keyword
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32742317/mast-cell-mediated-neuroinflammation-may-have-a-role-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-review
#1
REVIEW
Yuchen Song, Manqi Lu, Haixia Yuan, Tianyi Chen, Xinmin Han
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorder with a serious negative impact on the quality of life from childhood until adulthood, which may cause academic failure, family disharmony and even social unrest. The pathogenesis of ADHD has remained to be fully elucidated, leading to difficulties in the treatment of this disease. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of ADHD development. Certain studies indicated that ADHD has high comorbidity with allergic and autoimmune diseases, with various patients with ADHD having a high inflammatory status...
August 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32740726/behavioral-assessment-of-females-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#2
Sherifa Ahmed Hamed, Fadia Ahmed Attiah, Refaat Fathy Abd Elaal, Mohamed Fawzy
PURPOSE: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have an increased risk of psychological/psychiatric symptoms and disorders. This study aimed to assess the behavior of girls with CAH and its independent risk variables. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 55 girls with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (mean age 12.64 ± 1.52 years; salt-wasting (SW) form = 20, simple virilizing (SV) form = 35). Psychiatric interviewing and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (parent-reporting questionnaires) were used to assess behavior...
August 1, 2020: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32739447/chromogranin-a-serum-levels-in-patients-with-takotsubo-syndrome-and-st-elevation-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Nicola Tarantino, Francesco Santoro, Luigi Di Biase, Vito Di Terlizzi, Enrica Vitale, Domenico Giovanni Della Rocca, Nicole Stephany De Leon De La Cruz, Matteo Di Biase, Natale Daniele Brunetti
BACKGROUND: Sympathergic hyperactivity is considered one of the main trigger precipitating takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Chromogranin-A (CgA), a prognostic biomarker of sympatho-adrenal activation, is remarkably high in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure (HF), but its role in TTS is unknown. METHODS: CgA serum levels from patients with TTS and symptoms onset <24 hours were consecutively evaluated and compared with anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients from November 2016 to December 2019...
July 30, 2020: International Journal of Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32738094/hypercortisolism-and-altered-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-patients-in-the-pre-bariatric-surgery-assessment
#4
Emanuele Muraca, Stefano Ciardullo, Silvia Perra, Francesca Zerbini, Alice Oltolini, Rosa Cannistraci, Eleonora Bianconi, Matteo Villa, Mattia Pizzi, Pietro Pizzi, Giuseppina Manzoni, Guido Lattuada, Gianluca Perseghin
AIMS: Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity was suggested to be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to test whether hypercortisolism was associated with altered glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a homogeneous population of obese patients. MATERIALS/METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a set of data about obese patients attending the outpatient service of a single obesity center between January 2013 and January 2020...
August 1, 2020: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32723811/a-dynamic-mouse-peptidome-landscape-reveals-probiotic-modulation-of-the-gut-brain-axis
#5
Pei Zhang, Xiaoli Wu, Shan Liang, Xianfeng Shao, Qianqian Wang, Ruibing Chen, Weimin Zhu, Chen Shao, Feng Jin, Chenxi Jia
Certain probiotics have beneficial effects on the function of the central nervous system through modulation of the gut-brain axis. Here, we describe a dynamic landscape of the peptidome across multiple brain regions, modulated by oral administration of different probiotic species over various times. The spatiotemporal and strain-specific changes of the brain peptidome correlated with the composition of the gut microbiome. The hippocampus exhibited the most sensitive response to probiotic treatment. The administration of heat-killed probiotics altered the hippocampus peptidome but did not substantially change the gut microbiome...
July 28, 2020: Science Signaling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32653555/peripubertal-stress-following-maternal-immune-activation-sex-dependently-alters-depression-like-behaviors-in-offspring
#6
Elahe Ranaei, Saeed Torshizi, Abdollah Amini, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Zahra Namvarpour, Fatemeh Fadaei Fathabady, Ali-Akbar Salari
There is an increasing evidence that maternal immune activation can render the offspring more vulnerable to the impacts of peripubertal stress on behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of maternal immune activation and peripubertal stress on depression-related behaviors in male and female offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or vehicle, and then offspring were subjected to stressful conditions or left unstressed during peripubertal period...
