arif, Likhita Shaik, Romil Singh, Kaushal Shah
Epidural hematoma is a life-threatening complication of head injury, which often occurs as a result of blunt trauma to the skull. Unregulated hematoma expansion in any setting results in elevated intracranial pressure and may contribute to the compression of the oculomotor nerve among several other adversities culminating in various long-lasting complications in the future. In this case report, we present the findings of a rare, insightful case of a 47-year-old Southeast Asian male with no established prior medical history apart from being a victim of blunt trauma attributable to a fall four days before presenting to the emergency department with abrupt onset of diplopia and drooping of the left eyelid...
August 24, 2020: Curēus
Laurie Lovett Novak, Christopher L Simpson, Joseph Coco, Candace D McNaughton, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Sean M Bloos, Daniel Fabbri
BACKGROUND: Current methods of communication between the point of injury and receiving medical facilities rely on verbal communication, supported by brief notes and the memory of the field medic. This communication can be made more complete and reliable with technologies that automatically document the actions of field medics. However, designing state-of-the-art technology for military field personnel and civilian first responders is challenging due to the barriers researchers face in accessing the environment and understanding situated actions and cognitive models employed in the field...
September 25, 2020: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Konstantin Paliienko, Artem Pastukhov, Michal Babič, Daniel Horák, Olga Vasylchenko, Tatiana Borisova
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and excessive extracellular glutamate concentration is a characteristic feature of stroke, brain trauma, and epilepsy. Also, glutamate is a potential tumor growth factor. Using radiolabeled ʟ-[14 C]glutamate and magnetic fields, we developed an approach for monitoring the biomolecular coating (biocoating) with glutamate of the surface of maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles decreased the initial rate of ʟ-[14 C]glutamate uptake, and increased the ambient level of ʟ-[14 C]glutamate in isolated cortex nerve terminals (synaptosomes)...
2020: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Arun K Gadre, Ingrid R Edwards, Vicky M Baker, Casey R Roof
Objectives: To describe a potentially underappreciated pathology for post-traumatic persistent intractable dizziness and third window syndrome as well as the methods to diagnose and surgically manage this disorder. Study Design: Observational analytic case studies review at a tertiary care medical center. Methods: Patients suffering persistent dizziness following head trauma and demonstrating Tullio phenomena or Hennebert signs are included. All had reportedly normal otic capsules on high resolution temporal bone CT scans (CT)...
2020: Frontiers in Neurology
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