Breanne J Byiers, Ameante Payen, Timothy Feyma, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Michael J Ehrhardt, Frank J Symons
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from mutations of the MECP2 gene. Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and abnormal stress responses have been observed in animal models of RTT, but little is known about HPA axis function among individuals with RTT. Diurnal salivary cortisol patterns from 30 females with RTT were examined in relation to mutation type, medication use, and features of the RTT behavioral phenotype. Cortisol patterns were significantly related to mutation severity, anticonvulsant medication status, and bruxism (tooth grinding)...
September 1, 2020: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Pierpaolo Falcetta, Francesca Orsolini, Elena Benelli, Patrizia Agretti, Paolo Vitti, Caterina Di Cosmo, Massimo Tonacchera
PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement and endocrine function modification in patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we examined clinical and hormonal characteristics of 310 patients with AI (200 females and 110 males; age: 58.3 ± 12.9 years), followed up for a median (interquartile range) of 31.4 months (13.0-78.6) and evaluated for possible modification in adrenal mass size and hormonal function. The hormonal evaluation included morning serum cortisol and plasma ACTH at 8 a...
September 11, 2020: Endocrine
Jinpeng Lv, Ling Chen, Naping Zhu, Yindi Sun, Jianchun Pan, Jinsheng Gao, Jianwu Liu, Guangjun Liu, Yuanxiang Tao
Aβ aggregation is one of the pathological biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the possible mechanism related to Aβ-induced pathological signaling pathway is still unknown. In the present study, Aβ1-42-induced time-dependent memory impairment and its possible relationship to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity were examined. Aβ1-42-treated mice significantly impaired acquisition activity in the learning curve at 10 days, 1 and 4 months in the Morris water-maze (MWM) task...
August 29, 2020: Metabolic Brain Disease
Eugenijus Kaniusas, Jozsef C Szeles, Stefan Kampusch, Nuria Alfageme-Lopez, Daniela Yucuma-Conde, Xie Li, Julio Mayol, Christoph Neumayer, Michele Papa, Fivos Panetsos
Background: Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by an invasion of the alveolar epithelial cells by coronavirus 19. The most severe outcome of the disease is the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) combined with hypoxemia and cardiovascular damage. ARDS and co-morbidities are associated with inflammatory cytokine storms, sympathetic hyperactivity, and respiratory dysfunction. Hypothesis: In the present paper, we present and justify a novel potential treatment for Covid19-originated ARDS and associated co-morbidities, based on the non-invasive stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Shangda Li, Hetong Zhou, Yueran Yu, Hailong Lyu, Tingting Mou, Gongde Shi, Shaohua Hu, Manli Huang, Jianbo Hu, Yi Xu
OBJECTIVE: Currently, an efficient method for improving cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation (SD) is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during SD on reversing the adverse effects of SD. METHODS: A total of 66 healthy people were randomized into the rTMS group and sham group. Both groups were deprived of sleep for 24 h. During SD, participants were asked to complete several cognitive tasks and underwent mood assessments...
June 24, 2020: Sleep Medicine
Shaoyuan Li, Yu Wang, Guojian Gao, Xiao Guo, Yue Zhang, Zixuan Zhang, Yifei Wang, Jinling Zhang, Junying Wang, Liang Li, Yongsheng Yang, Peijing Rong
Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has gained growing interest as a non-invasive and non-pharmacologic treatment option in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Animal experiments and clinical trials confirm that taVNS at the auricular concha region has beneficial effects on depression. However, stimulation frequencies are selected empirically, and there is no evidence showing that any frequency is superior to the others. This study explores antidepressant-like effects of three frequencies of taVNS on rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuchen Song, Manqi Lu, Haixia Yuan, Tianyi Chen, Xinmin Han
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorder with a serious negative impact on the quality of life from childhood until adulthood, which may cause academic failure, family disharmony and even social unrest. The pathogenesis of ADHD has remained to be fully elucidated, leading to difficulties in the treatment of this disease. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of ADHD development. Certain studies indicated that ADHD has high comorbidity with allergic and autoimmune diseases, with various patients with ADHD having a high inflammatory status...
August 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sherifa Ahmed Hamed, Fadia Ahmed Attiah, Refaat Fathy Abd Elaal, Mohamed Fawzy
PURPOSE: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have an increased risk of psychological/psychiatric symptoms and disorders. This study aimed to assess the behavior of girls with CAH and its independent risk variables. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 55 girls with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (mean age 12.64 ± 1.52 years; salt-wasting (SW) form = 20, simple virilizing (SV) form = 35). Psychiatric interviewing and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (parent-reporting questionnaires) were used to assess behavior...
August 1, 2020: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nicola Tarantino, Francesco Santoro, Luigi Di Biase, Vito Di Terlizzi, Enrica Vitale, Domenico Giovanni Della Rocca, Nicole Stephany De Leon De La Cruz, Matteo Di Biase, Natale Daniele Brunetti
BACKGROUND: Sympathergic hyperactivity is considered one of the main trigger precipitating takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Chromogranin-A (CgA), a prognostic biomarker of sympatho-adrenal activation, is remarkably high in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure (HF), but its role in TTS is unknown. METHODS: CgA serum levels from patients with TTS and symptoms onset <24 hours were consecutively evaluated and compared with anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients from November 2016 to December 2019...
July 30, 2020: International Journal of Cardiology
Emanuele Muraca, Stefano Ciardullo, Silvia Perra, Francesca Zerbini, Alice Oltolini, Rosa Cannistraci, Eleonora Bianconi, Matteo Villa, Mattia Pizzi, Pietro Pizzi, Giuseppina Manzoni, Guido Lattuada, Gianluca Perseghin
AIMS: Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity was suggested to be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to test whether hypercortisolism was associated with altered glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a homogeneous population of obese patients. MATERIALS/METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a set of data about obese patients attending the outpatient service of a single obesity center between January 2013 and January 2020...