July 9, 2020: Behavioural Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32596383/-gastrodiae-rhizoma-water-extract-ameliorates-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-hyperactivity-and-inflammation-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-in-rats
#7
Min Wang, Wanrui Dong, Ruiying Wang, Xudong Xu, Ying Wu, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Gastrodiae Rhizoma is a highly valuable traditional herbal medicine commonly used to treat neurological disorders. The present study is designed to determine the antidepressant-like effect of the Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract (GRWE) on a depression model and the potential mechanisms. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model was used to induce depression. The sucrose preference test, open field test, forced swimming test, and tail suspension test were performed to assess the depressive-like behaviors, respectively...
2020: BioMed Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32574682/activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-reduces-n-acetyl-cysteine-induced-hypercorticoidism-by-down-regulating-mc2r-expression-into-adrenal-glands
#8
Raíssa D Ventura, Amanda S Chaves, Nathalia S Magalhães, Florencia B Gonzalez, Maria Florencia Pacini, Ana Rosa Pérez, Patrícia M R Silva, Marco A Martins, Vinicius F Carvalho
We previously demonstrated that oral supplementation with antioxidants induced hyperactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis), attested by hypercorticoidism, through an up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal. This study analyzed the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ on HPA axis hyperactivity induced by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Male Swiss-Webster mice were orally treated with NAC for 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, or 18 consecutive days. The PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone and/or antagonist GW9662 were daily-injected i...
June 20, 2020: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32572589/mechanisms-underlying-remediation-of-depression-associated-anxiety-by-chronic-n-acetyl-cysteine-treatment
#9
Suwarna Chakraborty, Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
RATIONALE: Anxiety is one of the most comorbid conditions with major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression-associated anxiety often stems from the dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its altered regulation by the amygdala. Furthermore, MDD is associated with altered glutamatergic processing leading to anxiety and impaired regulation of the HPA axis. Recent studies have demonstrated that N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a pleiotropic drug, exerts antidepressant-like effect by modulation of hippocampal functions, periterminal release of glutamate, and/or redox systems...
June 23, 2020: Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32535221/gut-microbiota-modulates-stress-induced-hypertension-through-the-hpa-axis
#10
Qin Wu, Ziyang Xu, Siyuan Song, Hong Zhang, Wenying Zhang, Liping Liu, Yuping Chen, Jihu Sun
Stress is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, and the incidence of stress-related hypertension has risen rapidly in recent years; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Gut dysbiosis has been demonstrated to contribute to hypertension and hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Based on our previous findings showing the altered gut microbiota in the rats of stress-induced hypertension (SIH), the present study aims to investigate whether the stress-induced alteration in gut microbiota can lead to the dysfunction of the HPA axis which contributes to the development of SIH...
June 11, 2020: Brain Research Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32532293/early-maternal-separation-accelerates-the-progression-of-endometriosis-in-adult-mice
#11
Qiqi Long, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
BACKGROUND: A large body of research highlights the importance of early-life environmental impact on the health outcome in adulthood. However, whether early-life adversity (ELA) has any impact on the development of endometriosis is completely unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ELA, as manifested by neonatal separation, can accelerate the progression of endometriosis in mouse through activation of the adrenergic receptor β2 (ADRB2) signaling pathway, leading to increased angiogenesis and progression of endometriotic lesions...
June 12, 2020: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32499732/pharmacological-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-the-role-of-the-hpa-axis
#12
REVIEW
Gustavo E Tafet, Charles B Nemeroff
Stress in general, and early life stress in particular, has been associated with the development of anxiety and mood disorders. The molecular, biological and psychological links between stress exposure and the pathogenesis of anxiety and mood disorders have been extensively studied, resulting in the search of novel psychopharmacological strategies aimed at targets of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hyperactivity of the HPA axis has been observed in certain subgroups of patients with anxiety and mood disorders...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32473521/circadian-distribution-of-autostimulations-in-rvns-therapy-in-patients-with-refractory-focal-epilepsy
#13
Toni Kulju, Ryan Verner, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Atte Eronen, Sirpa Rainesalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Joonas Haapasalo, Jukka Peltola
BACKGROUND: Responsive vagus nerve stimulation (rVNS) utilizes an electrocardiograph (ECG)-based algorithm to detect rapid sympathetic activations associated with the onset of a seizure. Abrupt sympathetic activation may also be associated with nocturnal arousals between sleep cycles or transitioning from sleep to wakefulness, a period in which many patients with epilepsy experience seizures. Because of circadian changes in autonomic function, we hypothesized that the autostimulation feature might also behave in a circadian fashion...
