Marion Falabrègue, Anne-Claire Boschat, Romain Jouffroy, Marieke Derquennes, Haidar Djemai, Sylvia Sanquer, Robert Barouki, Xavier Coumoul, Jean-François Toussaint, Olivier Hermine, Philippe Noirez, Francine Côté
Low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin have been associated with the onset of depression. While traditional treatments include antidepressants, physical exercise has emerged as an alternative for patients with depressive disorders. Yet there remains the fundamental question of how exercise is sensed by the brain. The existence of a muscle-brain endocrine loop has been proposed: according to this scenario, exercise modulates metabolization of tryptophan into kynurenine within skeletal muscle, which in turn affects the brain, enhancing resistance to depression...
2021: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Shu-Rong Ma, Jin-Bo Yu, Jie Fu, Li-Bin Pan, Hang Yu, Pei Han, Zheng-Wei Zhang, Ran Peng, Hui Xu, Yan Wang
It has been reported that monoamine neurotransmitters can be produced by gut microbiota, and that several related metabolites of amino acids in these pathways are associated with nervous system (NVS) diseases. Herein, we focused on three pathways, namely, phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), and glutamic acid (Glu), and established an underivatized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of nineteen monoamine neurotransmitters and related metabolites in the gut microbiota...
March 4, 2021: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Cornelius J Fernandez, Mayuri Agarwal, Biju Pottakkat, Nisha Nigil Haroon, Annu Susan George, Joseph M Pappachan
Our understanding about the epidemiological aspects, pathogenesis, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapies of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have drastically advanced in the past decade. Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NENs originate from the enteroendocrine cells of the embryonic gut which share common endocrine and neural differentiation factors. Most NENs are well-differentiated, and slow growing. Specific neuroendocrine biomarkers that are used in the diagnosis of functional NENs include insulin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, gastrin, somatostatin, adrenocorticotropin, growth hormone releasing hormone, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, serotonin, histamine, and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA)...
March 27, 2021: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Ainitze Labaka, Eneritz Gómez-Lazaro, Olatz Goñi-Balentziaga, Joana Pérez-Tejada, Oscar Vegas, Larraitz Garmendia
Women are twice as likely as men to develop depression and antidepressant treatment is more frequent in females. Moreover, neuroinflammatory changes related to affective disorders differ in accordance with sex. Despite this evidence, female populations have been largely omitted from preclinical experiments studying antidepressants. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential restorative effect of venlafaxine on an animal model of depression. Female CD1 mice were subjected to chronic social instability (CSI) stress for 7 weeks, and were administered venlafaxine during the last 3 weeks of the stress period...
March 26, 2021: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Chen-Chen Li, Long Gan, Yue Tan, Ming-Zhu Yan, Xin-Min Liu, Qi Chang, Rui-Le Pan
Chronic stressors represented risk factors for the etiology or exacerbation of several gastrointestinal diseases. The goal of the present study was to examine whether chronic restraint stress (CRS) could initiate and aggravate colonic inflammation, integrity damage and metabolic disturbance of rats. Firstly, increased inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-10(IL-10)) and decreased tight junction (TJ) proteins (occludin and zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1)) in rat colon were observed...
March 22, 2021: Journal of Proteomics
Lierni Ugartemendia, Rafael Bravo, Martin Reuter, M Yolanda Castaño, Thomas Plieger, Vera Zamoscik, Peter Kirsch, Ana B Rodríguez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In a placebo controlled study we sought to determine if a four-weeks tryptophan-enriched diet is able to improve age-related depression or social cognitive impairment, depending on polymorphisms located in the promoter region of Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4 (SLC6A4), also known as serotonin transporter (SERT1) gene. METHODS: 91 young volunteers (age: 21 ± 2 yrs) and 127 above 50 years old (58 ± 6 yrs) healthy volunteers completed the study...
February 22, 2021: Clinical Nutrition
Trevor J Buhr, Carter H Reed, Allyse Shoeman, Ella E Bauer, Rudy J Valentine, Peter J Clark
Monoamine neurotransmitter activity in brain reward, limbic, and motor areas play key roles in the motivation to misuse alcohol and can become modified by exercise in a manner that may affect alcohol craving. This study investigated the influence of daily moderate physical activity on monoamine-related neurochemical concentrations across the mouse brain in response to high volume ethanol ingestion. Adult female C57BL/6J mice were housed with or without 2.5 h of daily access to running wheels for 30 days. On the last 5 days, mice participated in the voluntary binge-like ethanol drinking procedure, "Drinking in the dark" (DID)...
