Tina L Sumpter, Chin H Ho, Anna R Pleet, Olga A Tkacheva, William J Shufesky, Darling M Rojas-Canales, Adrian E Morelli, Adriana T Larregina
BACKGROUND: Efficient development of atopic diseases requires interactions between allergen and adjuvant to initiate and amplify the underlying inflammatory responses. Substance P (SP) and hemokinin-1 (HK-1) are neuropeptides that signal through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) to promote inflammation. Mast cells initiate the symptoms and tissue effects of atopic disorders, secreting TNF and IL-6 after FcεRI cross-linking by antigen-IgE complexes (FcεRI-activated mast cells [FcεRI-MCs])...
April 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Rouhollah Mousavizadeh, Ludvig Backman, Robert G McCormack, Alex Scott
OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid injections are used by rheumatologists to treat chronic tendinopathy. Surprisingly, the mechanisms by which corticosteroids induce pain relief in this condition have not been investigated. Previous studies have shown local substance P (SP) levels to be correlated with tendon pain and tissue pathology. The objective of this study was to determine whether SP production in human tenocytes is modulated by exposure to dexamethasone. METHODS: Human tendon fibroblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone (1-400 nM), an inhibitor of the glucocorticoid receptor, RU486, recombinant TGF-β (2...
February 2015: Rheumatology
Chi-Kun Tong, Amy B MacDermott
NMDA receptors are important elements in pain signaling in the spinal cord dorsal horn. They are heterotetramers, typically composed of two GluN1 and two of four GluN2 subunits: GluN2A-2D. Mice lacking some of the GluN2 subunits show deficits in pain transmission yet functional synaptic localization of these receptor subtypes in the dorsal horn has not been fully resolved. In this study, we have investigated the composition of synaptic NMDA receptors expressed in monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways from peripheral sensory fibers to lamina I neurons in rats...
August 13, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience
Marta V Hamity, Roxanne Y Walder, Donna L Hammond
This study examined possible mechanisms by which Substance P (Sub P) assumes a pronociceptive role in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) under conditions of peripheral inflammatory injury, in this case produced by intraplantar (ipl) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In saline- and CFA-treated rats, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactivity was localized to neurons in the RVM. Four days after ipl injection of CFA, the number of NK1R-immunoreactive neurons in the RVM was increased by 30%, and there was a concomitant increase in NK1R-immunoreactive processes in CFA-treated rats...
September 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Toshiharu Azma, Florin Tuluc, Taishin Ito, Chikako Aoyama-Mani, Shinji Kawahito, Hiroyuki Kinoshita
Thrombotic events occurring in either arteries or veins are the primary causes of fatal perioperative cardiovascular events. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis, several of which are evidently associated with specific surgical procedures, are quite different from those for arterial thrombosis (e.g., aging or atherosclerotic diseases). Thrombus formed in arteries consists mainly of platelets coated with fibrin (i.e., white thrombus), while venous thrombus formed at relatively lower shear stress consists of all blood components including erythrocytes as well as leukocytes infiltrated with fibrin (red thrombus)...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
B K Taylor, W Fu, K E Kuphal, C-O Stiller, M K Winter, W Chen, G F Corder, J H Urban, K E McCarson, J C Marvizon
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is present in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn and inhibits spinal nociceptive processing, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-hyperalgesic actions are unclear. We hypothesized that NPY acts at neuropeptide Y1 receptors in the dorsal horn to decrease nociception by inhibiting substance P (SP) release, and that these effects are enhanced by inflammation. To evaluate SP release, we used microdialysis and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization in rat. NPY decreased capsaicin-evoked SP-like immunoreactivity in the microdialysate of the dorsal horn...