May 27, 2020: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32466107/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-its-pharmacotherapy-and-adrenal-gland-dysfunction-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#14
Pin-Han Peng, Meng-Yun Tsai, Sheng-Yu Lee, Po-Cheng Liao, Yu-Chiau Shyu, Liang-Jen Wang
This study aims to examine the co-occurrence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adrenal gland disorders, as well as whether pharmacotherapy may affect ADHD patients' risk of developing adrenal gland disorder. One group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD ( n = 75,247) and one group of age- and gender-matching controls ( n = 75,247) were chosen from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database during the period of January 1999 to December 2011. Both patients and controls were monitored through December 31, 2011, in order to identify the occurrence of adrenal gland disorders (ICD-9-CM code 255...
May 25, 2020: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32418647/cortisol-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-neurotrophins-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-taiwan
#15
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Valeria Mondelli, Sentil Kumaran Satyanarayanan, Yi-Ju Chiang, Hui-Ting Chen, Kuan-Pin Su, Carmine M Pariante
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, inflammation and imbalance of neurotrophins have been suggested in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the results have not been conclusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the levels of salivary cortisol across 4-time points during the day, and of morning plasma inflammatory biomarkers and neurotrophins, in youth with ADHD and in typically developing youth (TD), with stratification by age, ADHD subtypes and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) comorbidity in Taiwan...
May 8, 2020: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32406352/sex-dependent-metabolic-effects-of-pregestational-exercise-on-prenatally-stressed-mice
#16
Carolina Luft, Isadora Perez Levices, Leonardo Pedrazza, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio
Stressful events during the prenatal period have been related to hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as metabolic changes in adult life. Moreover, regular exercise may contribute to the improvement of the symptoms associated with stress and stress-related chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of exercise, before the gestation period, on the metabolic changes induced by prenatal stress in adult mice. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS) and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS)...
May 14, 2020: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32373361/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-the-neurodevelopmental-theory-of-depression
#17
REVIEW
Monika Talarowska
The genome (genes), epigenome, and environment work together from the earliest stages of human life to produce a phenotype of human health or disease. Epigenetic modifications, including among other things: DNA methylation, modifications of histones and chromatin structure, as well as functions of noncoding RNA, are coresponsible for specific patterns of gene expression. This refers also to mental disorders, including depressive disorders. Early childhood experiences accompanied by severe stressors (considered a risk factor for depression in adult life) are linked with changes in gene expression...
2020: Depression Research and Treatment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32353815/sepsis-survivor-mice-exhibit-a-behavioral-endocrine-syndrome-with-ventral-hippocampal-dysfunction
#18
Joanna L Spencer-Segal, Benjamin H Singer, Klaudia Laborc, Khyati Somayaji, Stanley J Watson, Theodore J Standiford, Huda Akil
Severe acute stressors are known to trigger mood disorders in humans. Sepsis represents one such stressor, and survivors often suffer long term from psychiatric morbidity. We hypothesized that sepsis leads to lasting changes in neural circuits involved in stress integration, altering affective behavior and the stress response. To investigate this hypothesis, sepsis was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and control mice underwent sham surgery. Mice recovered from acute illness within 2 weeks, after which they exhibited increased avoidance behavior and behavioral despair compared with sham, with behavioral changes observed more than 5 weeks after recovery...
April 13, 2020: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32348866/combined-neurodevelopmental-exposure-to-deltamethrin-and-corticosterone-is-associated-with-nr3c1-hypermethylation-in-the-midbrain-of-male-mice
#19
Aimée I Vester, Karen Hermetz, Amber Burt, Todd Everson, Carmen J Marsit, William M Caudle
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders and manifests inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms in childhood that can last throughout life. Genetic and environmental studies implicate the dopamine system in ADHD pathogenesis. Work from our group and that of others indicates that deltamethrin insecticide and stress exposure during neurodevelopment leads to alterations in dopamine function, and we hypothesized that exposure to both of these factors together would lead to synergistic effects on DNA methylation of key genes within the midbrain, a highly dopaminergic region, that could contribute to these findings...
April 26, 2020: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32317013/brain-heart-interaction-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Denise Battaglini, Chiara Robba, Adriana Lopes da Silva, Cynthia Dos Santos Samary, Pedro Leme Silva, Felipe Dal Pizzol, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
Early detection of cardiovascular dysfunctions directly caused by acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has become paramount. Researchers now generally agree on the existence of a bidirectional interaction between the brain and the heart. In support of this theory, AIS patients are extremely vulnerable to severe cardiac complications. Sympathetic hyperactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the immune and inflammatory responses, and gut dysbiosis have been identified as the main pathological mechanisms involved in brain-heart axis dysregulation after AIS...
April 21, 2020: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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