Dongming Liu, Yong Liu, Xinhua Hu, Guanjie Hu, Kun Yang, Chaoyong Xiao, Jun Hu, Zonghong Li, Yuanjie Zou, Jiu Chen, Hongyi Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the characteristic of brain structural connections in glioma patients and further evaluate the relationship between changes in the white matter tracts and cognitive decline. METHODS: This retrospective study included a total of 35 subjects with glioma and 14 demographically matched healthy controls, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging scans and formal neuropsychological assessment tests. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter tracts were derived from atlas-based analysis to compare group differences...
May 15, 2020: Brain and Behavior
Chu-Wen Li, Min-Zhen Deng, Zhi-Jie Gao, Yuan-Ye Dang, Guo-Dong Zheng, Xiu-Juan Yang, Ying-Xin Chao, Ye-Feng Cai, Xiao-Li Wu
Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates a close relationship between diabetes mellitus and dementia. The ginsenoside compound K (CK) has been reported to ameliorate diabetes mellitus and confer protection to the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated whether CK could improve memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction in diabetic db/db mice. Firstly, we found that CK treatments significantly improved behavioral impairment and cognitive dysfunction based on Morris water maze, Y-maze, and fear conditioning tests...
May 6, 2020: Food & Function
Muriel Ramírez-Santana, Liliana Zúñiga-Venegas, Sebastián Corral, Nel Roeleveld, Hans Groenewoud, Koos van der Velden, Paul T J Scheepers, Floria Pancetti
BACKGROUND: In Chile organophosphate pesticides are widely used in the production of fruits. Pesticides use is regulated for professional practice but there is no regulation regarding exposure to the general population. OBJECTIVE: To relate exposure to cholinesterase's inhibitor pesticides during the spray season with neuropsychological impairment in occupationally exposed (OE) and environmentally exposed (EE) groups of people. METHODS: Exposure was assessed through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and neuropsychological outcomes were evaluated through a large battery of tests covering general mental status, language, memory, attention, executive function, praxis and psychomotricity...
April 18, 2020: Environmental Research
Meelim Kim, Youngin Kim, Yoonjeong Go, Seokoh Lee, Myeongjin Na, Younghee Lee, Sungwon Choi, Hyung Jin Choi
BACKGROUND: Developing effective, widely useful, weight management programs is a priority in health care because obesity is a major health problem. OBJECTIVE: This study developed and investigated a new, comprehensive, multifactorial, daily, intensive, psychologist coaching program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) modules. The program was delivered via the digital health care mobile services Noom Coach and InBody. METHODS: This was an open-label, active-comparator, randomized controlled trial...
April 30, 2020: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Banu Femir-Gurtuna, Elif Kurt, Cigdem Ulasoglu-Yildiz, Ali Bayram, Elif Yildirim, Ezgi Soncu-Buyukiscan, Basar Bilgic
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by cognitive deficits that exceed age-related decline, but not interfering with daily living activities. Amnestic type of the disorder (aMCI) is known to have a high risk to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the most common type of dementia. Identification of very early structural changes in the brain related to the cognitive decline in MCI patients would further contribute to the understanding of the dementias. In the current study, we target to investigate whether the white-matter changes are related to structural changes, as well as the cognitive performance of MCI patients...
April 22, 2020: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Hui Ouyang, Fenfen Sun, Liping Che, Weidong Zhang, Xuemei Cheng, Li Zheng
Abundant evidence has revealed that social observation could enhance people's norm-enforcement behaviors to norm violators. However, whether such enhancement is strategically reputation-based without changes on awareness of social norms or it is accompanied with strengthened perception of norm violations remains unclear. We aimed to test these two hypotheses using a modified Ultimatum Game (UG). Participants played the UG as responders in the fMRI scanner after being instructed the rules of the game and how the observers monitored their performances during the task...
April 22, 2020: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
X Liu, Q Hao, J Yue, L Hou, X Xia, W Zhao, Y Zhang, M Ge, N Ge, B Dong
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence, lifestyle factors, chronic disease status, and assessing the metabolic profile, comparing key differences in a cohort of subjects with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity (H), sarcopenia/non-obesity (S), non-sarcopenia/obesity (O) and sarcopenia obesity (SO) in a multi-ethnic population in west China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The communities in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Xinjiang provinces...
