Pilar Martín, Rafael Blanco-Domínguez, Raquel Sánchez-Díaz
In the last decade, approaches based on T cells and their immunomodulatory receptors have emerged as a solid improvement in treatments for various types of cancer. However, the roles of these molecules in the therapeutic context of autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases are still relatively unexplored. Here, we review the best known and most commonly used immunomodulatory T cell receptors in clinical practice (PD-1 and CTLA-4), along with the rest of the receptors with known functions in animal models, which have great potential as modulators in human pathologies in the medium term...
November 24, 2020: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Ibrahim El Masri, Sharif M Kayali, Courtland Blount, Irene Kirolos, John Paul Khouzam, Rajesh Kabra
Exercise is universally known to benefit health by lowering risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, in patients with pre-existing cardiac conditions, including channelopathies, cardiomyopathies and coronary artery disease, exercise can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this review, we explore exercise related risks and current recommendations for specific conditions. The risk of myocardial infarction (MI) during strenuous exercise in asymptomatic individuals with coronary artery disease is decreased with habitual exercise, especially if they have a normal ejection fraction and no ischemia...
November 2, 2020: Current Problems in Cardiology
P Miossec
The mechanisms of inflammatory diseases involve the key inflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF, IL-6, and IL-17 which are now therapeutic targets with biotherapies. They contribute to the local manifestations of clinically different diseases. In addition to these local aspects, these cytokines have systemic effects from their action on the liver, muscle, adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system. All these diseases have in common an increase in cardiovascular risk. In the general population, the same concepts are applicable, as shown by the link between an even modest rise in CRP and cardiovascular risk...
November 11, 2020: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Hooman Bakhshi, Nisha Donthi, Emmanuel Ekanem, Shreya Podder, Shashank Sinha, Matthew W Sherwood, Behnam Tehrani, Wayne Batchelor
Although respiratory symptoms are the dominant features of COVID-19 infection, myocardial injury has been described in these patients. Reported cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 infection include myocarditis, arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome including ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). STEMI is a medical emergency and timely intervention is of utmost importance to prevent mortality and long-term morbidities. In this report, we present a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, management, and outcomes for five patients with COVID-19 infection and ST elevation on ECG...
October 29, 2020: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Radha Gopal, Michael A Marinelli, John F Alcorn
Influenza virus infection causes 3-5 million cases of severe illness and 250,000-500,000 deaths worldwide annually. Although pneumonia is the most common complication associated with influenza, there are several reports demonstrating increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Several clinical case reports, as well as both prospective and retrospective studies, have shown that influenza can trigger cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction (MI), myocarditis, ventricular arrhythmia, and heart failure...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Harmony R Reynolds, Akiko Maehara, Raymond Y Kwong, Tara Sedlak, Jacqueline Saw, Nathaniel R Smilowitz, Ehtisham Mahmud, Janet Wei, Kevin Marzo, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Ayako Seno, Anais Hausvater, Caitlin Giesler, Nisha Jhalani, Catalin Toma, Bryan Har, Dwithiya Thomas, Laxmi S Mehta, Jeffrey Trost, Puja K Mehta, Bina Ahmed, Kevin R Bainey, Yuhe Xia, Binita Shah, Michael Attubato, Sripal Bangalore, Louai Razzouk, Ziad A Ali, C Noel Bairey-Merz, Ki Park, Ellen Hada, Hua Zhong, Judith S Hochman
Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in 6-15% of MI and disproportionately affects women. Scientific statements recommend multi-modality imaging in MINOCA to define the underlying cause. We performed coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess mechanisms of MINOCA. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, international, observational study, we enrolled women with a clinical diagnosis of MI. If invasive coronary angiography revealed <50% stenosis in all major arteries, multi-vessel OCT was performed, followed by CMR (cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging and/or T1 mapping)...
November 14, 2020: Circulation
Giulia Cundari, Nicola Galea, Gianluca De Rubeis, Andrea Frustaci, Francesco Cilia, Giuseppe Mancuso, Livia Marchitelli, Federica Catapano, Iacopo Carbone, Carlo Catalano, Marco Francone
The purpose of our study was to compare diagnostic performance of old and new Lake Louise Criteria (oLLC and nLLC) among different clinical presentations: infarct-like (IL), cardiomyopathic (CM) and arrhythmic (AR). 102 patients with clinical suspicion of acute myocarditis underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) on a 1.5 T scanner. Protocol included cine-SSFP, T2-weighted STIR, T2 mapping, early and late gadolinium enhancement and T1 mapping acquired before and after gadolinium administration. The degree of agreement has been calculated with Cohen's K test...