January 3, 2014: Neuroscience
Obulakshmi Arapulisamy, Padmanabhan Mannangatti, Lankupalle D Jayanthi
Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) mediates down-regulation of human norepinephrine (NE) transporter (hNET) via protein kinase C (PKC). However, native NET regulation by NK1R and the mechanism by which NK1R targets NET among other potential effectors are unknown. Effect of NK1R activation on native NET regulation and NET/NK1R interaction were studied using rat brain synaptosomes expressing native NET and NK1R as well as human placental trophoblast (HTR) cells coexpressing WT-hNET or NK1R/PKC-resistant hNET-T258A,S259A double mutant (NET-DM) and hNK1R...
October 4, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Norimasa Yoshida, Masaaki Kuroda, Takahiro Suzuki, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Tomohisa Takagi, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Hirofumi Kuramoto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be a pathogenesis of heartburn in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), but its further mechanisms are unclear. Recently, it has been suggested that nociceptors and neuropeptides control sensory and pain mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to estimate expression of acid-sensitive nociceptors such as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channel 3, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), neuropeptides such as substance P and calcitonin-gene-related peptide, and their receptors such as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 in the esophageal mucosa of NERD patients...
August 2013: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Nicola Cavallini, Dick Delbro, Gunnar Tobin, Magnus Braide
BACKGROUND: The triggers of the acute local inflammatory response to peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid exposure remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation on water and solute transport in experimental PD. METHODS: Single 2-hour dwells in rats with PD catheters were studied. Histamine and the neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were measured in PD fluid samples by ELISA...
March 2012: Peritoneal Dialysis International
Veronica Sánchez Freire, Fiona C Burkhard, Andrea Schmitz, Thomas M Kessler, Katia Monastyrskaya
OBJECTIVE: To establish the mRNA expression profiles of selected genes involved in bladder contractility and epithelial permeability in the bladder dome and trigone in order to evaluate the use of cold-cut biopsies for comparative quantitative studies into the anatomical differences between these two bladder regions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After informed consent, cold-cut biopsies from the bladder dome and trigone were obtained from eight asymptomatic subjects. RNA was extracted from muscle biopsies, and the expression levels of selected genes were analysed using TaqMan real-time PCR-based gene expression assays...
July 2011: BJU International
Sonoko Furuya, Kishio Furuya, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Masahiro Sokabe
Subepithelial fibroblasts of the intestinal villi, which form a contractile cellular network beneath the epithelium, are in close contact with epithelial cells, nerve varicosities, capillaries, smooth muscles and immune cells, and secrete extracellular matrix molecules, growth factors and cytokines, etc. Cultured subepithelial fibroblasts of the rat duodenal villi display various receptors such as endothelins, ATP, substance-P and bradykinin, and release ATP in response to mechanical stimulation. In this study, the presence of functional NK1 receptors (NK1R) was pharmacologically confirmed in primary culture by Ca(2+) measurement, and the effects of substance-P were measured in an acute preparation of epithelium-free duodenal villi from 2- to 3-week-old rats using a two-photon laser microscope...
November 2010: Cell and Tissue Research
Selena W S Sio, Seah Fang Ang, Jia Lu, Shabbir Moochhala, Madhav Bhatia
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality in burn patients, even without direct inhalational injury. Identification of early mediators that instigate ALI after burn and of the molecular mechanisms by which they work are of high importance but remain poorly understood. We previously reported that an endogenous neuropeptide, substance P (SP), via binding neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), heightens remote ALI early after severe local burn. In this study, we examined the downstream signaling pathway following SP-NK1R coupling that leads to remote ALI after burn...
November 15, 2010: Journal of Immunology
Selena W S Sio, Shabbir Moochhala, Jia Lu, Madhav Bhatia
RATIONALE: Burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is a common clinical disorder associated with high mortality even in the absence of inhalational injury. Identification of endogenous triggers that mediate the early onset of remote ALI after burn represents an important goal but remains poorly defined. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of proinflammatory neuropeptide, substance P (SP), in instigating remote ALI and its effects on respiratory function early after severe local burn injury...
