Sayaphet Rattanavong, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Mayfong Mayxay, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Sue J Lee, Julien Cappelle, Paul N Newton, Daniel M Parker
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important contributors to morbidity and mortality and the causative agents for ~50% patients are never identified. The causative agents of some CNS infections have distinct spatial and temporal patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the results of a spatial epidemiological and ecological analysis of CNS infections in Lao PDR (2003-2011). The data came from hospitalizations for suspected CNS infection at Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane...
May 26, 2020: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
S Ngo Um Sap, K Tchaptchet, I Mekone, B Minka, R C Mbono, J Tony, L De Djob, C Bissa, P O Koki Ndombo
INTRODUCTION: Although sub-Saharan Africa accounts for only 21% of the global population of children and adolescents aged 5-15 years, 55% of deaths among children in this age group occur in this region. This seems to be related to infectious diseases. We hypothesized that besides infectious diseases, in our context, a chronic underlying condition increases mortality. Our goal was to describe the leading causes of mortality among this age group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care center in Yaoundé...
May 11, 2020: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Stéphane Jouneau, Cédric Ménard, Mathieu Lederlin
PAP is an ultra-rare disease in which surfactant components, that impair gas exchange, accumulate in the alveolae. There are three types of PAP. The most frequent form, primary PAP, includes autoimmune PAP which accounts for over 90% of all PAP, defined by the presence of circulating anti-GM-CSF antibodies. Secondary PAP is mainly due to haematological disease, infections or inhaling toxic substances, while genetic PAP affects almost exclusively children. PAP is suspected if investigation for ILD reveals a crazy-paving pattern on chest CT scan, and is confirmed by a milky looking BAL that gives a positive PAS reaction indicating extracellular proteinaceous material...
May 3, 2020: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Narcisse Elenga, Alexandre Roux, Emma Cuadro-Alvarez, Elise Martin, Hatem Kallel, Antoine Defo
Acute encephalitis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children. We retrospectively identified children (≤15 years of age) admitted with suspected encephalitis at the Intensive Care Unit of the Pediatric Department of Cayenne Hospital between January 2007 and December 2018. A total of 30 children with acute encephalitis were identified. The incidence rate varied from 0 to 10.40 cases/100000 children under 15 years. Proven encephalitis was diagnosed in 73% of patients. Nine cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were diagnosed...
April 10, 2020: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Haiyan Yang, Fei Yin, Ting Xiao, Siyi Gan, Zou Pan, Jing Peng, Liwen Wu
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze correlation between the clinical manifestations, treatment strategies and prognosis of cryptococcus meningitis (CM) in China. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical data of CM patients from 2002 to 2019. We summarized the clinical features and supplementary examinations, treatment strategies and prognosis and then to do a correlation analysis respectively. RESULTS: 50 patients were enrolled. The most common symptoms were fever, headache and vomiting...
March 31, 2020: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Divyashri Baraniya, Tsute Chen, Anubhav Nahar, Fadhl Alakwaa, Jennifer Hill, Marisol Tellez, Amid Ismail, Sumant Puri, Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi
Background : Recent studies have reveled the presence of a complex fungal community (mycobiome) in the oral cavity. However, the role of oral mycobiome in dental caries and its interaction with caries-associated bacteria is not yet clear. Methods : Whole-mouth supragingival plaque samples from 30 children (6-10 years old) with no caries, early caries, or advanced caries were sequenced for internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). The mycobiome profiles were correlated with previously published bacteriome counterparts...
2020: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Maria Clara Noguera, Patricia Escandón, Merle Arévalo, Jorge Piedrahita, Elizabeth Castañeda
Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening mycosis reported mainly in human adults with low frequency in children. High mortality rates may occur in cases with late diagnosis therefore, a timely suspicion of this pathology is important. Cryptococcus gattii is the less prevalent species complex predominantly isolated from apparently normal hosts. We report a fatal case of neurocryptococcosis in a Colombian minor without known risk factors, in Barranquilla, Colombia. The patient was hospitalized for neurological assessment with a recent history of intense headache, vomiting, anorexia, loss of consciousness, drowsiness, inability to recognize family members, disorientation, aphasia and anxiety...
November 30, 2019: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Zahra Ghaderi, Samaneh Eidi, Jamshid Razmyar
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes cryptococcosis, a life-threatening infection that usually manifests as meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Pigeon ( Columba livia ) droppings can spread pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi, such as C neoformans , in the environment. The objective of this study was to isolate C neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from feral pigeon droppings. One hundred twenty samples of feral pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured...
