Dietsje D Jolles, Eva Mennigen, Mohan W Gupta, Catherine E Hegarty, Carrie E Bearden, Katherine H Karlsgodt
There are vast individual differences in reading achievement between students. Besides structural and functional variability in domain-specific brain regions, these differences may partially be explained by the organization of domain-general functional brain networks. In the current study we used resting-state functional MRI data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC; N = 553; ages 8-22) to examine the relation between performance on a well-validated reading assessment task, the Wide Range Achievement Word Reading Test (WRAT-Reading) and patterns of functional connectivity...
July 27, 2020: NeuroImage
Jana Becker, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly, Dennis Shoko, Josephine Singo, Nadine Steckling-Muschack
BACKGROUND: The role of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) as a source of income is rapidly gaining importance in the economically difficult times in Zimbabwe. Besides limited epidemiological data, no data about the self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of artisanal and small-scale gold miners exist. The aim of the project was to access HRQoL of ASGM workers to improve the data base and compare the data to the urban Zimbabwean population. METHODS: Data from 83 artisanal and small-scale gold miners in Kadoma, Zimbabwe was analysed...
July 29, 2020: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Xinghua Liu, Jiahuan Hao, Ensheng Yao, Jie Cao, Xiaolong Zheng, Di Yao, Chenyan Zhang, Jia Li, Dengji Pan, Xiang Luo, Minghuan Wang, Wei Wang
INTRODUCTION: Depression, the most prevalent mood disorder, has high comorbidity with cerebrovascular disease and cognitive decline. However, there is little understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in depression and its comorbid cerebrovascular damage and cognition impairment. Here, we tested the prediction that the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model would manifest in disturbed glymphatic function and that dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could ameliorate these deficits while alleviating the depression-associated cognitive decline...
July 24, 2020: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yan Bi, Decheng Ren, Zhenming Guo, Gaini Ma, Fei Xu, Zhixuan Chen, Lin An, Naixin Zhang, Lei Ji, Fan Yuan, Liangjie Liu, Binyin Hou, Fengping Yang, Shunying Yu, Zhenghui Yi, Yifeng Xu, Lin He, Xueli Sun, Zaiquan Dong, Shaochang Wu, Longyou Zhao, Changqun Cai, Xingwang Li, Tao Yu, Yi Shi, Guang He
OBJECTIVE: Despite there is a wide range of antidepressants available, with various mechanisms of actions, the efficacy of current therapeutic options is yet satisfactory. Previous shreds of evidence have indicated that genetics, cognitive, neuroendocrine, as well as personality factors, are all intrinsically linked and contribute to the diversity of treatment outcomes. We, therefore, sought to investigate this hypothesis in this study. METHOD: Based on 610 samples treated with a selection of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), we compared the therapeutic effects of these four classes of drugs by survival analyses...
July 20, 2020: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Se Won Oh, Na-Young Shin, Uicheul Yoon, Intae Sin, Seung-Koo Lee
While drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is mainly caused by blockage of the dopaminergic pathway, multiple neurotransmitter systems besides the dopaminergic system are involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, alterations found in both DIP and PD might be manifestations of dopaminergic dysfunction. To prove this hypothesis, we aimed to define the areas commonly involved in DIP and PD and determine whether the overlapping areas were associated with the dopaminergic system. 68 PD patients, 69 DIP patients and 70 age-and sex-matched controls underwent resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
July 15, 2020: Scientific Reports
Natália Cristina Moraes, Henrique Cotchi Simbo Muela, Claudia Maia MemÓria, Valéria Aparecida da Costa-Hong, Michel Ferreira Machado, Mario Amore Cechinhi, Ricardo Nitrini, Luiz Aparecido Bortolotto, Monica Sanches Yassuda
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system changes associated to systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are progressive and may cause negative effects on cognitive performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between SAH and the components of executive functions (EF), inhibitory control (IC), updating and shifting, comparing a control group (without SAH) to patients with SAH, in two levels of severity. METHODS: The protocol included the following tests to evaluate EF components: T...