2021: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Melissa Faria, Eva Prats, Jonathan Ricardo Rosas Ramírez, Marina Bellot, Juliette Bedrossiantz, Maria Pagano, Arnau Valls, Cristian Gomez-Canela, Josep M Porta, Jordi Mestres, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Caterina Faggio, Leobardo Manuel Gómez Oliván, Demetrio Raldua
Fenitrothion is an organophosphorus insecticide usually found in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations in the range of low ng/L. In this manuscript we show that 24 h exposure to environmental concentrations of fenitrothion, from ng/L to low μg/L, altered basal locomotor activity, visual-motor response and acoustic/vibrational escape response of zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, fenitrothion and expression of gap43a, gfap, atp2b1a, and mbp exhibited a significant non-monotonic concentration-response relationship...
February 15, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Nicolas Hoertel, Hélène Cipel, Carlos Blanco, Maria A Oquendo, Pierre Ellul, Edourd Leaune, Frédéric Limosin, Hugo Peyre, Jean-François Costemale-Lacoste
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems may be implied in suicide attempt risk. In addition, although the serotonergic system has been extensively studied, no formal meta-analysis has been performed to examine its association with suicide attempt. METHODS: Using PRISMA methodology, we performed a systematic literature review and random-effects meta-analyses of the differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 5-HIAA, HVA and MHPG between suicide attempters and individuals who never attempted suicide...
February 3, 2021: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Paraskevi C Fragkou, Ioannis A Papadopoulos, Antonios Papadopoulos, Evangelos-Achilleas Kontoveros, Gregory Kaltsas, Foula Vassilara
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) rarely secrete serotonin, which is the main cause of carcinoid syndrome. One of its unusual manifestations is carcinoid heart disease or Hedinger's syndrome which is seldom accompanied by cardiac arrhythmias. We report the case of an 88-year-old woman who presented with recently experienced episodes of palpitations and a newly developed atrial flutter with a ventricular rate of 130 beats per minute. Echocardiography revealed thickened and tethered tricuspid and pulmonary valve leaflets causing severe valvular regurgitation and right ventricular dilatation...
2021: European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine
Julie A Marusich, Elaine A Gay, Scott L Watson, Bruce E Blough
Stimulant-induced neurochemical changes may occur at different times for different brain regions or neurotransmitter systems. This study sought to examine the behavioral and neurochemical effects of extended access to α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) and 4-methylmethcathinone (4MMC). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer α-PVP (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) or 4MMC (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) through autoshaping, and then self-administered for 21 days during 1 h (short access; ShA) or 6 h (long access; LgA) sessions...
February 9, 2021: European Journal of Pharmacology
Zhifeng Zhong, Simin Zhou, Bin Xiang, Yu Wu, Jiaxin Xie, Peng Li
Long-term living at high altitude causes significant impairment of cognitive function. Central neurotransmitters are potential mediators of cognitive performance. We aimed to determine whether there were significant associations between select peripheral plasma neurotransmitters and cognitive performance in humans with chronic high-altitude (HA) exposure and to determine the association between peripheral plasma neurotransmitters and brain neurotransmitters in rats after chronic hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure...
February 2, 2021: Neuroscience
Xu-Dong Ying, Jian-Xiang Chen, Dan-Yu Tu, Yi-Cao Zhuang, Di Wu, Liang Shen
A new non-interpenetrated three-dimensional (3D) pillared-layered TPP-based LMOF [Zn3 (TPyTPP)0.5 (BDC)3 ]·8DMF (denoted as Zn-MOF 1) was successfully prepared (TPyTPP = tetrakis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)pyrazine and H2 BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid). Zn-MOF 1 was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, PXRD, IR, N2 adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and luminescent spectrum. Impressively, luminescent sensing studies reveal that activated Zn-MOF 1 not only displays excellent luminescence-quenching efficiency with the values of high K sv and low LODs toward 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, but also possesses outstanding sensing characteristics in terms of fast response, high sensitivity, and specific selectivity...
