Qing-Hua Long, Yong-Gui Wu, Li-Ling He, Li Ding, Ai-Hua Tan, He-Yuan Shi, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Suan-Zao-Ren Decoction (SZRD) has been widely used to treat neurological illnesses, including dementia, insomnia and depression. However, the mechanisms underlying SZRD's improvement in cognitive function remain unclear. In this study, we examined SZRD's effect on APP/PS1 transgenic mice and mechanisms associated with SZRD's action in alleviating neuroinflammation and improving synaptic plasticity. METHODS: The APP/PS1 mice were treated with different dosages of SZRD (12...
January 21, 2021: Chinese Medicine
José Manuel Otero-López, María José Santiago, María Cristina Castro
Personality traits and coping strategies have historically been two key elements in the field of health psychology. It is, therefore, striking that there is no study in the field of compulsive buying that integrates the most generic, decontextualized and stable aspects (traits) with those having a more marked processual and dynamic nature, which are closer to goal-based views of human nature (coping strategies). Another weakness of the compulsive buying field is that, despite the confirmed growing increase in compulsive buying in the younger age groups, most studies have been conducted with adult samples...
January 19, 2021: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Siyi Chen, Zhuanghua Shi, Hermann J Müller, Thomas Geyer
Contextual cueing refers to the guidance of search by associative learning of the location of task-relevant target items in relation to the consistent arrangement of distractor ("context") items in the search display. The present study investigated whether such target-distractor associations could also be formed in a cross-modal search task in which the invariant distractor context is visual and the target is tactile. Each trial display consisted of 8 vibrotactile stimuli delivered to 4 fingers of each hand, with the target singled out by a vibrotactile feature difference relative to the homogeneous nontarget vibrations...
January 18, 2021: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Katja Langer, Oliver T Wolf, Valerie L Jentsch
Acute stress has been shown to modulate cognitive emotion regulation. Besides interactions with strategy use or sex, another critical modulating factor appears to be stress timing. Exposure to acute stress initiates immediate and delayed glucocorticoid effects on cognitive control functions. Previous studies indicated a delayed increase in prefrontal activity after stress and cortisol elevations, which might also improve the ability to cognitively regulate emotions when the acute stress state has subsided. In this study, we investigated the delayed impact of acute stress on the two emotion regulation strategies reappraisal and distraction...
December 5, 2020: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Amanda Larissa Dias Pacheco, Igor Santana de Melo, Fernanda Maria Araújo de Souza, Dannyele Cynthia Santos Pimentel Nicácio, Jucilene Freitas-Santos, Yngrid Mickaelli Oliveira Dos Santos, Maisa de Araújo Costa, Cibelle de Melo Bastos Cavalcante, José Gomes Dos Santos Neto, Daniel Leite Góes Gitaí, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Cláudio Miranda Torres, Alexandre Urban Borbely, Marcelo Duzzioni, Ashok K Shetty, Olagide Wagner de Castro
Crack users suffer the effects of cocaine present in the drug and the action of other active compounds from its pyrolysis. An emergent fact is an increase in the number of pregnant crack cocaine users. Studies suggest that crack cocaine and its metabolites cross the placenta, promoting premature birth, fever, irritability, sweating, and seizures in the early months of life. In children, the effects of crack cocaine have been associated with cognitive deficits, difficulty in verbalization, aggressiveness, and depression, besides enhancing the susceptibility to epileptic seizures, including status epilepticus (SE) in adulthood...
January 13, 2021: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kateřina Chládková, Václav Jonáš Podlipský, Natalia Nudga, Šárka Šimáčková
Seeing a person's mouth move for [ga] while hearing [ba] often results in the perception of "da." Such audiovisual integration of speech cues, known as the McGurk effect, is stable within but variable across individuals. When the visual or auditory cues are degraded, due to signal distortion or the perceiver's sensory impairment, reliance on cues via the impoverished modality decreases. This study tested whether cue-reliance adjustments due to exposure to reduced cue availability are persistent and transfer to subsequent perception of speech with all cues fully available...
January 14, 2021: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Joyce Karoline Friosi de Carvalho, Laís da Silva Pereira Rufino, Carlos Eduardo Panfilio, Regiane Dias Amorim Silva, Isabel Cristina Céspedes
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic and progressive disease influenced by genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. The consequences of alcohol consumption involve alterations in neural circuits of emotion and cognition, as well as in the motor planning circuit. Furthermore, during the natural aging process, several biochemical and functional alterations are also observed with neurological consequences. Thus, considering the consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on neural systems and natural aging process, we aimed to analyze the degree of motor and functional impairment in elderly with chronic alcohol consumption...
January 10, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Parviz Naderipoor, Mohammad Amani, Ali Abedi, Nona Sakhaie, Farshid Sadegzadeh, Hakimeh Saadati
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature brain. At an early developmental period, it acts in an excitatory manner that influences many processes of proliferation, migration, and differentiation of the neurons. Previous evidence indicated that manipulation of the GABAergic system function by activation or blockade of its receptors during developmental periods leads to behavioral and cognitive abnormality in adulthood. Therefore, we examined the effects of neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors by bicuculline on behavior, cognitive function, and hippocampal and prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain-derived neurotrophic factors level (BDNF) in adulthood...
January 10, 2021: Brain Research Bulletin
Parisa Gazerani
Neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), are increasing in the aging population. Crucially, neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD is associated with chronic inflammation and glial activation. Besides this, bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, sensory alteration, and cognitive and psychiatric impairments are also present in PD. Currently, no pharmacologically effective treatment alters the progression of the disease. Discovery and development of new treatment strategies remains a focus for ongoing investigations...