June 29, 2020: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Hiroshi Saito, Masashi Yamashita, Yoshiko Endo, Akira Mizukami, Kenji Yoshioka, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Shoko Koseki, Yu Shimode, Takeshi Kitai, Emi Maekawa, Takatoshi Kasai, Kentaro Kamiya, Yuya Matsue
BACKGROUND: There has been no study elucidating whether cognitive impairment (CI) can provide additive prognostic information besides that provided by preexisting prognostic factors in elderly patients with heart failure. This study examined whether CI can provide additive prognostic information in elderly patients with heart failure. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included 352 patients with heart failure aged ≥75 years. We administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Mini-Cog test to assess CI...
July 2, 2020: Journal of Cardiology
Dong-Ni Pan, Delhii Hoid, Xiao-Bo Wang, Zhuo Jia, Xuebing Li
BACKGROUND: The effect of working memory training (WM-T) has been found to transfer to emotional wellbeing, despite some debate on whether an affective component in training is necessary to achieve specific emotion-related benefits. These novel cognitive trainings have not yet been tested in highly anxious individuals, who have deficits in implicit and explicit emotional regulation and should be the potential beneficiaries of these trainings. METHODS: We designed two types of mobile phone-based training applications: (1) WMT and (2) an emotional working memory training (EWM-T) that comprised negative face distraction...
June 30, 2020: Psychological Medicine
Ilaria Mulas, Marilena Ruiu, Maria Chiara Fastame
BACKGROUND: The role played by cognitive reserve for the maintenance of numeracy skills in late adulthood is still not sufficiently explored. AIMS: This study mainly investigated whether cognitive reserve (i.e., vocabulary) mediates on the relationship between non-verbal reasoning and addition and multiplication skills of older individuals. Moreover, the impact of schooling and gender on written calculation was examined, controlling for the effect of cognitive decline...
June 18, 2020: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Benshuai Yu, Junzhu Zhang, Hai Li, Xiaohong Sun
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins robustly presenting in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests the crucial role of AQP1 in the pathogenesis of CNS injury but scarce data are provided for the potential role of AQP1 in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of AQP1 on cognitive function in a mouse model of AD. METHODS: A mouse model of AD was established by using the β-amyloid isoform Aβ1-42 , and then assessed by the step-through test and water maze experiment...
June 12, 2020: Gene
Hikmat Hadoush, Tamara Lababneh, Saleem A Banihani, Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Mohammed Jamous
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem-progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by dopaminergic neurons, however, the role of the non-dopaminergic system (such as melatonin hormone) in the pathogenesis of PD is now emerging. OBJECTIVE: To identify any potential correlation between the dopamine and melatonin serum levels, and motor, cognitive, and sleep dysfunctions in patients with PD. METHOD: Cross-sectional piloting study conducted with a sample of 34 patients with PD (aged 50-72 yrs...
June 12, 2020: NeuroRehabilitation
S Loos, D Tutus, R Kilian, L Goldbeck
Background : Caregivers play a key role in the success of trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT). Yet, the effect of their alliance on treatment outcomes besides the other parties in treatment has hardly been studied. Objective : This study examined the working alliance (WA) of therapists, patients and caregivers in TF-CBT and its contribution on treatment outcome over time. Methods : N = 76 children and adolescents (mean age = 12.66 years, range 7-17, M/F ratio: .43) participated in the TF-CBT arm of a randomized controlled trial...
2020: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Narges Mahmoudi, Zahra Kiasalari, Tayebeh Rahmani, Ashkan Sanaierad, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Gholamali Naderi, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged diabetes mellitus causes impairments of cognition and attentional dysfunctions. Diosgenin belongs to a group of steroidal saponins with reported anti-diabetic and numerous protective properties. This research aimed to assess the effect of diosgenin on beneficially ameliorating learning and memory decline in a rat model of type 1 diabetes caused by streptozotocin (STZ) and to explore its modes of action including involvement in oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS: Rats were assigned to one of four experimental groups, comprising control, control under treatment with diosgenin, diabetic, and diabetic under treatment with diosgenin...