August 1, 2020: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Pei Zhang, Xiaoli Wu, Shan Liang, Xianfeng Shao, Qianqian Wang, Ruibing Chen, Weimin Zhu, Chen Shao, Feng Jin, Chenxi Jia
Certain probiotics have beneficial effects on the function of the central nervous system through modulation of the gut-brain axis. Here, we describe a dynamic landscape of the peptidome across multiple brain regions, modulated by oral administration of different probiotic species over various times. The spatiotemporal and strain-specific changes of the brain peptidome correlated with the composition of the gut microbiome. The hippocampus exhibited the most sensitive response to probiotic treatment. The administration of heat-killed probiotics altered the hippocampus peptidome but did not substantially change the gut microbiome...
July 28, 2020: Science Signaling
Elahe Ranaei, Saeed Torshizi, Abdollah Amini, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Zahra Namvarpour, Fatemeh Fadaei Fathabady, Ali-Akbar Salari
There is an increasing evidence that maternal immune activation can render the offspring more vulnerable to the impacts of peripubertal stress on behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of maternal immune activation and peripubertal stress on depression-related behaviors in male and female offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or vehicle, and then offspring were subjected to stressful conditions or left unstressed during peripubertal period...
July 9, 2020: Behavioural Brain Research
Min Wang, Wanrui Dong, Ruiying Wang, Xudong Xu, Ying Wu, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Gastrodiae Rhizoma is a highly valuable traditional herbal medicine commonly used to treat neurological disorders. The present study is designed to determine the antidepressant-like effect of the Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract (GRWE) on a depression model and the potential mechanisms. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model was used to induce depression. The sucrose preference test, open field test, forced swimming test, and tail suspension test were performed to assess the depressive-like behaviors, respectively...
2020: BioMed Research International
Raíssa D Ventura, Amanda S Chaves, Nathalia S Magalhães, Florencia B Gonzalez, Maria Florencia Pacini, Ana Rosa Pérez, Patrícia M R Silva, Marco A Martins, Vinicius F Carvalho
We previously demonstrated that oral supplementation with antioxidants induced hyperactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis), attested by hypercorticoidism, through an up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal. This study analyzed the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ on HPA axis hyperactivity induced by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Male Swiss-Webster mice were orally treated with NAC for 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, or 18 consecutive days. The PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone and/or antagonist GW9662 were daily-injected i...
June 20, 2020: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Suwarna Chakraborty, Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
RATIONALE: Anxiety is one of the most comorbid conditions with major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression-associated anxiety often stems from the dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its altered regulation by the amygdala. Furthermore, MDD is associated with altered glutamatergic processing leading to anxiety and impaired regulation of the HPA axis. Recent studies have demonstrated that N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a pleiotropic drug, exerts antidepressant-like effect by modulation of hippocampal functions, periterminal release of glutamate, and/or redox systems...
June 23, 2020: Psychopharmacology
Qin Wu, Ziyang Xu, Siyuan Song, Hong Zhang, Wenying Zhang, Liping Liu, Yuping Chen, Jihu Sun
Stress is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, and the incidence of stress-related hypertension has risen rapidly in recent years; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Gut dysbiosis has been demonstrated to contribute to hypertension and hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Based on our previous findings showing the altered gut microbiota in the rats of stress-induced hypertension (SIH), the present study aims to investigate whether the stress-induced alteration in gut microbiota can lead to the dysfunction of the HPA axis which contributes to the development of SIH...
June 11, 2020: Brain Research Bulletin
Qiqi Long, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
BACKGROUND: A large body of research highlights the importance of early-life environmental impact on the health outcome in adulthood. However, whether early-life adversity (ELA) has any impact on the development of endometriosis is completely unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ELA, as manifested by neonatal separation, can accelerate the progression of endometriosis in mouse through activation of the adrenergic receptor β2 (ADRB2) signaling pathway, leading to increased angiogenesis and progression of endometriotic lesions...
June 12, 2020: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Gustavo E Tafet, Charles B Nemeroff
Stress in general, and early life stress in particular, has been associated with the development of anxiety and mood disorders. The molecular, biological and psychological links between stress exposure and the pathogenesis of anxiety and mood disorders have been extensively studied, resulting in the search of novel psychopharmacological strategies aimed at targets of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hyperactivity of the HPA axis has been observed in certain subgroups of patients with anxiety and mood disorders...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Toni Kulju, Ryan Verner, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Atte Eronen, Sirpa Rainesalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Joonas Haapasalo, Jukka Peltola
BACKGROUND: Responsive vagus nerve stimulation (rVNS) utilizes an electrocardiograph (ECG)-based algorithm to detect rapid sympathetic activations associated with the onset of a seizure. Abrupt sympathetic activation may also be associated with nocturnal arousals between sleep cycles or transitioning from sleep to wakefulness, a period in which many patients with epilepsy experience seizures. Because of circadian changes in autonomic function, we hypothesized that the autostimulation feature might also behave in a circadian fashion...
May 27, 2020: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Pin-Han Peng, Meng-Yun Tsai, Sheng-Yu Lee, Po-Cheng Liao, Yu-Chiau Shyu, Liang-Jen Wang
This study aims to examine the co-occurrence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adrenal gland disorders, as well as whether pharmacotherapy may affect ADHD patients' risk of developing adrenal gland disorder. One group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD ( n = 75,247) and one group of age- and gender-matching controls ( n = 75,247) were chosen from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database during the period of January 1999 to December 2011. Both patients and controls were monitored through December 31, 2011, in order to identify the occurrence of adrenal gland disorders (ICD-9-CM code 255...
May 25, 2020: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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