Hui Pan, Qi Huang, Shiyu Ban, Xiaoxia Du, Jingjing Su, Jianren Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a subcortical, inherited, cerebral small vessel disease. Several studies have revealed the involvement of specific cortical regions. However, the structural brain alterations and their clinical correlations remain largely undetermined. METHODS: We evaluated 22 CADASIL patients and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We used surface- and voxel-based morphometric data derived from 3...
September 16, 2020: Neuroscience Letters
Xiao Han, He Jin, Kuangshi Li, Yanzhe Ning, Lan Jiang, Pei Chen, Hongwei Liu, Yong Zhang, Hua Zhang, Zhongjian Tan, Fangyuan Cui, Yi Ren, Lijun Bai, Yihuai Zou
Background: Stroke can lead to disruption of the whole-brain network in patients. Acupuncture can modulate the functional network on a large-scale level in healthy individuals. However, whether and how acupuncture can make a potential impact on the disrupted whole-brain network after ischemic stroke remains elusive. Methods: 26 stroke patients with a right hemispheric subcortical infarct were recruited. We gathered the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from patients with stroke and healthy controls in the resting state and after acupuncture intervention, to investigate the instant alterations of the large-scale functional networks...
2020: Neural Plasticity
Ignacio Iñigo-Marco, Javier Istúriz, Miguel Fernández, Maria J Nicolas, Pablo Domínguez, Gorka Bastarrika, Miguel Valencia, María A Fernández-Seara
Imaging of small laboratory animals in clinical MRI scanners is feasible but challenging. Compared with dedicated preclinical systems, clinical scanners have relatively low B0 field (1.5-3.0 T) and gradient strength (40-60 mT/m). This work explored the use of wireless inductively coupled coils (ICCs) combined with appropriate pulse sequence parameters to overcome these two drawbacks, with a special emphasis on the optimization of the coil passive detuning circuit for this application. A Bengal rose photothrombotic stroke model was used to induce cortical infarction in rats and mice...
September 11, 2020: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Giovanni Frisullo, Simone Bellavia, Irene Scala, Carla Piano, Roberta Morosetti, Valerio Brunetti, Paolo Calabresi, Giacomo Della Marca
Recent evidence has underlined the association between large-vessel stroke and COVID-19, probably due to a proinflammatory and prothrombotic microenvironment induced by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report the case of a young fit woman affected by COVID-19 without any flu-like symptom, who suffered from speech disorder and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance evidenced two small acute brain infarctions in right perirolandic cortex without signs of previous ischemic lesions and hemorrhagic infarction. Diagnostic workup excluded cardiac embolic sources, acquired and inherited thrombophilia or autoimmune diseases...
October 2020: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Federico Vancheri, Giovanni Longo, Sergio Vancheri, Michael Henein
Many patients with chest pain undergoing coronary angiography do not show significant obstructive coronary lesions. A substantial proportion of these patients have abnormalities in the function and structure of coronary microcirculation due to endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunction. The coronary microcirculation has a fundamental role in the regulation of coronary blood flow in response to cardiac oxygen requirements. Impairment of this mechanism, defined as coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), carries an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular clinical outcomes...
September 6, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mihael Emilov Tsalta-Mladenov, Darina Kirilova Georgieva, Silva Peteva Andonova
INTRODUCTION: Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystem autoimmune relapsing vasculitis with almost unknown etiology, which involves both large and small vessels. The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare, divided into two main sub-types- parenchymal nad and non-parenchymal. The peripheral nervous system is generally preserved or involved in very rare cases. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of neuro-Behcet's Disease (NBD) in a young 25-year-old female...
April 2020: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Rafael Perera, Sydney A Yee, Damian Jenkins, Jacqueline Palace, Gabriele C DeLuca
Vascular comorbidities have a deleterious impact on multiple sclerosis clinical outcomes but it is unclear whether this is mediated by an excess of extracranial vascular disease (i.e. atherosclerosis) and/or of cerebral small vessel disease or worse multiple sclerosis pathology. To address these questions, a study using a unique post-mortem cohort wherein whole body autopsy reports and brain tissue were available for interrogation was established. Whole body autopsy reports were used to develop a global score of systemic vascular disease that included aorta and coronary artery atheroma, cardiac hypertensive disease, myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke...