November 15, 2020: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Qingyu Dou, Xin Wei, Kehua Zhou, Shujuan Yang, Peng Jia
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with cardiovascular complications have a higher risk of mortality. The main cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 include acute cardiac injury, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), myocarditis, arrhythmia, heart failure, shock, and venous thromboembolism (VTE)/pulmonary embolism (PE). COVID-19 can cause cardiovascular complications or deterioration of coexisting CVD through direct or indirect mechanisms, including viral toxicity, dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), endothelial cell damage and thromboinflammation, cytokine storm, and oxygen supply-demand mismatch...
December 2020: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Andra-Iulia Suceveanu, Laura Mazilu, Niki Katsiki, Irinel Parepa, Felix Voinea, Anca Pantea-Stoian, Manfredi Rizzo, Florin Botea, Vlad Herlea, Dragos Serban, Adrian-Paul Suceveanu
Metabolomics, the research area studying chemical processes involving metabolites, finds its utility in inflammasome biomarker discovery, thus representing a novel approach for cardiometabolic syndrome pathogeny acknowledgements. Metabolite biomarkers discovery is expected to improve the disease evolution and outcome. The activation of abundantly expressed NLRP3 inflammasome represents the background process of the diabetes mellitus disturbances like hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, as well as for myocardial cell death and fibrosis, all of them being features characteristic for cardiometabolic syndrome...
November 6, 2020: Metabolites
Krzysztof Ozieranski, Agata Tyminska, Szymon Jonik, Renzo Marcolongo, Anna Baritussio, Marcin Grabowski, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Grzegorz Opolski, Alida Lp Caforio
Cardiac complications, including clinically suspected myocarditis, have been described in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we review current data on suspected myocarditis in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Hypothetical mechanisms to explain the pathogenesis of troponin release in patients with COVID-19 include direct virus-induced myocardial injury (i.e. viral myocarditis), systemic hyper-inflammatory response (i.e. cytokine storm), hypoxemia, downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, systemic virus-induced endothelialitis, and type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction...
November 6, 2020: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Théo Pezel, Timothée Besseyre des Horts, Mathieu Schaaf, Pierre Croisille, Loïc Bière, David Garcia-Dorado, Claire Jossan, François Roubille, Thien-Tri Cung, Fabrice Prunier, Elbaz Meyer, Camille Amaz, Geneviève Derumeaux, Fabien de Poli, Thomas Hovasse, Martine Gilard, Cyrille Bergerot, Hélène Thibault, Michel Ovize, Nathan Mewton
BACKGROUND: Postinfarction adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling is strongly associated with heart failure events. Conicity index, sphericity index and LV global functional index (LVGFI) are new LV remodelling indexes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). AIM: To assess the predictive value of the new indexes for 1-year adverse LV remodelling in patients with anterior ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: CMR studies were performed in 129 patients with anterior STEMI (58±12 years; 78% men) from the randomized CIRCUS trial (CMR substudy) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and followed for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (death or hospitalization for heart failure)...
November 4, 2020: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
E V Vyshlov, E I Tsoi, S V Demyanov, V V Ryabov
A 29-year old female patient without a history of cardiovascular diseases was admitted on emergency to a surgical hospital with acute calculous cholecystitis in 3 months after uncomplicated term birth. During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, she developed arterial hypotension with pulmonary edema, which required intravenous sympathomimetics. On the next day, after improvement of the condition and stabilization of hemodynamics, cardiac ultrasound showed diffuse left ventricular (LV) hypokinesis with the ejection fraction (EF) of 38 %...
