Walter Brand, Ruud J B Peters, Hedwig M Braakhuis, Lidka Maślankiewicz, Agnes G Oomen
Recent studies reported adverse liver effects and intestinal tumor formation after oral exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). Other oral toxicological studies, however, observed no effects on liver and intestine, despite prolonged exposure and/or high doses. In the present assessment, we aimed to better understand whether TiO2 can induce such effects at conditions relevant for humans. Therefore, we focused not only on the clinical and histopathological observations, but also used Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to consider earlier steps (Key Events)...
July 3, 2020: Nanotoxicology
Serenella Serinelli, Timothy E Richardson, Sylvie Destian, Kanish Mirchia, Michael Williams, Mariangeles Medina-Perez, Lorenzo Gitto
The use of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) to support autopsy pathology has increased in recent decades. To some extent, PMCT has also been contemplated as a potential alternative to conventional postmortem examination. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of PMCT to detect specific pathologic findings in the head and brain in natural hospital deaths.We examined postmortem CT images and autopsy data from 31 subjects who died at SUNY (State University of New York) Upstate University Hospital between 2013 and 2018...
June 30, 2020: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Lin-Lin Wang, Fu-Yuan Zhang, Wen-Wen Dong, Chang-Liang Wang, Xue-Ying Liang, Long-Long Suo, Jian Cheng, Miao Zhang, Xiang-Shen Guo, Peng-Hao Jiang, Da-Wei Guan, Rui Zhao
The diagnosis of drowning is one of the major challenges in forensic practice, especially when the corpse is in a state of decomposition. Novel indicators of drowning are desired in the field of forensic medicine. In the past decade, aquatic bacteria have attracted great attention from forensic experts because they can easily enter the blood circulation with drowning medium, and some of them can proliferate in the corpse. Recently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has created new opportunities to efficiently analyze whole microbial communities and has catalyzed the development of forensic microbiology...
July 2, 2020: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Ozge Erdogan Bamac, Krysta H Rogers, David Arranz-Solís, Jeroen P J Saeij, Stephany Lewis, Rebecca Duerr, Julie Skoglund, Lisa Peronne, Aslı Mete
Between March and May 2019, wildlife rehabilitation centers along coastal southern California admitted increased numbers of Brandt's cormorants ( Phalacrocorax penicillatus ) with neurological disease including head tilt, nystagmus, torticollis, tremors, paresis, paralysis, and ataxia. Seven cormorants from Los Angeles County and one cormorant from Orange County were submitted for postmortem examination. Gross findings included thin to fair body condition, generalized congestion/hyperemia, nematode parasites in the ventriculus, and diarrhea in the seven birds from Los Angeles County while the one bird from Orange County had icterus...
August 2020: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Madhuri Kambhampati, Eshini Panditharatna, Sridevi Yadavilli, Karim Saoud, Sulgi Lee, Augustine Eze, M I Almira-Suarez, Lauren Hancock, Erin R Bonner, Jamila Gittens, Mojca Stampar, Krutika Gaonkar, Adam C Resnick, Cassie Kline, Cheng-Ying Ho, Angela J Waanders, Maria-Magdalena Georgescu, Naomi E Rance, Yong Kim, Courtney Johnson, Brian R Rood, Lindsay B Kilburn, Eugene I Hwang, Sabine Mueller, Roger J Packer, Miriam Bornhorst, Javad Nazarian
Children diagnosed with brain tumors have the lowest overall survival of all pediatric cancers. Recent molecular studies have resulted in the discovery of recurrent driver mutations in many pediatric brain tumors. However, despite these molecular advances, the clinical outcomes of high grade tumors, including H3K27M diffuse midline glioma (H3K27M DMG), remain poor. To address the paucity of tissue for biological studies, we have established a comprehensive protocol for the coordination and processing of donated specimens at postmortem...
July 2, 2020: Scientific Reports
Jacob R Tuell, Jun-Young Park, Weichao Wang, Heng-Wei Cheng, Yuan H Brad Kim
Long photoperiods are used in the broiler industry to maximize animal performance, though the impact on meat quality remains poorly understood. The current study evaluated the impact of photoperiod on functional/physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of meat through broiler processing. Ross 308 broilers (n = 432) were randomly assigned to 4 photoperiod treatments (hours in L = light, D = dark): 20L:4D, 18L:6D, 16L:8D, or 12L:12D with 6 pens per treatment. At 42 D of age, 2 broilers per pen (n = 12 per treatment) were harvested under standard conditions...
