Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Valeria Mondelli, Sentil Kumaran Satyanarayanan, Yi-Ju Chiang, Hui-Ting Chen, Kuan-Pin Su, Carmine M Pariante
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, inflammation and imbalance of neurotrophins have been suggested in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the results have not been conclusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the levels of salivary cortisol across 4-time points during the day, and of morning plasma inflammatory biomarkers and neurotrophins, in youth with ADHD and in typically developing youth (TD), with stratification by age, ADHD subtypes and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) comorbidity in Taiwan...
May 8, 2020: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Carolina Luft, Isadora Perez Levices, Leonardo Pedrazza, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio
Stressful events during the prenatal period have been related to hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as metabolic changes in adult life. Moreover, regular exercise may contribute to the improvement of the symptoms associated with stress and stress-related chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of exercise, before the gestation period, on the metabolic changes induced by prenatal stress in adult mice. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS) and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS)...
May 14, 2020: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Monika Talarowska
The genome (genes), epigenome, and environment work together from the earliest stages of human life to produce a phenotype of human health or disease. Epigenetic modifications, including among other things: DNA methylation, modifications of histones and chromatin structure, as well as functions of noncoding RNA, are coresponsible for specific patterns of gene expression. This refers also to mental disorders, including depressive disorders. Early childhood experiences accompanied by severe stressors (considered a risk factor for depression in adult life) are linked with changes in gene expression...
2020: Depression Research and Treatment
Joanna L Spencer-Segal, Benjamin H Singer, Klaudia Laborc, Khyati Somayaji, Stanley J Watson, Theodore J Standiford, Huda Akil
Severe acute stressors are known to trigger mood disorders in humans. Sepsis represents one such stressor, and survivors often suffer long term from psychiatric morbidity. We hypothesized that sepsis leads to lasting changes in neural circuits involved in stress integration, altering affective behavior and the stress response. To investigate this hypothesis, sepsis was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and control mice underwent sham surgery. Mice recovered from acute illness within 2 weeks, after which they exhibited increased avoidance behavior and behavioral despair compared with sham, with behavioral changes observed more than 5 weeks after recovery...
April 13, 2020: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Aimée I Vester, Karen Hermetz, Amber Burt, Todd Everson, Carmen J Marsit, William M Caudle
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders and manifests inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms in childhood that can last throughout life. Genetic and environmental studies implicate the dopamine system in ADHD pathogenesis. Work from our group and that of others indicates that deltamethrin insecticide and stress exposure during neurodevelopment leads to alterations in dopamine function, and we hypothesized that exposure to both of these factors together would lead to synergistic effects on DNA methylation of key genes within the midbrain, a highly dopaminergic region, that could contribute to these findings...
April 26, 2020: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Denise Battaglini, Chiara Robba, Adriana Lopes da Silva, Cynthia Dos Santos Samary, Pedro Leme Silva, Felipe Dal Pizzol, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
Early detection of cardiovascular dysfunctions directly caused by acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has become paramount. Researchers now generally agree on the existence of a bidirectional interaction between the brain and the heart. In support of this theory, AIS patients are extremely vulnerable to severe cardiac complications. Sympathetic hyperactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the immune and inflammatory responses, and gut dysbiosis have been identified as the main pathological mechanisms involved in brain-heart axis dysregulation after AIS...
April 21, 2020: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Peijun Tian, Kenneth J O'Riordan, Yuan-Kun Lee, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, John F Cryan, Wei Chen
Background: Accumulating evidence points to an association between gut microbial abnormalities and depression disorder. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is an emerging target for treating depression using nutritional strategies, considering the numerous limitations of current pharmacological approaches. Here we studied the effect and probable mechanisms of psychobiotic treatment on depression. Methods: Chronically stressed C57BL/6J male mice were administered viable Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1025 for 5 weeks prior to behavioral testing...
May 2020: Neurobiology of Stress
Birsen Şentürk Pilan, Burcu Özbaran, Didem Çelik, Tuğçe Özcan, Samim Özen, Damla Gökşen, İbrahim Ulman, Ali Avanoğlu, Sibel Tiryaki, Hüseyin Onay, Özgür Çoğulu, Ferda Özkınay, Şükran Darcan
Background Psychiatric consultation is important in the follow-up of disorders of sex development (DSD) patients. In this study, we aimed to present the 12-year psychiatric follow-up data of the patients who were referred by Ege University Medical Faculty DSD Multidisciplinary Team and followed up in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Methods Psychiatric data of 118 patients, who were followed by the DSD multidisciplinary team between 2007 and 2019, were reviewed retrospectively. The psychiatric diagnoses of the patients were evaluated according to semi-structured interview form Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children/Present and Lifetime Turkish Version...
May 26, 2020: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Alexandra Lautarescu, Michael C Craig, Vivette Glover
The impact of stress on brain health begins in the womb. Both animal and human studies have found that prenatal maternal stress affects the brain and behavior of the offspring. Stressful life events, exposure to a natural disaster, and symptoms of maternal anxiety and depression increase the risk for the child having a range of emotional, behavioral and/or cognitive problems in later life. These include depression, anxiety, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and/or conduct disorders. There is an increased risk for other outcomes also, including preterm delivery and reduced telomere length, possibly indicative of an accelerated life history...
2020: International Review of Neurobiology
Angela Ceruso, Mayte Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Araminta Peters-Corbett, Maria Jose Diaz-Gutierrez, Monica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa
BACKGROUND: Alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are common in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, these alterations are not found in every patient. There is evidence to indicate a possible mediating role of early life stress (ELS) in the relation between dysfunction of the HPA axis and MDD. We conducted a systematic review to understand if the alterations of the HPA axis commonly found in patients with MDD are due to early life stress or are caused by the disorder itself...
