Chee Wai Wong, Andrew Tsai, Jost B Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, James Chen, Marcus Ang, Daniel Shu Wei Ting
PURPOSE: To review the impact of increased digital device usage arising from lockdown measures instituted during the COVID-19 pandemic on myopia, and make recommendations for mitigating potential detrimental effects on myopia control. DESIGN: Perspective METHODS: Review of studies focused on digital device usage, near work, and outdoor time in relation to myopia onset and progression. Public health policies on myopia control, recommendations on screen time and information pertaining to the impact of COVID-19 on increased digital device use were presented...
July 29, 2020: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Kirkke Reisberg, Eva-Maria Riso, Jaak Jürimäe
The purpose of the study was to assess the longitudinal associations of physical activity (PA) with body composition and physical fitness (PF) at the 12-month follow-up during the transition from kindergarten to school in Estonian children aged 6 to 8 years (n=147). PAand sedentary behaviour (SB) were assessed using the accelerometer. Body composition was measured from triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and PF using PREFIT test battery. SB at the mean age of 6.6 yr had negative relation with upper and lower body strength and motor fitness at the mean age of 7...
August 1, 2020: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Brigitte Fuchs, Husref Tahirović
The focus of this article is on the biography and medical activity of Gisela Januszewska (née Rosenfeld) in Austro-Hungarian (AH) occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) between 1899 and 1912. Rosenfeld, later Januszewska and then Kuhn(ová) by marriage, was the fifth of a total of nine official female physicians who were employed by the AH administration to improve the health and hygienic conditions among Bosnian and Bosnian Muslim women. In 1893, Gisela Kuhn moved from Brno, Moravia to Switzerland to pursue her medical studies; she was awarded her Doctorate in Medicine (MD) from the University of Zurich in 1898...
April 2020: Acta Medica Academica
Xi-Jian Dai, Yang Yang, Na Wang, Weiqun Tao, Jingyi Fan, Yongjun Wang
A new method, called granger causality density (GCD), could reflect the directed information flow of the epileptiform activity, which is much closely match with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance theory of epilepsy. Here, we investigated if GCD could effectively localize the Rolandic focus in 50 patients with benign childhood epilepsy with central-temporal spikes (BECTS) from 27 normal children. The BECTS were classified into ictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs; 12 females, 15 males;age, 8.15 ± 1.68 years) and non-IEDs (10 females, 13 males; age, 9...
July 31, 2020: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Karlijn A L Hasaart, Freek Manders, Marie-Louise van der Hoorn, Mark Verheul, Tomasz Poplonski, Ewart Kuijk, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Ruben van Boxtel
Children show a higher incidence of leukemia compared to young adolescents, yet their cells have less age-related (oncogenic) somatic mutations. Newborns with Down syndrome have an even higher risk of developing leukemia, which is thought to be driven by mutations that accumulate during fetal development. To characterize mutation accumulation in individual stem and progenitor cells of Down syndrome and karyotypically normal fetuses, we clonally expanded single cells and performed whole-genome sequencing. We found a higher mutation rate in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during fetal development compared to the post-infant rate...
July 31, 2020: Scientific Reports
Jan Szczypiński, Anna Alińska, Marek Waligóra, Maciej Kopera, Aleksandra Krasowska, Aneta Michalska, Hubert Suszek, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Marek Wypych, Marcin Wojnar, Artur Marchewka
Theory of mind plays a fundamental role in human social interactions. People generally better understand the mental states of members of their own race, a predisposition called the own-race bias, which can be significantly reduced by experience. It is unknown whether the ability to understand mental states can be similarly influenced by own-age bias, whether this bias can be reduced by experience and, finally, what the neuronal correlates of this processes are. We evaluate whether adults working with children (WC) have an advantage over adults not working with children (NWC) in understanding the mental states of youngsters...