July 2020: Poultry Science
Xin Zhu, Jizhe Liu, Haiying Liu, Guiqin Yang
Soybean oligosaccharides have been previously shown to be associated with the production of major odor-causing compounds in broilers, although little is known about the role of stachyose and raffinose, which are key components of soybean oligosaccharide, in broiler cecal microbiota and odor compound production. To this end, soybean oligosaccharide, stachyose, and raffinose were added to the birds' diets to investigate their effects on odor compound production and the microbial community characteristics of the cecum in broilers...
July 2020: Poultry Science
S K Orlowski, R Cauble, T Tabler, J Z Hiltz, E S Greene, N B Anthony, S Dridi
As a result of genetic selection, the modern broiler is more efficient, higher yielding, and faster growing than the bird of the 1950s. Unfortunately, as a result of improvement in growth rate, the modern broiler has the potential to struggle under heat stress conditions. The present study evaluates 3 different random bred populations and a common ancestor under both a thermal neutral and heat stress conditions after a 54-D grow-out period. The lines used in this study included the Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), a 1995 Random Bred (95RAN), a 2015 Random Bred (MRB), and a Junglefowl (JF)...
July 2020: Poultry Science
Diana M Ciuculete, Sarah Voisin, Lara Kular, Jörgen Jonsson, Mathias Rask-Andersen, Jessica Mwinyi, Helgi B Schiöth
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how genetics and epigenetics interplay in depression. Evidence suggests that genetic variants may change vulnerability to depression by modulating DNA methylation (DNAm) and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) levels. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the genetic variation, previously identified in the largest genome-wide association study for depression, on proximal DNAm and ncRNA levels. RESULTS: We performed DNAm quantitative trait locus (meQTL) analysis in two independent cohorts (total n = 435 healthy individuals), testing associations between 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and DNAm levels in whole blood...
July 2, 2020: Clinical Epigenetics
Amin Wurita, Koutaro Hasegawa, Hideki Nozawa, Itaru Yamagishi, Kayoko Minakata, Kanako Watanabe, Osamu Suzuki
An autopsy for a suicidal case of a male in his 40s, who had died of poisoning due to ingestion of a large amount of buformin, was performed at our department. Buformin is biganide class agent used for patients of diabetes mellitus, which can occasionally cause severe lactic acidosis. The autopsy was performed about 10 days after his death, and the direct cause of his death was judged as asphyxia due to the aspiration of stomach contents into the airway. The nine body fluids and eight solid tissues specimens were dealt with for investigating postmortem distribution/redistribution of buformin in a whole body; femoral vein blood, right and left heart blood, pericardial fluid, urine, bile, stomach contents, small intestine contents, cerebrospinal fluid, the brain, lung, heart muscle, liver, spleen, kidney and skeletal muscle were examined...
June 20, 2020: Forensic Science International
Pingxian Wu, Kai Wang, Jie Zhou, Dejuan Chen, Xidi Yang, Anan Jiang, Linyuan Shen, Shunhua Zhang, Weihang Xiao, Yanzhi Jiang, Li Zhu, Xuewei Li, Xu Xu, Yangshuang Zeng, Guoqing Tang
The Chinese Qingyu pig breed is an invaluable indigenous genetic resource. However, few studies have investigated the genetic architecture of meat quality traits in Qingyu pigs. Here, 30 purebred Qingyu pigs were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. After quality control, 18,436,759 SNPs were retained. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were then performed for meat pH and color at three postmortem time points (45 min, 24 h and 48 h) using single-marker regression analysis. In total, 11 and 69 SNPs were associated with meat pH and color of the longissimus thoracis muscle (LTM), respectively, while 54 and 29 SNPs were associated with meat pH and color of the semimembranosus muscle (SM), respectively...
July 2, 2020: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Jennifer L Sauter, Marina K Baine, Kelly J Butnor, Darren J Buonocore, Jason C Chang, Achim A Jungbluth, Matthias J Szabolcs, Sejal Morjaria, Sharon L Mount, Natasha Rekhtman, Elena Selbs, Zong-Mei Sheng, Yongli Xiao, David E Kleiner, Stefania Pittaluga, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Amy V Rapkiewicz, William D Travis
INTRODUCTION: We describe postmortem pulmonary histopathologic findings of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with a spectrum of disease course, from rapid demise to prolonged hospitalization. METHODS: Histopathologic findings in postmortem lung tissue from eight patients who died from COVID-19 pneumonia were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and next generation sequencing (NGS) were performed to detect virus. RESULTS: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was seen in all cases with a spectrum of acute phase and/or organizing phase...
July 2, 2020: Histopathology
S M Robertson, J Boulton, G Xie, A Neef, M A Friend
Correct diagnosis of cause of death is necessary to suggest the most effective management interventions to reduce perinatal lamb mortality. Haemorrhage on the surface of the brain has been used as a field diagnostic tool to allocate lambs to a cause of death category, but the usefulness of this method was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate whether gross pathology was related to neuronal death and whether haemorrhage of the central nervous system (CNS) was distinct between differing causes of death, enabling indicators to be used in field diagnoses...
