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Inclusion body snake

Raquel Rinaldi Russo, Nilton Nascimento Dos Santos Júnior, Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Victor Hugo Aquino
The global emergence and re-emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) over the past four decades have become a public health crisis of international concern, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. A limited number of vaccines against arboviruses are available for use in humans; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop antiviral compounds. Snake venoms are rich sources of bioactive compounds with potential for antiviral prospection. The major component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom is a heterodimeric complex called crotoxin, which is constituted by an inactive peptide (crotapotin) and a phospholipase A2 (PLA2 -CB)...
February 26, 2019: Archives of Virology
Jussi Hepojoki, Satu Hepojoki, Teemu Smura, Leonóra Szirovicza, Eva Dervas, Barbara Prähauser, Lisbeth Nufer, Elisabeth M Schraner, Olli Vapalahti, Anja Kipar, Udo Hetzel
The family Arenaviridae comprises three genera, Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus and the most recently added Hartmanivirus. Arenaviruses have a bisegmented genome with ambisense coding strategy. For mammarenaviruses and reptarenaviruses the L segment encodes the Z protein (ZP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the S segment encodes the glycoprotein precursor and the nucleoprotein. Herein we report the full length genome and characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1), the putative type species of hartmaniviruses...
November 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Vishwanath Hebbi, P Kathiresan, Devendra Kumar, Claire Komives, Anurag S Rathore
BACKGROUND: Purification of peptides offers unique challenges with respect to obtaining the desired process yield and selectivity. Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Factor (LTNF) is a peptide that is known to neutralize snake venom in mice when the peptide is preincubated with the venom prior to intravenous injection. A process for producing highly purified recombinant LTNF has been developed. The process has been modelled in SuperPro designer using laboratory data for a plant capable of producing 10 Kg of purified rLTNF...
April 2018: Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Fabia Wyss, Martin Schneiter, Udo Hetzel, Fta Pathologie, Saskia Keller, Martin Frenz, Jaroslav Rička, Jean-Michel Hatt
Pneumonia is a common complication of boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) in snakes. The tracheal mucociliary apparatus of eight boas ( Boa constrictor) and two pythons ( Python regius, Morelia viridis) was examined to assess whether absent or reduced mucociliary clearance could be a predisposing factor. Nine of the examined snakes were positive for BIBD by detection of inclusion bodies and three had lung pathologies other than the formation of inclusion bodies. A considerable individual variation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF, 3...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Norma A Valdez-Cruz, Greta I Reynoso-Cereceda, Saumel Pérez-Rodriguez, Sara Restrepo-Pineda, Jesus González-Santana, Alejandro Olvera, Guadalupe Zavala, Alejandro Alagón, Mauricio A Trujillo-Roldán
BACKGROUND: Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. Cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli with orbital mixing (OM) have an oxygen limitation negatively affecting biomass growth and recombinant-protein production. With the aim to improve mixing and aeration in shake flask cultures, we analyzed cultures subjected to OM and the novel resonant acoustic mixing (RAM) by applying acoustic energy to E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3): a producer of recombinant phospholipase A2 (rPLA2) from Micrurus laticollaris snake venom...
July 25, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Mark D Stenglein, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Valentina E Garcia, Marylee L Layton, Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Scott M Boback, M Kevin Keel, Tracy Drazenovich, Michelle G Hawkins, Joseph L DeRisi
Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Saskia Keller, Udo Hetzel, Tarja Sironen, Yegor Korzyukov, Olli Vapalahti, Anja Kipar, Jussi Hepojoki
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae). Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Yusuf Abba, Hasliza Hassim, Hazilawati Hamzah, Omar Emad Ibrahim, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Mohamed Mustapha Noordin
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2...
March 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Juan F Ortiz, Antonis Rokas
Closely spaced clusters of tandemly duplicated genes (CTDGs) contribute to the diversity of many phenotypes, including chemosensation, snake venom, and animal body plans. CTDGs have traditionally been identified subjectively as genomic neighborhoods containing several gene duplicates in close proximity; however, CTDGs are often highly variable with respect to gene number, intergenic distance, and synteny. This lack of formal definition hampers the study of CTDG evolutionary dynamics and the discovery of novel CTDGs in the exponentially growing body of genomic data...
January 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
L Chang, D Fu, M D Stenglein, J A Hernandez, J L DeRisi, E R Jacobson
Inclusion body disease (IBD) of boas and pythons is characterized by the intracytoplasmic accumulation of an antigenic 68 kDa viral protein IBDP, more recently known as the nucleoprotein (NP) of the reptarenaviruses. Blood samples of 131 captive boas and pythons (53 boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; 35 rainbow boas, Epicrates cenchria; 22 ball pythons, Python regius; 5 carpet pythons, Morelia spilota; 6 Burmese pythons, Python bivittatus; 4 Jamaican boas, Epicrates subflavus; 5 anacondas, Eunectes spp.; and 1 green tree python, Morelia viridis) were obtained from 28 collections in the USA...
