beside cognitive tests

X Liu, Q Hao, J Yue, L Hou, X Xia, W Zhao, Y Zhang, M Ge, N Ge, B Dong
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence, lifestyle factors, chronic disease status, and assessing the metabolic profile, comparing key differences in a cohort of subjects with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity (H), sarcopenia/non-obesity (S), non-sarcopenia/obesity (O) and sarcopenia obesity (SO) in a multi-ethnic population in west China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The communities in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Xinjiang provinces...
2020: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Péter Pongrácz, Dóra L Onofer
It is an intriguing question whether cats' social understanding capacity, including the sensitivity to ostensive signals (resulting in fast preferential learning of behavioural choices demonstrated by humans), would be comparable to that in dogs. In a series of A-not-B error tests, we investigated whether the ostensive or non-ostensive manner of human communication and the familiarity of the human demonstrator would affect the search error pattern in companion cats. Cats' performance showed an almost completely different distribution of perseverative erring than earlier was shown in dogs and human infants...
March 29, 2020: Animal Cognition
Forough Foolad, Fariba Khodagholi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Mohammad Javan
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects optic nerves and spinal cord. Besides, loss of motor and cognitive function has been reported as important symptoms of disease. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated the mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic alterations in NMO patients and evaluate their correlation with disease progress, disability and cognitive impairment. METHODS: The individuals (12 controls and 12 NMO) were assessed for disease severity by expanded disease status scale (EDSS), cognitive function via symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and fine motor disability by 9-hole peg test (9-HPT)...
2020: PloS One
Dong-Ni Pan, Yi Wang, Zheng Lei, Yang Wang, Xuebing Li
Attention bias modification (ABM) is a potential intervention in relieving social anxiety symptoms, while its underlying neural mechanisms are not yet understood. The current study included 63 college students with social anxiety. Participants were assigned to the attention modification program (AMP, n = 20), the attention control condition (ACC, n = 20) and the passive waiting group (PW, n = 23). Questionnaires and the emotional Stroop task with EEG recordings were used to assess whether and how the 4-week ABM period affected emotional symptoms and specific emotional processing...
March 2, 2020: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Alina Renner, Sharon J Baetge, Melanie Filser, Sebastian Ullrich, Christoph Lassek, Iris-Katharina Penner
With the proposal of the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) battery, the need to screen for cognitive deficits within standard clinical care of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been acknowledged. Data regarding how patient characteristics might predict low cognitive performance and therefore require particularly close monitoring is, however, limited so far. We investigated a large, nationwide patient cohort from ambulatory settings, representing the typical distribution of different subtypes, levels of physical disability, and disease durations...
February 13, 2020: Journal of Neuropsychology
Laura-Nanna Lohkamp, Pierre-Aurelien Beuriat, Michel Desmurget, Irène Cristofori, Alexandru Szathmari, Ludivine Huguet, Federico Di Rocco, Carmine Mottolese
INTRODUCTION: Awake brain surgery (ABS) represents a rare surgical procedure in children as age and psychological aspects, which are considered to interfere with its feasibility and psychological outcome and limit its application. Only few pediatric case series have been reported so far, indicating a more complex translation of this surgical approach to children. However, the advances in neuropsychological testing and monitoring may have a substantial impact on ameliorating the eligibility of children undergoing awake procedures...
February 13, 2020: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Nico Lehmann, Arno Villringer, Marco Taubert
Cardiovascular exercise (CE) is a promising intervention strategy to facilitate cognition and motor learning in healthy and diseased populations of all ages. CE elevates humoral parameters, such as growth factors, and stimulates brain changes potentially relevant for learning and behavioral adaptations. However, the causal relationship between CE-induced brain changes and human's ability to learn remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that CE elicits a positive effect on learning via alterations in brain structure (morphological changes of gray and white matter) and function (functional connectivity and cerebral blood flow in resting state)...
February 6, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Dominik Fischer, Sanaz Mostaghim, Larissa Albantakis
Evolving in groups can either enhance or reduce an individual's task performance. Still, we know little about the factors underlying group performance, which may be reduced to three major dimensions: (a) the individual's ability to perform a task, (b) the dependency on environmental conditions, and (c) the perception of, and the reaction to, other group members. In our research, we investigated how these dimensions interrelate in simulated evolution experiments using adaptive agents equipped with Markov brains ("animats")...