February 1, 2021: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maria Wedin, Sagar Mehta, Jenny Angerås-Kraftling, Göran Wallin, Kosmas Daskalakis
Our aim was to investigate the clinical utility of serum 5HIAA for disease surveillance and diagnostic purposes in a cohort of patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (WD-NENs). Forty-eight patients with WD-NENs and concurrent serum and urinary 5HIAA testing, as well as CT/MRI imaging, were included. Analysis of matching-pairs did not reveal any association between RECIST 1.1 responses and changes in serum 5HIAA levels ( p = 0.673). In addition, no correlation was evident between RECIST 1...
January 21, 2021: Biology
S R Santhosh, S Sampath, A Gupta
Background: Determination of ethanol levels in aircraft accident victims constitutes an important part of investigation. However, postmortem production of alcohol by microbial fermentation is known to interfere with the results. Distinguishing postmortem produced alcohols from antemortem ingested is very important in interpretation of results. Ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) metabolites of serotonin, has known to provide a convenient, rapid, and reliable solution as antemortem ethanol leads to an elevation in the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio after ingestion of alcohol (5-HTOL/5-HIAA = >15 pm/nm)...
January 2021: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Lucie Barateau, Isabelle Jaussent, Julien Roeser, Claudio Ciardiello, Thomas S Kilduff, Yves Dauvilliers
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Whether the cause of daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a direct consequence of the loss of orexin neurons or whether low orexin reduces the efficacy of the monoaminergic systems to promote wakefulness is unclear. The neurobiology underlying sleepiness in other central hypersomnolence disorders, narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), is currently unknown. METHODS: Eleven biogenic amines including the monoaminergic neurotransmitters and their metabolites and five trace amines were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 94 drug-free subjects evaluated at the French National Reference Center for Narcolepsy: 39 NT1(orexin-deficient) patients, 31 patients with objective sleepiness non-orexin deficient (NT2 and IH), and 24 patients without objective sleepiness...
January 21, 2021: Sleep
Cezary Chojnacki, Tomasz Popławski, Anita Gasiorowska, Jan Chojnacki, Janusz Blasiak
Lymphocytic colitis (LC) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and colonic intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is reported to increase in certain colon diseases; however, little is known regarding its metabolism in LC. In the present work, the level of 5-HT in serum and the number of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) as well as the expression of the 5-HT rate-limiting enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) in colonic biopsies and urine 5-hydroxyindoeoacetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined in 36 LC patients that were treated with budesonide and 32 healthy controls...
January 14, 2021: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Zackery W Reavis, Nikhil Mirjankar, Srikant Sarangi, Stephen H Boyle, Cynthia M Kuhn, Wayne R Matson, Michael A Babyak, Samantha A Matson, Ilene C Siegler, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Edward C Suarez, Redford B Williams, Katherine Grichnik, Mark Stafford-Smith, Anastasia Georgiades
INTRODUCTION: Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites in large, healthy samples have been limited and potential demographic moderators of brain metabolism are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this study was to examine sex and race differences in 33 CSF metabolites within a sample of 129 healthy individuals (37 African American women, 29 white women, 38 African American men, and 25 white men). METHODS: CSF metabolites were measured with a targeted electrochemistry-based metabolomics platform...
January 18, 2021: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Daisuke Matsunaga, Hikaru Nakagawa, Takayuki Ishiwata
Physical exercise is beneficial to both physical and mental health, though it is unclear whether voluntary and forced exercise have the same effects. We investigated the effects of chronic forced and voluntary wheel running on brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and anxiety-like behavioral change in rats. Forty-eight rats were randomly assigned to standard cages (sedentary control: SC); voluntary exercise (free running on a wheel, V-EX); voluntary limited exercise (wheel available only 1 h per day, VL-EX); and forced exercise (running on a motorized wheel, F-EX)...
December 26, 2020: Neuroscience Letters
Ying Guo, Qiuying Li, Xiahui Yu, Yuhua Liang
Rhubarb anthraquinone glycosides (RAGs) have been proven to have significant therapeutic effects on ischaemic stroke, and this effect may be related to the "Microbiome-gut-brain axis". In this study, an HPLC-FLD method was established to measure brain-gut neurotransmitters of rats with cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI), to explore whether the mechanism of RAGs against CIRI is related to the microbiome-gut-brain axis. A SHIMADZU ODS-3 C18 column was employed for chromatographic separation, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined simultaneously...
December 29, 2020: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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