Christoph Leineweber, Jules Simard, Ekaterina Kolesnik, Tom Hellebuyck, Rachel E Marschang
Reptarenaviruses infect a variety of boid and pythonid snake species worldwide and have been shown to be the cause of inclusion body disease (IBD). Little is known about the correlations between virus infection and clinical disease, as well as the effects of viral infection on the immune system and the blood protein fractions. The goal of this study was to examine the differences in the plasma protein fractions in reptarenavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-negative and -positive tested snakes with and without clinical signs of disease...
June 2020: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Rachel E Marschang
Viruses are the cause of several important diseases in reptiles. In recent years, numerous novel reptile-infecting viruses have been discovered. There are also an increasing number of tests available for detecting viral infections in these animals. This review offers an overview of common and important viral infections in reptiles, the associated diseases as well as their diagnosis. Specific viruses presented include those infecting reptiles commonly kept as pets, specifically squamates (snakes and lizards), turtles, and tortoises...
April 2020: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Yegor Korzyukov, Rommel Iheozor-Ejiofor, Lev Levanov, Teemu Smura, Udo Hetzel, Leonora Szirovicza, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Anja Kipar, Olli Vapalahti, Jussi Hepojoki
Reptarenaviruses cause Boid Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD), and co-infections by several reptarenaviruses are common in affected snakes. Reptarenaviruses have only been found in captive snakes, and their reservoir hosts remain unknown. In affected animals, reptarenaviruses appear to replicate in most cell types, but their complete host range, as well as tissue and cell tropism are unknown. As with other enveloped viruses, the glycoproteins (GPs) present on the virion's surface mediate reptarenavirus cell entry, and therefore, the GPs play a critical role in the virus cell and tissue tropism...
April 2, 2020: Viruses
Fernando Froner Argenta, Jussi Hepojoki, Teemu Smura, Leonora Szirovicza, Márcia Elisa Hammerschmitt, David Driemeier, Anja Kipar, Udo Hetzel
Boid Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD) is a transmissible viral disease of captive snakes that causes severe losses in snake collections worldwide. It is caused by reptarenavirus infection, which can persist over several years without overt signs, but is generally associated with the eventual death of the affected snakes. Thus far, reports have confirmed existence of reptarenaviruses in captive snakes in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia, but there is no evidence that it also occurs in wild snakes. BIBD affects boa species within the subfamily Boinae and pythons in the family Pythonidae , the habitats of which do not naturally overlap...
April 1, 2020: Journal of Virology
Janosch Dietz, Ekaterina Kolesnik, Kim O Heckers, Marc-Niklas Klingberg, Rachel E Marschang
A group of eight Wagler's pit vipers ( Tropidolaemus wagleri ) from a private collection died with respiratory signs within 6 mo of one another. The group consisted of an adult breeding pair that was wild caught and six offspring from this pair. Four of the dead snakes were submitted for gross and histopathology. Signs of bacterial pneumonia were detected in all four examined snakes. No inclusion bodies suggestive of viral infection were found in any of the examined tissues. Polymerase chain reactions for the detection of ferla-, adeno-, reo-, and nidoviruses were all negative, but reptarenaviruses closely related to viruses previously described in boa constrictors ( Boa constrictor ) with inclusion body disease were detected in two of the four snakes...
March 17, 2020: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jules Simard, Rachel E Marschang, Christoph Leineweber, Tom Hellebuyck
Inclusion body disease (IBD) is caused by reptarenaviruses and constitutes one of the most notorious viral diseases in snakes. Although central nervous system disease and various other clinical signs have been attributed to IBD in boid and pythonid snakes, studies that unambiguously reveal the clinical course of natural IBD and reptarenavirus infection are scarce. In the present study, the prevalence of IBD and reptarenaviruses in captive snake collections and the correlation of IBD and reptarenavirus infection with the clinical status of the sampled snakes were investigated...
2020: PloS One
Katharina Windbichler, Eleni Michalopoulou, Pia Palamides, Theresa Pesch, Christine Jelinek, Olli Vapalahti, Anja Kipar, Udo Hetzel, Jussi Hepojoki
Boid Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD) is a potentially fatal disease reported in captive boid snakes worldwide that is caused by reptarenavirus infection. Although the detection of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB) in blood cells serves as the gold standard for the ante mortem diagnosis of BIBD, the mechanisms underlying IB formation and the pathogenesis of BIBD are unknown. Knowledge on the reptile immune system is sparse compared to the mammalian counterpart, and in particular the response towards reptarenavirus infection is practically unknown...
2019: PloS One
T H Hyndman, R E Marschang, M Bruce, P Clark, S D Vitali
BACKGROUND: Inclusion body disease (IBD) is a disease of snakes with a global distribution and has recently been shown to be caused by reptarenaviruses. Testing for this group of viruses in asymptomatic snakes allows the association between infection and disease to be further elucidated. METHODS: A reptarenavirus was detected by RT-PCR in a reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus) from an Australian zoological collection that was open-mouth breathing and had erythematous oral mucosa...
April 2019: Australian Veterinary Journal
Raquel Rinaldi Russo, Nilton Nascimento Dos Santos Júnior, Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Victor Hugo Aquino
The global emergence and re-emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) over the past four decades have become a public health crisis of international concern, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. A limited number of vaccines against arboviruses are available for use in humans; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop antiviral compounds. Snake venoms are rich sources of bioactive compounds with potential for antiviral prospection. The major component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom is a heterodimeric complex called crotoxin, which is constituted by an inactive peptide (crotapotin) and a phospholipase A2 (PLA2 -CB)...