September 2, 2020: Brain
Lieza G Exalto, Jooske M F Boomsma, Rosha Babapour Mofrad, Frederik Barkhof, Onno N Groeneveld, Rutger Heinen, Hugo J Kuijf, Anna E Leeuwis, Niels D Prins, Geert Jan Biessels, Wiesje M Vd Flier
Introduction: We aimed to establish sex differences in vascular brain damage of memory clinic patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Methods: A total of 860 memory clinic patients (aged 67.7 ± 8.5; 46% female) with cognitive complaints and vascular brain damage (ie, possible VCI) from the prospective TRACE-VCI (Utrecht-Amsterdam Clinical Features and Prognosis in Vascular Cognitive Impairment) cohort study with 2-year follow-up were included...
2020: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Colleen L Schneider, Sarah Mohajeri-Moghaddam, Esau G Mbewe, Pelekelo P Kabundula, Owen Dean, Alexandra Buda, Michael J Potchen, Sylvia Mwanza-Kabaghe, Deanna Saylor, Heather R Adams, Gretchen L Birbeck, David R Bearden
BACKGROUND: High rates of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) have previously been described in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, little is known about pediatric CVD in the era of antiretroviral therapy or about the contribution of CVD to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. METHODS: We completed a neuroimaging substudy of the HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Zambia study, a prospective cohort study of neurocognitive complications of pediatric HIV...
August 5, 2020: Pediatric Neurology
Sietske J Tamminga, Félicie M van Vree, Gerard Volker, Leo D Roorda, Caroline B Terwee, Paulien H Goossens, Thea P M Vliet Vlieland
BACKGROUND: One of the main aims of rehabilitation is to improve participation. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) item banks 'Ability to Participate in Social roles and Activities, (PROMIS-APS) and 'Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities' (PROMIS-SPS) are promising options to measure participation, but the literature on PROMIS measures of (satisfaction with) participation across diagnoses in rehabilitation is limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe levels of and changes in participation, as assessed with the PROMIS-APS and the PROMIS-SPS short forms, of patients in outpatient rehabilitation...
September 1, 2020: Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
José Marco-Contelles
The recent advances of tetramethylpyrazine nitrones and quinolylnitrones for the treatment of stroke have been reviewed and compared with other agents, showing promising therapeutic applications. As a result of a functional transformation of natural product ligustrazine, (Z)-N-tert-butyl-1-(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methanimine oxide (6) is a multi-target small nitrone showing potent thrombolytic activity and free radicals scavenging power, in addition to non-toxicity and blood brain barrier permeability...
September 1, 2020: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hiren N Patel, Asma Syed, Jeffrey S Lobel, Robert Galler, Joseph Georges, Margaret Carmody, Micheal Puumala
Background: This report and literature review describes a case of a COVID-19 patient who suffered a cerebellar stroke requiring neurosurgical decompression. This is the first reported case of a sub-occipital craniectomy with brain biopsy in a COVID-19 patient showing leptomeningeal venous intimal inflammation. Clinical description: The patient is a 48-year-old SARS-COV-2 positive male with multiple comorbidities, who presented with fevers and respiratory symptoms, and imaging consistent with multifocal pneumonia...
December 2020: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management
Lexiao Li, Ying Yu, Ruida Hou, Jiukuan Hao, Jianxiong Jiang
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is elevated in the brain by excitotoxic insults and, in turn, aggravates the neurotoxicity mainly through acting on its Gαs -coupled receptor EP2, inspiring a therapeutic strategy of targeting this key proinflammatory pathway. Herein, we investigated the effects of several highly potent and selective small-molecule antagonists of the EP2 receptor on neuronal excitotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. EP2 inhibition by these novel compounds largely decreased the neuronal injury in rat primary hippocampal cultures containing both neurons and glia that were treated with N -methyl-d-aspartate and glycine...