August 11, 2020: Kardiologiia
E A Kogan, Yu S Berezovskiy, O V Blagova, A D Kukleva, G A Bogacheva, E V Kurilina, D V Kalinin, T R Bagdasaryan, L A Semeyonova, E M Gretsov, A E Ergeshov, V V Fomin
Aim      Despite the regular heart damage in patients with coronavirus pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2, a possibility of developing lymphocytic myocarditis as a part of COVID-19 remains unsubstantiated. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a possibility of lymphocytic myocarditis and to study its morphological features in patients with the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) with a severe course.Material and methods   Postmortem data were studied for 5 elderly patients (74.8±4.4 years; 3 men and 2 women) with the novel coronavirus infection and bilateral, severe polysegmental pneumonia (stage 3-4 by computed tomography)...
June 19, 2020: Kardiologiia
Victor Mione, Hermann Yao, Gabriel Laurent, Marianne Zeller, Laurent Fauchier, Yves Cottin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2020: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Takayuki Gyoten, Sebastian V Rojas, Anca Irimie, René Schramm, Michiel Morshuis, Jan F Gummert, Matthias Sitzer, Henrik Fox
BACKGROUND: Effects of cranioplasty (CP) and skullcap reimplantation after decompressive craniectomy (DC) for cerebral hemorrhage or malignant brain infarction in patients with left ventricular assist device support (LVAD) as bridge to transplantation has not been surveyed yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome and management after CP when aiming for transplantation. METHODS: Data were collected from our prospective institutional database including all patients undergoing LVAD implantation between 2010 and 2019...
November 3, 2020: Artificial Organs
Yan Fang, Zhitang Chang, Zhicheng Xu, Jing Hu, Haiwen Zhou, Songping Yu, Xuan Wan
Osteoglycin (Ogn), a class III SLRP member with multiple glycosylation sites, has been proposed to be engaged in cardiac dysfunction and adverse remodeling in human heart failure following myocardial infarction. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Thus, we sought to define the role of Ogn in regulation of the Wnt pathway on myocardial fibrosis and epithelial/endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT/EndMT) in mice with myocarditis. The pathological changes are observed, while hematoxylin-eosin staining and picric acid Sirius red staining were conducted in successfully constructed myocarditis mouse models...
November 3, 2020: BioFactors
Andrea Frustaci, Romina Verardo, Maria Alfarano, Cristina Chimenti
BACKGROUND: Myocarditis can manifest with lone ventricular tachyarrhythmias (LVT). Elective inflammation of conduction tissue (CT) is supposed but unproved. METHODS: Forty-two of 420 patients with biopsy proven myocarditis presented with LVT. Twelve of them included CT sections in endomyocardial biopsies. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral genomes, immunohistochemistry for viral antigens and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were performed. Twelve myocarditis patients with infarct-like or cardiomyopathic phenotype and CT included in tissue section were used as controls...
October 29, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mladosievičová Beáta, Országhová Zuzana, Jablonická Magdaléna, Rečková Mária, Chovanec Michal, Mego Michal
BACKGROUND: The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically improved the prognosis of many cancer patients. However, their increasing use has also revealed several unexpected side effects - including cardiovascular complications. Increased attention was paid to them in recent years only, especially due to their potentially fatal character. Checkpoint inhibitors cardiotoxicity includes myocarditis, rhythm disorders (atrioventricular blocks, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias), pericarditis, myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiogenic shock and sudden cardiac death...
2020: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Satyabrata Guru, Rajesh Kumar, Anupama Behera, Subhabrata Patra, Prakash Kumar
Aluminum phosphide is a common suicidal agent in an agrarian country like India. Toxicity is mostly due to the liberation of phosphine gas, which non-competitively inhibits cytochrome oxidase in the mitochondria causing cell hypoxia. It can involve almost any organ in the body, but the most common is cardiovascular system. Various cardiovascular manifestations are hypotension, myocarditis, pericarditis, congestive heart failure, various ECG changes like myocardial infarction, conduction abnormalities, various arrhythmias, and very rarely unmasking of the Brugada pattern...
September 20, 2020: Curēus
Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar
The association between acute infections and cardiac injury, including myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction, is now well established. We have performed a systematic literature review for analyzing the results of epidemiological studies that measured cardiac troponins (cTn) in patients with Influenza virus infections. Overall, 14 articles were finally identified and analyzed. Taken together, the results of the scientific literature suggest that cTn elevation is a relatively rare phenomenon in patients with Influenza virus infection, with frequency generally comprised between 0 and 33%, more likely in elderly patients with significant comorbidities...
June 10, 2020: Biomedical Journal
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