December 2016: Veterinary Journal
M A Shulepko, E N Lyukmanova, Z O Shenkarev, P V Dubovskii, M V Astapova, A V Feofanov, A S Arseniev, Y N Utkin, M P Kirpichnikov, D A Dolgikh
Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the 'three-finger' protein superfamily (Ly6/uPAR family) which includes small β-structural proteins (60-90 residues) with high disulfide bond content (4-5 disulfides). Due to a high cytotoxic activity for cancer cells, cytotoxins are considered as potential anticancer agents. Development of the high-throughput production methods is required for the prospective applications of cytotoxins. Here, efficient approach for bacterial production of recombinant analogue of cytotoxin I from N...
February 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Herlinda Clement, Vianey Flores, Guillermo De la Rosa, Fernando Zamudio, Alejandro Alagon, Gerardo Corzo
BACKGROUND: The cysteine-rich neurotoxins from elapid venoms are primarily responsible for human and animal envenomation; however, their low concentration in the venom may hamper the production of efficient elapid antivenoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce fully active elapid neurotoxic immunogens for elapid antivenom production. METHOD: Cysteine-rich neurotoxins showed recombinant expression in two strains of E. coli, and were purified using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC (rpHPLC)...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Yegor Korzyukov, Udo Hetzel, Anja Kipar, Olli Vapalahti, Jussi Hepojoki
Immunoglobulins (Igs), the key effectors of the adaptive immune system, mediate the specific recognition of foreign structures, i.e. antigens. In mammals, IgM production commonly precedes the production of IgG in the response to an infection. The reptilian counterpart of IgG is IgY, but the exact kinetics of the reptilian immune response are less well known. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD), an often fatal disease of captive boas and pythons has been linked to reptarenavirus infection, and BIBD is believed to be immunosuppressive...
2016: PloS One
Maureen K Purcell, Schuyler Pearman-Gillman, Rachel L Thompson, Jacob L Gregg, Lucas M Hart, James R Winton, Eveline J Emmenegger, Paul K Hershberger
Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Yusuf Abba, Hasliza Hassim, Hazilawati Hamzah, Omar Emad Ibrahim, Yusuf Ilyasu, Faruku Bande, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Mohamed Mustapha Noordin
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boids caused by reptarenavirus. In this study, tissue from naturally infected boid snakes were homogenized and propagated in African Monkey kidney (Vero) and rat embryonic fibroblast (REF) cells. Virus replication was determined by the presence of cytopathic effect, while viral morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Viral RNA was amplified using RT-PCR with primers specific for the L-segment of reptarenavirus; similarly, quantification of viral replication was done using qPCR at 24-144 h postinfection...
October 2016: Virus Genes
T Aqrawi, A C Stöhr, T Knauf-Witzens, A Krengel, K O Heckers, R E Marschang
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have described the detection and characterisation of new, snake specific arenaviruses in boas and pythons with inclusion body disease (IBD). The objective of this study was to detect arenaviral RNA in live snakes and to determine if these were associated with IBD in all cases. Samples for arenavirus detection in live animals were compared. Detected viruses were compared in order to understand their genetic variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esophageal swabs and whole blood was collected from a total of 28 boas and pythons...
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
J Hepojoki, P Salmenperä, T Sironen, U Hetzel, Y Korzyukov, A Kipar, O Vapalahti
Recently, novel arenaviruses were found in snakes with boid inclusion body disease (BIBD); these form the new genus Reptarenavirus within the family Arenaviridae. We used next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly to investigate reptarenavirus isolates from our previous study. Four of the six isolates and all of the samples from snakes with BIBD contained at least two reptarenavirus species. The viruses sequenced comprise four novel reptarenavirus species and a representative of a new arenavirus genus...
August 2015: Journal of Virology
Morena B Wernick, José Novo-Matos, Alessia Ebling, Karolin Kühn, Maja Ruetten, Monika Hilbe, Judith Howard, Rita Chang, Sarah Prohaska, Jean-Michel Hatt
An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension...
March 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Tom Hellebuyck, Frank Pasmans, Richard Ducatelle, Veronique Saey, An Martel
A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass...
March 2015: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Jussi Hepojoki, Anja Kipar, Yegor Korzyukov, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Olli Vapalahti, Udo Hetzel
UNLABELLED: Boid inclusion body disease (BIDB) is a fatal disease of boid snakes, the etiology of which has only recently been revealed following the identification of several novel arenaviruses in diseased snakes. BIBD-associated arenaviruses (BIBDAV) are genetically divergent from the classical Old and New World arenaviruses and also differ substantially from each other. Even though there is convincing evidence that BIBDAV are indeed the etiological agent of BIBD, the BIBDAV reservoir hosts--if any exist besides boid snakes themselves--are not yet known...
January 15, 2015: Journal of Virology
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