July 31, 2020: Scientific Reports
Weisha Luan, Chen-Zhi Hao, Jia-Qi Li, Qing Wei, Jing-Yu Gong, Yi-Ling Qiu, Yi Lu, Cong-Huan Shen, Qiang Xia, Xin-Bao Xie, Mei-Hong Zhang, Kuerbanjiang Abuduxikuer, Zhong-Die Li, Li Wang, Qing-He Xing, A S Knisely, Jian-She Wang
BACKGROUND: For many children with intrahepatic cholestasis and high-serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity, a genetic aetiology of hepatobiliary disease remains undefined. We sought to identify novel genes mutated in children with idiopathic high-GGT intrahepatic cholestasis, with clinical, histopathological and functional correlations. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 25 children with undiagnosed high-GGT cholestasis and without clinical features of biliary-tract infection or radiological features of choledochal malformation, sclerosing cholangitis or cholelithiasis...
July 31, 2020: Journal of Medical Genetics
Oscar M Cañete, Suzanne C Purdy, Colin R S Brown, Michel Neeff, Peter R Thorne
OBJECTIVE: To explore the behavioural and functional performance of a group of children with conductive unilateral hearing loss (UHL) due to congenital aural atresia. METHOD: Twelve children aged 7 to 16 years (Mage 10.0, SD 3.1 years) formed the UHL group and 15 age-matched children (Mage 9.5, SD 3.6 years) with normal hearing formed the control group. Auditory skills were assessed using tests of sound localisation, spatial speech perception in noise, and self-ratings of auditory abilities (Listening Inventory for Education; LIFE and Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale; SSQ)...
July 28, 2020: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
S Vukusic, L Michel, S Leguy, C Lebrun-Frenay
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually diagnosed between twenty and forty years of age, when people often plan to have children. A lot has been said about the effect of pregnancy on the course of MS. The individual factors responsible for the disease modifying effect of pregnancy are not well determined. Having MS neither affects the fertility or the course of pregnancy itself. During pregnancy, many women find that their symptoms stay the same or even improve. Epidural and spinal analgesia appear to be safe and in general are not contraindicated for patients with MS...
July 28, 2020: Revue Neurologique
Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga, Ian Colman, Gary S Goldfield, Ian Janssen, JianLi Wang, Hayley A Hamilton, Jean-Philippe Chaput
BACKGROUND: The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth recommend ≥60 min of physical activity per day, ≤2 h of recreational screen time per day, and 9-11 hours of sleep per night for 11-13 years old and 8-10 hours per night for 14-17 years old. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between combinations of these recommendations and school bullying and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among adolescents. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 5615 Canadian students (mean age = 15...
July 28, 2020: Child Abuse & Neglect
Pedro T B S Branco, Maria C M Alvim-Ferraz, Fernando G Martins, Catarina Ferraz, Luísa G Vaz, Sofia I V Sousa
Poor indoor air quality in scholar environments have been frequently reported, but its impact on respiratory health in schoolchildren has not been sufficiently explored. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between children's exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) in nursery and primary schools and childhood asthma. Multivariate models (independent and multipollutant) quantified the associations of children's exposure with asthma-related health outcomes: reported active wheezing, reported and diagnosed asthma, and lung function (reduced FEV1 /FVC and reduced FEV1 )...
July 18, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
E K Howie, J A McVeigh, A J Smith, J Zabatiero, R S Bucks, T A Mori, L J Beilin, L M Straker
Physical activity has been associated with physical and mental health across the life course, yet few studies have used group-based trajectory modelling to examine the effect of longitudinal patterns of physical activity during childhood and adolescence on adult health outcomes. The Raine Study data from Gen2 follow-ups at 8, 10, 14, 17, 20, and 22 years collected between 1998 and 2014 were used. Latent class analysis identified trajectories using parent-reported physical activity for ages 8 to 17. Associations between trajectories and physical and mental health outcomes at ages 20 and 22 were explored, adjusting for current physical activity and considering sex interactions...
July 28, 2020: Preventive Medicine
Indranil Kushare, Ramesh Babu Ghanta, Nicole A Wunderlich
PURPOSE: To describe the largest case series of lower extremity traumatic internal degloving injury i.e. Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) in the pediatric and adolescent population, its treatment and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients under 18 years who presented with MLL to a tertiary children's hospital. Demographic, clinical, radiographic, treatment and outcomes data were collected. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted. RESULTS: 38 patients having MLL with mean age 14...