2020: PloS One
Tian Hu, Xin-Yi Lu, Jing-Jing Shi, Xiao-Qi Liu, Qu-Bo Chen, Qi Wang, Yun-Bo Chen, Shi-Jie Zhang
Epidemiological studies have found that diabetes and cognitive dysfunction are closely related. Quercetin has been certified with the effect on improving diabetes mellitus (DM) and cognitive impairment. However, the effect and related mechanism of quercetin on diabetic encephalopathy (DE) are still ambiguous. In this study, we used the db/db mice (diabetic model) to discover whether quercetin could improve DE through the Sirtuin1/NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3) pathway. Behavioural results (Morris water maze and new object recognition tests) showed that quercetin (70 mg/kg) improved the learning and memory...
January 30, 2020: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Trine Flensborg-Madsen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen, Erik Lykke Mortensen
BACKGROUND: Studies on early predictors of intelligence often focus on single or few predictors and often on childhood intelligence. This study compared the contributions of a broad selection of potential early predictors of intelligence at different adult ages. METHODS: Information on predictors was recorded prospectively in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort during pregnancy, at delivery, and at 1- and 3-year examinations for children born between 1959-61. Adult intelligence was assessed at three independent follow-ups using three different tests of intelligence: Børge Priens Prøve, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000R...
2020: PloS One
Hasna El Boukhari, Zakaria Ouhaz, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Mohamed Bennis
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), part of the thalamus, is a thin GABAergic cell layer adjacent to the relay nuclei of the dorsal thalamus. It receives input from the cortex and other thalamic nuclei and provides major inhibitory input to each thalamic nucleus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus (MD). As the MD is important for supporting optimal cortico-thalamo-cortical interactions during brain maturation, we hypothesized that that early damage to the TRN will cause major disturbances to the development and the functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the MD...
January 24, 2020: Developmental Neurobiology
Young Hee Jung, Seongbeom Park, Hyemin Jang, Soo Hyun Cho, Seung Joo Kim, Jun Pyo Kim, Sung Tae Kim, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, Hee Jin Kim
Among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, those with memory impairment (amnestic MCI, aMCI) are at a high risk of dementia. However, the precise cognitive domain, beside memory, that predicts dementia conversion is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the cognitive domain that predicts dementia conversion in a longitudinal aMCI cohort. We collected data of 482 aMCI patients who underwent neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were followed for at least 1 year. The patients were categorized according to number (1-4) and type of impaired cognitive domains (memory, language, visuospatial, and frontal-executive function)...
January 21, 2020: Scientific Reports
Aleix Sala-Vila, Cinta Valls-Pedret, Sujatha Rajaram, Nina Coll-Padrós, Montserrat Cofán, Mercè Serra-Mir, Ana M Pérez-Heras, Irene Roth, Tania M Freitas-Simoes, Mónica Doménech, Carlos Calvo, Anna López-Illamola, Edward Bitok, Natalie K Buxton, Lynnley Huey, Adam Arechiga, Keiji Oda, Grace J Lee, Dolores Corella, Lídia Vaqué-Alcázar, Roser Sala-Llonch, David Bartrés-Faz, Joan Sabaté, Emilio Ros
BACKGROUND: Walnut consumption counteracts oxidative stress and inflammation, 2 drivers of cognitive decline. Clinical data concerning effects on cognition are lacking. OBJECTIVES: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a 2-center (Barcelona, Spain; Loma Linda, CA) randomized controlled trial examining the cognitive effects of a 2-y walnut intervention in cognitively healthy elders. METHODS: We randomly allocated 708 free-living elders (63-79 y, 68% women) to a diet enriched with walnuts at ∼15% energy (30-60 g/d) or a control diet (abstention from walnuts)...