February 26, 2019: Archives of Virology
Jussi Hepojoki, Satu Hepojoki, Teemu Smura, Leonóra Szirovicza, Eva Dervas, Barbara Prähauser, Lisbeth Nufer, Elisabeth M Schraner, Olli Vapalahti, Anja Kipar, Udo Hetzel
The family Arenaviridae comprises three genera, Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus and the most recently added Hartmanivirus. Arenaviruses have a bisegmented genome with ambisense coding strategy. For mammarenaviruses and reptarenaviruses the L segment encodes the Z protein (ZP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the S segment encodes the glycoprotein precursor and the nucleoprotein. Herein we report the full length genome and characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1), the putative type species of hartmaniviruses...
November 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Vishwanath Hebbi, P Kathiresan, Devendra Kumar, Claire Komives, Anurag S Rathore
BACKGROUND: Purification of peptides offers unique challenges with respect to obtaining the desired process yield and selectivity. Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Factor (LTNF) is a peptide that is known to neutralize snake venom in mice when the peptide is preincubated with the venom prior to intravenous injection. A process for producing highly purified recombinant LTNF has been developed. The process has been modelled in SuperPro designer using laboratory data for a plant capable of producing 10 Kg of purified rLTNF...
April 2018: Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Fabia Wyss, Martin Schneiter, Udo Hetzel, Fta Pathologie, Saskia Keller, Martin Frenz, Jaroslav Rička, Jean-Michel Hatt
Pneumonia is a common complication of boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) in snakes. The tracheal mucociliary apparatus of eight boas ( Boa constrictor) and two pythons ( Python regius, Morelia viridis) was examined to assess whether absent or reduced mucociliary clearance could be a predisposing factor. Nine of the examined snakes were positive for BIBD by detection of inclusion bodies and three had lung pathologies other than the formation of inclusion bodies. A considerable individual variation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF, 3...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Norma A Valdez-Cruz, Greta I Reynoso-Cereceda, Saumel Pérez-Rodriguez, Sara Restrepo-Pineda, Jesus González-Santana, Alejandro Olvera, Guadalupe Zavala, Alejandro Alagón, Mauricio A Trujillo-Roldán
BACKGROUND: Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. Cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli with orbital mixing (OM) have an oxygen limitation negatively affecting biomass growth and recombinant-protein production. With the aim to improve mixing and aeration in shake flask cultures, we analyzed cultures subjected to OM and the novel resonant acoustic mixing (RAM) by applying acoustic energy to E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3): a producer of recombinant phospholipase A2 (rPLA2) from Micrurus laticollaris snake venom...
July 25, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Mark D Stenglein, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Valentina E Garcia, Marylee L Layton, Laura L Hoon-Hanks, Scott M Boback, M Kevin Keel, Tracy Drazenovich, Michelle G Hawkins, Joseph L DeRisi
Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Saskia Keller, Udo Hetzel, Tarja Sironen, Yegor Korzyukov, Olli Vapalahti, Anja Kipar, Jussi Hepojoki
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae). Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Yusuf Abba, Hasliza Hassim, Hazilawati Hamzah, Omar Emad Ibrahim, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Mohamed Mustapha Noordin
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2...
March 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Juan F Ortiz, Antonis Rokas
Closely spaced clusters of tandemly duplicated genes (CTDGs) contribute to the diversity of many phenotypes, including chemosensation, snake venom, and animal body plans. CTDGs have traditionally been identified subjectively as genomic neighborhoods containing several gene duplicates in close proximity; however, CTDGs are often highly variable with respect to gene number, intergenic distance, and synteny. This lack of formal definition hampers the study of CTDG evolutionary dynamics and the discovery of novel CTDGs in the exponentially growing body of genomic data...
January 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
L Chang, D Fu, M D Stenglein, J A Hernandez, J L DeRisi, E R Jacobson
Inclusion body disease (IBD) of boas and pythons is characterized by the intracytoplasmic accumulation of an antigenic 68 kDa viral protein IBDP, more recently known as the nucleoprotein (NP) of the reptarenaviruses. Blood samples of 131 captive boas and pythons (53 boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; 35 rainbow boas, Epicrates cenchria; 22 ball pythons, Python regius; 5 carpet pythons, Morelia spilota; 6 Burmese pythons, Python bivittatus; 4 Jamaican boas, Epicrates subflavus; 5 anacondas, Eunectes spp.; and 1 green tree python, Morelia viridis) were obtained from 28 collections in the USA...
December 2016: Veterinary Journal
M A Shulepko, E N Lyukmanova, Z O Shenkarev, P V Dubovskii, M V Astapova, A V Feofanov, A S Arseniev, Y N Utkin, M P Kirpichnikov, D A Dolgikh
Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the 'three-finger' protein superfamily (Ly6/uPAR family) which includes small β-structural proteins (60-90 residues) with high disulfide bond content (4-5 disulfides). Due to a high cytotoxic activity for cancer cells, cytotoxins are considered as potential anticancer agents. Development of the high-throughput production methods is required for the prospective applications of cytotoxins. Here, efficient approach for bacterial production of recombinant analogue of cytotoxin I from N...
February 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Herlinda Clement, Vianey Flores, Guillermo De la Rosa, Fernando Zamudio, Alejandro Alagon, Gerardo Corzo
BACKGROUND: The cysteine-rich neurotoxins from elapid venoms are primarily responsible for human and animal envenomation; however, their low concentration in the venom may hamper the production of efficient elapid antivenoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce fully active elapid neurotoxic immunogens for elapid antivenom production. METHOD: Cysteine-rich neurotoxins showed recombinant expression in two strains of E. coli, and were purified using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC (rpHPLC)...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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