June 17, 2020: Animal
Ryan McGrath, Grant R Tomkinson, Dain P LaRoche, Brenda M Vincent, Colin W Bond, Kyle J Hackney
OBJECTIVES: Assessing handgrip strength (HGS) asymmetry may provide insights into HGS as a prognostic assessment of strength capacity and vitality. This study sought to determine the associations of HGS asymmetry and weakness on time to mortality in aging Americans. DESIGN: Longitudinal panel. SETTING: Secondary analyses of data from participants aged ≥50 years from the 2006‒2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. PARTICIPANTS: The analytic sample included 19,325 Americans who identified hand dominance and had measures of HGS for both hands in a single wave...
June 28, 2020: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Lei Yu, Shinya Tasaki, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Duc M Duong, Aliza P Wingo, Thomas S Wingo, Nicola Kearns, Gregory R J Thatcher, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Importance: Identifying genes and proteins for cognitive resilience (ie, targets that may be associated with slowing or preventing cognitive decline regardless of the presence, number, or combination of common neuropathologic conditions) provides a complementary approach to developing novel therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer disease and related dementias. Objective: To identify proteins associated with cognitive resilience via a proteome-wide association study of the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
July 1, 2020: JAMA Psychiatry
Paola Bonasoni, Gabriele Tonni, Giuseppina Comitini, Veronica Barbieri, Monia Rinaldini, Maria Marinelli
Background : Mosaic trisomy 12 is a genetic condition with few cases diagnosed prenatally and postnatally. Phenotypic variability is wide ranging from normal patients to severe congenital anomalies. Case report: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Prenatal ultrasound was negative. Cultured amniocytes revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+12/46,XX. Parents opted for termination of pregnancy at 22 weeks. Postmortem revealed dysmorphic face; hands with broad thumbs and incomplete transverse palmar creases; partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, intestinal malrotation, and bicornuate uterus...
July 1, 2020: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Takanori Shiga, James K Chambers, Mei Sugawara, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Hajime Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
A 4-year and 10-month old female Pembroke Welsh Corgi presented with an enlarged right popliteal lymph node, and a histopathological diagnosis of nodal marginal zone lymphoma (nMZL) was made. After resection of the lymph node, follow-up observation was continued without chemotherapy. At 22 months after initial presentation, the dog developed enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes, and the histopathological diagnosis was late-stage nMZL. Multidrug chemotherapy induced clinical complete remission, but the tumor relapsed with enlargement of peripheral and abdominal lymph nodes 42 months after initial presentation...
July 2020: Veterinary Pathology
Hans Bösmüller, Selina Traxler, Michael Bitzer, Helene Häberle, Wolfgang Raiser, Dominik Nann, Leonie Frauenfeld, Antonio Vogelsberg, Karin Klingel, Falko Fend
The pandemia of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 355,000 confirmed deaths worldwide. However, publications on postmortem findings are scarce. We present the pulmonary findings in four cases of fatal COVID-19 with a spectrum of lung pathology reflecting disease course and duration, invasive therapies, and laboratory features. Early disease is characterized by neutrophilic, exudative capillaritis with microthrombosis and high levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. Later stages are associated with diffuse alveolar damage and ongoing intravascular thrombosis in small to medium-sized pulmonary vessels, occasionally with areas of infarction equivalents, accompanied by laboratory features of disseminated intravascular coagulation...
June 30, 2020: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Ruben Blachman-Braun, Jordan C Best, W Austin Wyant, Libert Ramos, Emad Ibrahim, Ranjith Ramasamy
Objective: To study the factors that influence men's disposition towards post-mortem disposition of their cryopreserved gametes. Design: A retrospective chart review of sperm cryopreservations between June 2016 and January 2020 was performed. All patients ≥ 18 years of age were included. Samples intended for donation or records with an unspecified reason for preservation were excluded. Setting: A large academic health center. Patients: Participants' (n=217) mean age was 35...
June 2020: F&S reports
Wendy Marks, Steve Burton, Elizabeth Stratton, Eric Zolman, George Biedenbach, Annie Page-Karjian
BACKGROUND: Free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can become entangled in fishing line and other marine debris. Infrequently, dolphins can be successfully disentangled, released back into the wild, and later examined postmortem to better understand the pathology and long-term effects of these entanglements. CASE PRESENTATION: An entangled common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) calf was observed in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA, with monofilament fishing line wrapped tightly around its maxilla...
June 30, 2020: BMC Veterinary Research
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