January 7, 2020: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yanqiu Yu, Phoenix Kit-Han Mo, Jianxin Zhang, Jibin Li, Joseph Tak-Fai Lau
Maladaptive gaming cognitions are important determinants of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Based on a systematic review, a 4-factor Internet gaming cognition scale (IGCS) was previously developed and cross-cultural validation of IGCS is warranted. The present study assesses the validation of the IGCS and its revised version, the Chinese version of Revised IGCS (C-RIGCS), among adolescents in China. Altogether, 755 students were recruited from junior middle schools in Guangzhou and Chengdu, China. The psychometric properties of the C-RIGCS were assessed by using appropriate statistical methods...
December 31, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ke-Wei Chang, Hang-Fan Zong, Mohammad Yasir Rizvi, Kai-Ge Ma, Wanying Zhai, Meng Wang, Wei-Na Yang, Sheng-Feng Ji, Yi-Hua Qian
Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by being deficient at learning and memory. Aβ1-42 oligomers have been shown to impair rodent cognitive function. We previously demonstrated that activation of α7nAChR, inhibition of p38 or JNK could alleviate Aβ-induced memory deficits in Y maze test. In this study, we investigated whether the effects of α7nAChR and MAPKs on Y maze test is reproducible with a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory test such as Morris water maze. We also assessed the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent recognition memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test and an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent recognition memory test such as the novel place recognition...
January 2, 2020: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lieve Filbrich, Emanuel N van den Broeke, Valéry Legrain, André Mouraux
Intense or sustained activation of peripheral nociceptors can induce central sensitization. This enhanced responsiveness to nociceptive input of the central nervous system primarily manifests as an increased sensitivity to painful mechanical pinprick stimuli extending beyond the site of injury (secondary mechanical hyperalgesia) and is thought to be a key mechanism in the development of chronic pain, such as persistent post-operative pain. It is increasingly recognized that emotional and cognitive factors can strongly influence the pain experience...
December 10, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Daniel W Heck, Lukas Seiling, Arndt Bröder
Preferences are often based on social information such as experiences and recommendations of other people. The reliance on social information is especially relevant in the case of online shopping, where buying decisions for products may often be based on online reviews by other customers. Recently, Powell, Yu, DeWolf, and Holyoak (2017, Psychological Science, 28, 1432-1442) showed that, when deciding between two products, people do not consider the number of product reviews in a statistically appropriate way as predicted by a Bayesian model but rather exhibit a bias for popular products (i...
December 23, 2019: Cognition
Farzaneh Rostami, Mohammad Javan, Ali Moghimi, Aliakbar Haddad-Mashadrizeh, Masoud Fereidoni
AIM: Insulin resistance and neuroinflammation play roles in Alzheimer's (AD) etiology. Insulin receptors (IR) are developmentally expressed in neurons as well as astrocytes. Moreover, prolonged stress can induce brain insulin resistance and astrogliosis. Also, prenatal stress could advance AD-related abnormalities in a transgenic model of AD. Besides, postnatal maternal care (PMC) has antagonistic effects on prenatal stress (PS)-induced neuronal and immunological malfunctions. Using an icv-STZ subclinical model of sAD, we assessed PS and/or abnormal PMC impacts on advancing sAD-like pathology in adult male rats...
December 16, 2019: Life Sciences
Fadi Thabtah, Ella Mampusti, David Peebles, Raymund Herradura, Jithin Varghese
Existing early detection methods that deal with the pre-diagnosis of dementia have been criticised as not being comprehensive as they do not measure certain cognitive functioning domains besides being inaccessible. A more realistic approach is to develop a comprehensive outcome that includes cognitive functioning of dementia, as this will offer a robust and unbiased outcome for an individual. In this research, a mobile screening application for dementia traits called DementiaTest is proposed, which adopts the gold standard assessment criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V)...
December 11, 2019: Journal of Medical Systems
Chen Chen, Xuyu Cao, Lixia Tian
Estimation of individuals' cognitive, behavioral and demographic (CBD) variables based on MRI has attracted much research interest in the past decade, and effective machine learning techniques are of great importance for these estimations. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) is an attractive machine learning technique that can accommodate both single- and multi-label learning in a simple framework, while its potential for MRI-based estimations of CBD variables remains to be explored. In this study, we systemically investigated the performance of PLSR in MRI-based estimations of individuals' CBD variables, especially its performance in simultaneous estimation of multiple CBD variables (multi-label learning)...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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