2020: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Péter Pongrácz, Dóra L Onofer
It is an intriguing question whether cats' social understanding capacity, including the sensitivity to ostensive signals (resulting in fast preferential learning of behavioural choices demonstrated by humans), would be comparable to that in dogs. In a series of A-not-B error tests, we investigated whether the ostensive or non-ostensive manner of human communication and the familiarity of the human demonstrator would affect the search error pattern in companion cats. Cats' performance showed an almost completely different distribution of perseverative erring than earlier was shown in dogs and human infants...
March 29, 2020: Animal Cognition
Forough Foolad, Fariba Khodagholi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Mohammad Javan
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects optic nerves and spinal cord. Besides, loss of motor and cognitive function has been reported as important symptoms of disease. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated the mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic alterations in NMO patients and evaluate their correlation with disease progress, disability and cognitive impairment. METHODS: The individuals (12 controls and 12 NMO) were assessed for disease severity by expanded disease status scale (EDSS), cognitive function via symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and fine motor disability by 9-hole peg test (9-HPT)...
2020: PloS One
Dong-Ni Pan, Yi Wang, Zheng Lei, Yang Wang, Xuebing Li
Attention bias modification (ABM) is a potential intervention in relieving social anxiety symptoms, while its underlying neural mechanisms are not yet understood. The current study included 63 college students with social anxiety. Participants were assigned to the attention modification program (AMP, n = 20), the attention control condition (ACC, n = 20) and the passive waiting group (PW, n = 23). Questionnaires and the emotional Stroop task with EEG recordings were used to assess whether and how the 4-week ABM period affected emotional symptoms and specific emotional processing...
March 2, 2020: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Alina Renner, Sharon J Baetge, Melanie Filser, Sebastian Ullrich, Christoph Lassek, Iris-Katharina Penner
With the proposal of the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) battery, the need to screen for cognitive deficits within standard clinical care of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been acknowledged. Data regarding how patient characteristics might predict low cognitive performance and therefore require particularly close monitoring is, however, limited so far. We investigated a large, nationwide patient cohort from ambulatory settings, representing the typical distribution of different subtypes, levels of physical disability, and disease durations...
February 13, 2020: Journal of Neuropsychology
Laura-Nanna Lohkamp, Pierre-Aurelien Beuriat, Michel Desmurget, Irène Cristofori, Alexandru Szathmari, Ludivine Huguet, Federico Di Rocco, Carmine Mottolese
INTRODUCTION: Awake brain surgery (ABS) represents a rare surgical procedure in children as age and psychological aspects, which are considered to interfere with its feasibility and psychological outcome and limit its application. Only few pediatric case series have been reported so far, indicating a more complex translation of this surgical approach to children. However, the advances in neuropsychological testing and monitoring may have a substantial impact on ameliorating the eligibility of children undergoing awake procedures...
February 13, 2020: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Nico Lehmann, Arno Villringer, Marco Taubert
Cardiovascular exercise (CE) is a promising intervention strategy to facilitate cognition and motor learning in healthy and diseased populations of all ages. CE elevates humoral parameters, such as growth factors, and stimulates brain changes potentially relevant for learning and behavioral adaptations. However, the causal relationship between CE-induced brain changes and human's ability to learn remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that CE elicits a positive effect on learning via alterations in brain structure (morphological changes of gray and white matter) and function (functional connectivity and cerebral blood flow in resting state)...
March 18, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Dominik Fischer, Sanaz Mostaghim, Larissa Albantakis
Evolving in groups can either enhance or reduce an individual's task performance. Still, we know little about the factors underlying group performance, which may be reduced to three major dimensions: (a) the individual's ability to perform a task, (b) the dependency on environmental conditions, and (c) the perception of, and the reaction to, other group members. In our research, we investigated how these dimensions interrelate in simulated evolution experiments using adaptive agents equipped with Markov brains ("animats")...