June 11, 2020: Neuropsychobiology
Malte Wöstmann, Troby Ka-Yan Lui, Kai-Hendrik Friese, Jens Kreitewolf, Malte Naujokat, Jonas Obleser
Recent research posits that the cognitive system samples target stimuli in a rhythmic fashion, characterized by target detection fluctuating at frequencies of ∼3-8 Hz. Besides prioritized encoding of targets, a key cognitive function is the protection of working memory from distractor intrusion. Here, we test to which degree the vulnerability of working memory to distraction is rhythmic. In an Irrelevant-Speech Task, N = 23 human participants had to retain the serial order of nine numbers in working memory while being distracted by task-irrelevant speech with variable temporal onsets...
May 30, 2020: Neuropsychologia
Mohsen Dadashi, Vida Yousefi Asl, Yousef Morsali
Introduction: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) belongs to the categories of psychiatric disorders with the potential to turn into a chronic condition without receiving the necessary treatments. The main feature of OCD is the frequent or intense obsession and compulsion that might induce great pain and suffering in patients. Moreover, as one of the most prevalent abnormalities, depression usually follows OCD. The present study aimed to compare the effects of Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) treatments adjunct to pharmacotherapy on decreasing the severity of obsession-depression symptoms and improving the quality of life in OCD patients...
January 2020: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sara A Wahdan, Marwa O El-Derany, Amany E Abdel-Maged, Samar S Azab
Chemobrain is a well-established clinical syndrome that impairs patient's daily function, in particular attentiveness, coordination and multi-tasking. Thus, it interferes with patient's quality of life. The putative pharmacological intervention against chemobrain relies on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying it. This study aimed to examine the potential neuroprotective effects of two immunomodulators: Interferon-β-1a (IFN-β-1a), as well as Tumor necrosis function-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor; Infliximab in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chemobrain in rats...
May 29, 2020: Neurochemistry International
Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Hashem Javanmard, Golpar Golmohammad Zadeh, Hossein Asgarian Emran, Mona Modanlou, Saeed Yaghubi-Beklar, Ramin Ataee
Introduction: Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting older individuals with signs of motor disability and cognitive impairment. Epicatechin (EC) and edaravone have neuroprotective effects most probably due to their antioxidant activity; however, a limited number of studies have considered their role in PD. This research aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effect of EC and edaravone in a neurotoxin-induced model of PD. Methods: An in vitro model of PD was made by subjecting SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to neurotoxin: 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) 100 μM/well...
November 2019: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Noura El Adle Khalaf, Farida Mohamed El Banna, Mona Younis Youssef, Youssef Mohammed Mosaad, Mohamed-Hesham Yousry Daba, Rehab Hamdy Ashour
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Multiple molecular mechanisms have been employed in its pathogenesis such as Amyloid β (Aβ) formation, tau protein hyperphosphorylation, reduced acetylcholine (ACh) level, and neuroinflammation. This study aimed to assess the possible neuroprotective effect of clopidogrel in AD model induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) in rats. METHODS: Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four different groups: Control, AlCl3 , AlCl3  + donepezil, and AlCl3  + Clopidogrel...
May 28, 2020: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Lars Orbach, Moritz Herzog, Annemarie Fritz
Although research has provided evidence for a clear association of core executive function (CEF) to math performance, fewer studies have been carried out on arithmetic fact retrieval in relation to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study assessed mathematical achievement on a basic number skill test and on an arithmetic fact retrieval task. Besides math achievement, self-ratings of ADHD symptoms (attention deficits, hyperactivity, impulsivity), core executive functions (inhibition, cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, global index) and state anxiety in 646 fourth and fifth grade students (48...
May 22, 2020: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Chirag Patel, Sonal Pande, Sanjeev Acharya
Curcumin, a major component of Indian saffron through clinical studies, revealed its neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. However, it has not been utilized alone orally due to its low bioavailability. There are certain strategies to overcome the drawbacks such as poor absorption and low aqueous solubility. Many strategies are utilized to increase the systemic availability of curcumin. Among them, the steady intestinal and liver metabolism of curcumin by a curcumin adjuvant (enzyme inhibitor/inducer) is an important and less engrossed strategy for improving the overall systemic bioavailability of curcumin...
May 25, 2020: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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