July 31, 2020: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Mangala M Soundarapandian, Christine A Juliana, Jinghua Chai, Patrick A Haslett, Kevin Fitzgerald, Diva D De León
There is a significant unmet need for a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of children with congenital hyperinsulinism. We hypothesized that amplification of the glucagon signaling pathway could ameliorate hyperinsulinism associated hypoglycemia. In order to test this we evaluated the effects of loss of Prkar1a, a negative regulator of Protein Kinase A in the context of hyperinsulinemic conditions. With reduction of Prkar1a expression, we observed a significant upregulation of hepatic gluconeogenic genes...
2020: PloS One
Samileh Noorbakhsh, Ali Asghar Rabiei, Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh, Morteza Haghighi, Sarvenaz Ashouri
BACKGROUND: Bacteria induced sepsis is common in infants and children Staphylococcus aureus produces numerous exotoxins; like staphylococcal Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST- 1) which stimulate the immune system by T cell activation and inflammation in various organs. Recent studies suggest that staphylococcal toxins; generally named super antigens (SAgs) may also have a significant role in the pathogenesis of some pediatric disorders especially in clinical presentation of sepsis and septic shock...
July 31, 2020: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Stuart J Johnstone, Han Jiang, Li Sun, Jeffrey M Rogers, Joaquin Valderrama, Dawei Zhang
Changes in EEG when moving from an eyes-closed to an eyes-open resting condition result from bottom-up sensory processing and have been referred to as activation. In children, activation is characterized by a global reduction in alpha, frontally present reductions for delta and theta, and a frontal increase for beta. The present study aimed to replicate frontal EEG activation effects using single-channel, dry-sensor EEG, and to extend current understanding by examining developmental change in children. Frontal EEG was recorded using a single-channel, dry-sensor EEG device while 182 children aged 7 to 12 years completed eyes-closed resting (EC), eyes-open resting (EO), and focus (FO) tasks...
July 31, 2020: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Marina Martinez-Garri, Kenan Haver, Debra Boyer, Katherine Nimkin, Mary Beth Son, Benjamin A Nelson
'The New England Pediatric Pulmonary Consortium (NEPPC; Participating institutions include: MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston Children's Hospital, UMass Memorial Medical Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston Medical Center, Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary, Dartmouth Hitchcock) was founded in 1983. Physicians and trainees discuss and debate active cases involving pediatric patients with respiratory disease. The following dynamic case analysis based upon presentations at the NEPPC takes the reader through an iterative, experiential learning approach while promoting active learning...
July 31, 2020: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yuhui Wang, Qi Zhou, Mengqi Xu, Jian Kang, Yaolong Chen
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in China in December 2019, the epidemic has continued to spread globally. Despite continuous reports of clinical trials being launched, no studies have yet systematically summarized and analysed their characteristics. Our objective is to do this by reviewing trials registered at METHODS: We searched the database and retrieved all clinical trials on COVID-19 registered up to and including 3 April 2020...
July 30, 2020: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Ana L García-López, Jeanett Hernández-Castillo, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Arturo Ortega
Fluoride, a pollutant present in contaminated ground water, oral care products, food, and pesticides, has deleterious effects in the structure and function of the central nervous system. Among the established neurological defects described in the exposed population, a reduced score in intelligence quotient tests in children of contaminated areas has gained attention over the past years. Maternal fluoride exposure during gestation decreases learning and memory abilities that correlate with a significant diminution of glutamate receptors expression...
July 31, 2020: Neurotoxicity Research
Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor, Luciana Domênico Queiroz, Mariana Coutinho Sancas, Ana Carolina Batista Brochado, Janaína Spoladore, Andréa Fonseca-Gonçalves, Tatiana Kelly S Fidalgo, Liana Bastos Freitas-Fernandes, Ana Paula Valente, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de Souza, Laura Guimarães Primo, Gutemberg Gomes Alves
Evaluate the cytocompatibility of Calen® /ZO, Calcicur® , Vitapex® , Endoflas® , and zinc oxide/eugenol-based (ZOE) root canal pastes (RCP) to human primary osteoblasts (HPO) through a simplified model for primary teeth. The model employed pipette tips filled with 0.037 g of paste, exposed to 185 µL of culture medium for 24 h (n = 6). Release of components was analysed by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1 H-NMR). HPO were exposed to conditioned media for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by cell density and metabolic activity, and release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by immunological assay...
July 30, 2020: Odontology
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