March 23, 2020: Neuropsychobiology
Birgit Kähler, Eva Viktoria Romswinkel, Mira Jakovcevski, Ashley Moses, Melitta Schachner, Fabio Morellini
Several studies in humans and rodents suggest an association between impulsivity and activity of the stress response on the one hand and addiction vulnerability on the other. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been related to several neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. Constitutively NCAM-deficient (-/-) mice display enhanced novelty-induced behavior and hyperfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here we hypothesize that NCAM deficiency causes an altered response to cocaine. Cocaine-induced behaviors of NCAM-/- mice and wild-type (+/+) littermates were analyzed in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test...
March 2, 2020: Addiction Biology
Margitta Dziwenka, Robert Coppock, McCorkle Alexander, Eddie Palumbo, Carlos Ramirez, Stephen Lermer
Cannabinoids are extracted from Cannabis sativa L. and are used for a variety of medicinal purposes. Recently, there has been a focus on the cannabinoid Cannabidiol (CBD) and its potential benefits. This study investigated the safety of a proprietary extract of C. sativa, consisting of 9% hemp extract (of which 6.27% is CBD) and 91% olive oil. The mutagenic potential of the hemp extract was evaluated with the AMES assay inclusive of a hepatic drug metabolizing mix (S9) rich in CYP enzymes. The test article did not elicit evidence of bacterial mutagenicity...
2020: Toxicology Reports
Mark A Ferro, Andrea Gonzalez
Parent and child mental health are strongly associated and this association may be transmitted via disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. This study examined the potential mediating role of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in the association between parent psychopathology and child mental disorder. Data come from 100 children diagnosed with a mental disorder [major depression (66 %), generalized anxiety (58 %), attention-deficit hyperactivity (33 %), oppositional defiant (35 %)] and their parents...
February 7, 2020: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Donatella Marazziti, Filippo Maria Barberi, Federico Mucci, Alessandra Maglio, Valerio Dell'Oste, Liliana Dell'Osso
INTRODUCTION: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), composed by 28 amino acids, is well known to modulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the immune system. Since ANP is produced in both heart and in the central nervous system, in the last years, an increasing attention has been devoted to its possible role in neuropsychiatric disorders. Indeed, scattered data would indicate its possible role in anxiety, major depression, addictive behaviours, post-traumatic stress disorder and other stress-related disorders...
February 18, 2020: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Pu Hu, Anne-Marie van Dam, Yu Wang, Paul J Lucassen, Jiang-Ning Zhou
The retinoid family members, including vitamin A and derivatives like 13-cis-retinoic acid (ITT) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), are essential for normal functioning of the developing and adult brain. When vitamin A intake is excessive, however, or after ITT treatment, increased risks have been reported for depression and suicidal ideation. Here, we review pre-clinical and clinical evidence supporting association between retinoids and depressive disorders and discuss possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms...
February 15, 2020: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Preeti Gupta, Banalata Mohanty
Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that exposure to infection during early life act as a stressor to impair the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and may be one of the contributing factors of mental illness of later life. Several atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) proved to be effective in alleviating psychiatric illness through normalization of HPA axis. However, AAPD are least tried to evaluate their efficacy in modulation of HPA axis impaired under infection. The present study elucidated that the treatment with AAPD paliperidone (PAL: 0...
January 31, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Mario F Juruena, Filip Eror, Anthony J Cleare, Allan H Young
Substantial evidence from various studies suggests a preeminent role for early adverse experiences in the development of psychopathology. The most recent studies reviewed here suggest that early life stressors are associated with an increased risk for anxiety disorders in adulthood. Early life stress predisposes individuals to develop a number of psychiatric syndromes, particularly affective disorders, including anxiety disorders, and is therefore a significant health problem.This review examines the emerging literature on the relationship between stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and phobias and the role of early life stress as an important risk factor for HPA axis dysfunction...
2020: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lokesh Agrawal, Mustafa Korkutata, Sunil Kumar Vimal, Manoj Kumar Yadav, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Takashi Shiga
The latest estimates from world health organization suggest that more than 450 million people are suffering from depression and other psychiatric conditions. Of these, 50-60% have been reported to have progression of gut diseases. In the last two decades, researchers introduced incipient physiological roles for serotonin (5-HT) receptors (5-HTRs), suggesting their importance as a potential pharmacological target in various psychiatric and gut diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that 5-HT systems affect the brain-gut axis in depressive patients, which leads to gut comorbidity...
January 20, 2020: Neuropharmacology
Wenqi Jin, Rui Ma, Lu Zhai, Xiaohao Xu, Tingting Lou, Qingxia Huang, Jing Wang, Daqing Zhao, Xiangyan Li, Liwei Sun
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), and impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may cause or exacerbate the occurrence of metabolic and psychiatric disorders. It has been reported that ginseng saponin extract (GSE) has an inhibitory effect on the hyperactivity of the HPA axis induced by stresses and increased corticosterone level induced by intraperitoneal injection of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GSE and its active ginsenosides inhibit corticosterone secretion remain elusive...
January 20, 2020: Life Sciences
Lorenzo Tonetti, Federico Camilli, Sara Giovagnoli, Vincenzo Natale, Alessandra Lugaresi
While relapsing-remitting is the most prevalent course of multiple sclerosis, the prognostic/predictive markers of the worsening of symptomatology are still debated. With reference to other diseases, the study of the circadian activity rhythm, according to the theoretical framework of the two-process model of sleep regulation and applying functional linear modeling, proved to be useful to identify a possible marker. The usefulness of the study of circadian activity rhythm in multiple sclerosis is strengthened by recent findings indicating a potential involvement of circadian factors in the multifactorial etiopathology of the disorder...
December 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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