2020: PloS One
Tian Hu, Xin-Yi Lu, Jing-Jing Shi, Xiao-Qi Liu, Qu-Bo Chen, Qi Wang, Yun-Bo Chen, Shi-Jie Zhang
Epidemiological studies have found that diabetes and cognitive dysfunction are closely related. Quercetin has been certified with the effect on improving diabetes mellitus (DM) and cognitive impairment. However, the effect and related mechanism of quercetin on diabetic encephalopathy (DE) are still ambiguous. In this study, we used the db/db mice (diabetic model) to discover whether quercetin could improve DE through the Sirtuin1/NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3) pathway. Behavioural results (Morris water maze and new object recognition tests) showed that quercetin (70 mg/kg) improved the learning and memory...
January 30, 2020: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Trine Flensborg-Madsen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen, Erik Lykke Mortensen
BACKGROUND: Studies on early predictors of intelligence often focus on single or few predictors and often on childhood intelligence. This study compared the contributions of a broad selection of potential early predictors of intelligence at different adult ages. METHODS: Information on predictors was recorded prospectively in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort during pregnancy, at delivery, and at 1- and 3-year examinations for children born between 1959-61. Adult intelligence was assessed at three independent follow-ups using three different tests of intelligence: Børge Priens Prøve, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000R...
2020: PloS One
Hasna El Boukhari, Zakaria Ouhaz, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Mohamed Bennis
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), part of the thalamus, is a thin GABAergic cell layer adjacent to the relay nuclei of the dorsal thalamus. It receives input from the cortex and other thalamic nuclei and provides major inhibitory input to each thalamic nucleus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus (MD). As the MD is important for supporting optimal cortico-thalamo-cortical interactions during brain maturation, we hypothesized that that early damage to the TRN will cause major disturbances to the development and the functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the MD...
January 24, 2020: Developmental Neurobiology
Young Hee Jung, Seongbeom Park, Hyemin Jang, Soo Hyun Cho, Seung Joo Kim, Jun Pyo Kim, Sung Tae Kim, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, Hee Jin Kim
Among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, those with memory impairment (amnestic MCI, aMCI) are at a high risk of dementia. However, the precise cognitive domain, beside memory, that predicts dementia conversion is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the cognitive domain that predicts dementia conversion in a longitudinal aMCI cohort. We collected data of 482 aMCI patients who underwent neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were followed for at least 1 year. The patients were categorized according to number (1-4) and type of impaired cognitive domains (memory, language, visuospatial, and frontal-executive function)...
January 21, 2020: Scientific Reports
Aleix Sala-Vila, Cinta Valls-Pedret, Sujatha Rajaram, Nina Coll-Padrós, Montserrat Cofán, Mercè Serra-Mir, Ana M Pérez-Heras, Irene Roth, Tania M Freitas-Simoes, Mónica Doménech, Carlos Calvo, Anna López-Illamola, Edward Bitok, Natalie K Buxton, Lynnley Huey, Adam Arechiga, Keiji Oda, Grace J Lee, Dolores Corella, Lídia Vaqué-Alcázar, Roser Sala-Llonch, David Bartrés-Faz, Joan Sabaté, Emilio Ros
BACKGROUND: Walnut consumption counteracts oxidative stress and inflammation, 2 drivers of cognitive decline. Clinical data concerning effects on cognition are lacking. OBJECTIVES: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a 2-center (Barcelona, Spain; Loma Linda, CA) randomized controlled trial examining the cognitive effects of a 2-y walnut intervention in cognitively healthy elders. METHODS: We randomly allocated 708 free-living elders (63-79 y, 68% women) to a diet enriched with walnuts at ∼15% energy (30-60 g/d) or a control diet (abstention from walnuts)...
March 1, 2020: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yanqiu Yu, Phoenix Kit-Han Mo, Jianxin Zhang, Jibin Li, Joseph Tak-Fai Lau
Maladaptive gaming cognitions are important determinants of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Based on a systematic review, a 4-factor Internet gaming cognition scale (IGCS) was previously developed and cross-cultural validation of IGCS is warranted. The present study assesses the validation of the IGCS and its revised version, the Chinese version of Revised IGCS (C-RIGCS), among adolescents in China. Altogether, 755 students were recruited from junior middle schools in Guangzhou and Chengdu, China. The psychometric properties of the C-RIGCS were assessed by using appropriate statistical methods...
December 31, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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