August 14, 2020: ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science
Bharath Chelluboina, Taehee Kim, Suresh L Mehta, Joo-Yong Kim, Saivenkateshkomal Bathula, Raghu Vemuganti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increased expression of α-Syn (α-Synuclein) is known to mediate secondary brain damage after stroke. We presently studied if α-Syn Knockdown can protect ischemic brain irrespective of sex and age. METHODS: Adult and aged male and female mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. α-Syn small interfering RNA (siRNA) was administered intravenous at 30 minutes or 3 hour reperfusion. Poststroke motor deficits were evaluated between day 1 and 7 and infarct volume was measured at day 7 of reperfusion...
August 21, 2020: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Lei Bao, Shenyang Zhang, Xiangyao Gong, Guiyun Cui
PURPOSE: We summarized the clinical manifestations, laboratory data, and brain MRI of patients with Trousseau syndrome related cerebral infarction and compared them to patients with other types of cerebral infarction. Through our present research, we hope to aid the neurologists in recognizing and diagnosing this syndrome. METHODS: A total of 31 patients at our institution were identified with cerebral infarction resulting from Trousseau syndrome. We have also selected the 180 patients who have suffered from cerebral infarction as control groups and these patients were distributed to large-artery atherosclerosis group; cardio-embolism group; small-artery occlusion group, according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria...
September 2020: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Andrew C Robinson, Federico Roncaroli, Stephen Chew-Graham, Yvonne S Davidson, James Minshull, Michael A Horan, Antony Payton, Neil Pendleton, David M A Mann
BACKGROUND: The pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are well described but little is known as to how both neurodegeneration and vascular changes might interact in causing cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate relationships between vascular and AD pathology in cognitively healthy and cognitively impaired individuals with a particular emphasis on those at intermediate Braak tau stages. METHODS: We investigated the interplay between Braak tau stage and measures of vascular pathology as described by the vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING) in 185 brains from the Brains for Dementia Research programme and The University of Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition in Healthy Old Age...
August 14, 2020: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Zhang Feng, Liu Jie, Lv Guimin, Wang Xi
Neuron apoptosis in ischemic penumbra was proved to be involved in ischemic stroke (IS) development and contributed to the poor prognosis of IS. Recent studies showed that aberrant trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) level was associated with cell apoptosis. This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanism of neuron apoptosis in ischemic penumbra via histone methyltransferase (HMT) mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) mediated epigenetic pathway. Mouse IS model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Myriam Remmelink, Ricardo De Mendonça, Nicky D'Haene, Sarah De Clercq, Camille Verocq, Laetitia Lebrun, Philomène Lavis, Marie-Lucie Racu, Anne-Laure Trépant, Calliope Maris, Sandrine Rorive, Jean-Christophe Goffard, Olivier De Witte, Lorenzo Peluso, Jean-Louis Vincent, Christine Decaestecker, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Isabelle Salmon
BACKGROUND: Post-mortem studies can provide important information for understanding new diseases and small autopsy case series have already reported different findings in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We evaluated whether some specific post-mortem features are observed in these patients and if these changes are related to the presence of the virus in different organs. Complete macroscopic and microscopic autopsies were performed on different organs in 17 COVID-19 non-survivors...
August 12, 2020: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jiani Li, Keming Zhang, Qinbin Zhang, Xueling Zhou, Lan Wen, Jingxi Ma, Lingchuan Niu, Changqing Li
Background: Neoangiogenesis after cerebral ischemia in mammals is insufficient to restore neurological function, illustrating the need to design better strategies for improving outcomes. Our previous study has suggested that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) induced angiogenesis and improved neurological functions in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms involved need further exploration. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR- γ ), well known as a ligand-modulated nuclear transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the regulation of cerebrovascular structure and function...
2020: BioMed Research International
Ting Zhu, Lei Wang, Fang Tian, Xin Zhao, Xiao-Ping Pu, Gui-Bo Sun, Xiao-Bo Sun
Ischemic stroke is a syndrome of severe neurological responses that cause neuronal death, damage to the neurovascular unit and inflammation. Notoginsenoside R1 (NG-R1) is a neuroprotective drug that is commonly used to treat neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. However, its potential mechanisms on the regulation of small molecule metabolism in ischemic stroke are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms of NG-R1 on the regulation of small molecule metabolism after ischemic stroke...
July 2, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
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