December 9, 2019: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Hannah K Mitchell, Margaret Mokomane, Tshepo Leeme, Nametso Tlhako, Katlego Tsholo, Chandapiwa Ramodimoosi, Bonno Dube, Kelebeletse O Mokobela, Ephraim Tawanana, Tony Chebani, Pretty Setlhake, Tlhagiso Pilatwe, William J Hurt, Mooketsi Molefi, Paul C Mullan, Andrew P Steenhoff, Madisa Mine, Joseph N Jarvis, Mark W Tenforde
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings of Africa. We evaluated the epidemiology of pediatric meningitis in Botswana during the rollout of antiretroviral therapy, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) vaccine. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of children (<15 years old) evaluated for meningitis by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination from 2000 to 2015, with complete national records for 2013-2014...
September 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Young June Choe, Daniel B Blatt, Ali Yalcindag, Sara F Geffert, April M Bobenchik, Ian C Michelow
Cryptococcus albidus, synonymous with Naganishia albida, rarely causes opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Its clinical features, particularly in children, are not well defined. Here, we report a case of C albidus fungemia in an immunosuppressed child; we also present results of a systematic review, for which we searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science using the keywords "cryptococcus" and "albidus." Our goal was to describe the spectrum of disease, diagnostic approaches, therapies, and outcomes...
June 11, 2019: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Matthew P O'Brien, Timothy J Ford, Bart J Currie, Joshua R Francis
BACKGROUND: Paediatric Cryptococcus gattii disease is rare, with only two previous cases recorded in the Northern Territory (NT) over the last 54 years. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a recognised complication of C. gattii infection, even in the absence of an identified immunodeficiency syndrome; however, limited paediatric data exist. We present a series of three paediatric patients treated for C. gattii infection in the NT during 2016/2017. CASE DISCUSSIONS: All three cases were males aged 8-13 years at the time of presentation...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Nan Hong, Min Chen, Nan Xu, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Chao Zhang, Wei H Pan, Ferry Hagen, Teun Boekhout, Jianping Xu, Xian B Zou, Wan Q Liao
Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening mycosis primarily occurring in adult patients particularly those with immunosuppression such as HIV infection/AIDS. The number of reported cases of paediatric cryptococcosis has increased in the last decade around the world, including China. However, current information on the characteristics of cryptococcosis in children, particularly the genotypic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of the isolates, is limited. In the present study, a total of 25 paediatric isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were genotyped using the ISHAM-MLST scheme...
February 2019: Mycoses
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Thais Louvain de Souza, Regina C de Souza Campos Fernandes, Juliana Azevedo da Silva, Vladimir Gomes Alves Júnior, Adelia Gomes Coelho, Afonso C Souza Faria, Nabia M Moreira Salomão Simão, João T Souto Filho, Caroline Deswarte, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Dara Torgerson, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante, Enrique Medina-Acosta
Patients with Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD) exhibit variable vulnerability to infections by mycobacteria and other intramacrophagic bacteria (e.g., Salmonella and Klebsiella ) and fungi (e.g., Histoplasma, Candida, Paracoccidioides, Coccidioides , and Cryptococcus ). The hallmark of MSMD is the inherited impaired production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or the lack of response to it. Mutations in the interleukin (IL)-12 receptor subunit beta 1 ( IL12RB1 ) gene accounts for 38% of cases of MSMD...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Angela R Lemons, Mary Beth Hogan, Ruth A Gault, Kathleen Holland, Edward Sobek, Kimberly A Olsen-Wilson, Yeonmi Park, Ju-Hyeong Park, Ja Kook Gu, Michael L Kashon, Brett J Green
Recent studies conducted in the Great Basin Desert region of the United States have shown that skin test reactivity to fungal and dust mite allergens are increased in children with asthma or allergy living in homes with evaporative coolers (EC). The objective of this study was to determine if the increased humidity previously reported in EC homes leads to varying microbial populations compared to homes with air conditioners (AC). Children with physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis living in EC or AC environments were recruited into the study...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Anna Wójcik, Joanna Błaszkowska, Piotr Kurnatowski, Katarzyna Góralska
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Fungi belonging to various physiological and morphological groups present in the environment are potential human pathogens. Some of them are considered as emerging pathogens. Therefore, their presence in children's playgrounds should be regarded as health risk factor. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Sixty-eight samples of sand collected from 17 sandpits of different localities in Łódź, Poland, in autumn 2010 and 2011, and in spring 2011 and 2012 were evaluated...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Wei-Ran Li, Si-Yan Deng, Min Shu, Yu Zhu, Yang Wen, Qin Guo, Qiong Liao, Chao-Min Wan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children without underlying diseases. METHODS: The clinical data of 49 children without underlying diseases who were diagnosed with IFD were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: Fungal pathogens were detected in 37 (76%) out of 49 patients, including Cryptococcus neoformans (17 children, 46%), Candida albicans (10 children, 27%), Aspergillus (3 children, 8%), and Candida parapsilosis (3 children, 8%)...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Carol Kao, David L Goldman
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that is remarkable for its tendency to cause meningoencephalitis, especially in patients with AIDS. While disease is less common in children than adults, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children without access to anti-retroviral therapy. This review highlights recent insights into both the biology and treatment of cryptococcosis with a special emphasis on the pediatric literature.
September 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"