January 1, 2010: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Shahir S Rizk, Anna Luchniak, Serdar Uysal, Crista M Brawley, Ronald S Rock, Anthony A Kossiakoff
We have developed and tested a robust delivery method for the transport of proteins to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells without compromising the integrity of the cell membrane. This receptor-mediated delivery (RMD) technology utilizes a variant of substance P (SP), a neuropeptide that is rapidly internalized upon interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). Cargos in the form of synthetic antibody fragments (sABs) were conjugated to the engineered SP variant (SPv) and efficiently internalized by NK1R-expressing cells...
July 7, 2009: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
B L Davies, C M Brundage, M B Harris, B E Taylor
Location of the lung respiratory rhythm generator (RRG) in the bullfrog brainstem was investigated by examining neurokinin-1 and mu-opioid receptor (NK1R, muOR) colocalization by immunohistochemistry and characterizing the role of these receptors in lung rhythm and episodic pattern generation. NK1R and muOR occurred in brainstems from all developmental stages. In juvenile bullfrogs a distinct area of colocalization was coincident with high-intensity fluorescent labeling of muOR; high-intensity labeling of muOR was not distinctly and consistently localized in tadpole brainstems...
July 2009: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Selena Wei Shan Sio, Manoj Kumar Puthia, Jia Lu, Shabbir Moochhala, Madhav Bhatia
The classical tachykinin substance P (SP) has numerous potent neuroimmunomodulatory effects on all kinds of airway functions. Belonging to a class of neuromediators targeting not only residential cells but also inflammatory cells, studying SP provides important information on the bidirectional linkage between how neural function affects inflammatory events and, in turn, how inflammatory responses alter neural activity. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of local burn injury on inducing distant organ pulmonary SP release and its relevance to lung injury...
June 15, 2008: Journal of Immunology
Jérôme Coste, Daniel L Voisin, Loïs S Miraucourt, Radhouane Dallel, Philippe Luccarini
Windup is a progressive, frequency-dependent increase in the excitability of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) nociceptive neurons to repetitive stimulation of primary afferent nociceptive C-fibers. Superficial dorsal horn neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R)-expressing neurons were recently shown to regulate sensitization of WDR nociceptive neurons through activation of a defined spino-bulbo-spinal loop. However, the windup of WDR nociceptive neurons was not regulated through this loop. In the present study, we sought to identify the alternative circuit activated by dorsal horn NK1Rs that mediates WDR neuron windup...
July 15, 2008: Pain
Karl Ebner, Georg M Singewald, Nigel Whittle, Francesco Ferraguti, Nicolas Singewald
Antagonists of the substance P (SP) preferring neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) represent a promising novel class of drugs for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders; however, the involved neuronal pathways releasing SP in response to stressors are ill defined. By using in vivo microdialysis in combination with a highly sensitive and selective radioimmunoassay we found that exposure to forced swim stress increased SP release in the rat lateral septum (LS), a key area in processing emotions and stress responses...
July 2008: Neuropsychopharmacology
Saema Ansar, Niels-Aage Svendgaard, Lars Edvinsson
OBJECT: Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to cerebral ischemia, in some cases even producing infarction and long-term disability. The goal of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that inhibition of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1Rs) by administration of L-822429 blunts the decrease in CBF as well as cerebrovascular receptor upregulation in an animal model of SAH. METHODS: Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in rats by injection of 250 microl of blood into the prechiasmatic cistern...
May 2007: Journal of Neurosurgery
Alicia R Mathers, Olga A Tckacheva, Brian M Janelsins, William J Shufesky, Adrian E Morelli, Adriana T Larregina
The proinflammatory capacities of the skin and the presence of high numbers of resident dendritic cells (DCs) constitute an ideal microenvironment for successful immunizations. Regardless of the ability of DCs to respond to local inflammatory signals in an immunostimulatory fashion, the immune functions of skin-resident DCs remain controversial, and epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) have been referred to recently as anti-inflammatory/protolerogenic APCs. Substance P (SP), released by skin nerve fibers, is a potent proinflammatory neuropeptide that favors development of skin-associated cellular immunity...
June 1, 2007: Journal of Immunology
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