November 30, 2020: Future Science OA
Xiaojing Zhang, Dandan Li, Jingchao Xie, Jiaping Liu
To investigate the need of allergic population for indoor environment quality, exposure effects of poor air quality on subjects with respiratory allergies were compared with those on healthy people, including perceptual responses, health symptoms, mental performance, and physiological responses. The experimental intervention was with and without ventilation at thermally neutral rooms, creating two exposure conditions indicated by CO2 concentration ranges of 502 to 3297 ppm (2438 ± 1527 ppm) and 517 to 5687 ppm (3615 ± 1527 ppm)...
January 12, 2021: Indoor Air
Deng-Lei Ma, Yi Luo, Rui Huang, Zi-Run Zhao, Li Zhang, Ya-Li Li, Qi Wang, Lin Li, Lan Zhang
rTg4510 mice are transgenic mice expressing P301L mutant tau and have been developed as an animal model of tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides cognitive impairments, rTg4510 mice also show abnormal hyperactivity behavior. Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is an active ingredient extracted from Cornus officinalis, a traditional Chinese herb. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CIG on the emotional disorders such as hyperactivity, and related mechanisms. The emotional hyperactivity was detected by locomotor activity test and Y maze test...
December 2020: Current Medical Science
Yali Niu, Chunxiao Wan, Jing Zhang, Shu Zhang, Zilong Zhao, Leshan Zhu, Xiaodong Wang, Xiaodong Ren, Jing Wang, Ping Lei
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a common cognitive disorder caused by cerebrovascular disease, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Studies have shown that aerobic exercise might alleviate the pathological development of VCI, and our previous study observed that aerobic exercise could alleviate VCI through NF-κB/miR-503/BDNF pathway. However, there are few studies on the mechanism. Therefore, it is of great significance to fill the gaps in the mechanism for the early diagnosis of VCI and the clinical prevention and treatment of vascular dementia...
January 7, 2021: Molecular Medicine
Li Shi, Rui Zhang, Tian Li, Xue Han, Nannan Yuan, Lei Jiang, Huimin Zhou, Shunjiang Xu
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is a global concern and Gordian knot worldwide. miRNA-132 (miR-132) is a class of negative gene regulators that promote diabetic pathologic mechanisms and its complications. However, the molecular mechanisms of miR-132 in DE are elusive, thus an alternative therapeutic strategy is urgently in demand. The present study explored the protective effect and the underlying mechanism of miR-132 on DE via the GSK-β/Tau signaling pathway. Experimentally, a type 2 DM rat model was developed by incorporating a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection...
December 27, 2020: Aging
Yixin Hu, Mengmeng Zhou, Yunru Shao, Jing Wei, Zhenying Li, Shike Xu, Phil Maguire, Dawei Wang
BACKGROUND: Based on social comparison theory, two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of depression and social comparison on adolescents, using the ultimatum game (UG). METHODS: Before the formal experiment began, a preliminary experiment tested the effectiveness of social comparison settings. This study used the UG paradigm to explore adolescents' social decision-making in the context of gain and loss through two experiments. These experiments were designed as a 2 (group: depressive mood group, normal mood group) × 2 (social comparison: upward, downward) × 3 (fairness level: fair 5:5, unfair 3:7, extremely unfair 1:9) three-factor hybrid study...
January 5, 2021: BMC Psychiatry
Xuegang Song, Feng Zhou, Alejandro F Frangi, Jiuwen Cao, Xiaohua Xiao, Yi Lei, Tianfu Wang, Baiying Lei
Graph convolution networks (GCN) have been successfully applied in disease prediction tasks as they capture interactions (i.e., edges and edge weights on the graph) between individual elements. The interactions in existing works are constructed by fusing similarity between imaging information and distance between non-imaging information, whereas disregarding the disease status of those individuals in the training set. Besides, the similarity is being evaluated by computing the correlation distance between feature vectors, which limits prediction performance, especially for predicting significant memory concern (SMC) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
December 31, 2020: Medical Image Analysis
Martin Reuter, Vera Zamoscik, Thomas Plieger, Rafael Bravo, Lierni Ugartemendia, Ana Beatriz Rodriguez, Peter Kirsch
The essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) is discussed as a potential protective factor for physical and mental health. Besides positive effects via the microbiota of the gut on many physiological processes, TRP is the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), thereby playing a role for affective disorders. The present study investigated the effects of a TRP-rich diet on depressiveness and on one of its endophenotypes, impaired social cognition, in a population based sample. N = 482 subjects participated in an online study, assessing the ability to properly recognize emotional states from the eye region of faces (Reading the Mind in the Eye Test, RMET) and asking for subjective ratings of condemnability in a moral judgment task...
October 23, 2020: Nutrition Research
Shiwei Cheng, Jialing Wang, Lekai Zhang, Qianjing Wei
Existing studies have demonstrated that eye tracking can be a complementary approach to Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interaction (BCI), especially in improving BCI performance in visual perception and cognition. In this paper, we proposed a method to fuse EEG and eye movement data extracted from motor imagery (MI) tasks. The results of the tests showed that on the feature layer, the average MI classification accuracy from the fusion of EEG and eye movement data was higher than that of pure EEG data or pure eye movement data, respectively...
December 31, 2020: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Nicki Marquardt, Merle Hoebel, Daniela Lud
The present paper investigates the changeability of safety culture elements such as explicit and implicit safety attitudes by training. Therefore, three studies with different time frames, training durations, and settings will be presented. In the first study, the short-term attitude change of students from an international environmental sciences study program was measured after safety training in a chemical laboratory. In the second study, the medium-term attitude change was assessed after a Crew Resource Management training for German production workers in the automotive industry...
November 17, 2020: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing
Gökçen Ömeroğlu Şimşek, Gülser Kılınç, Begüm Ergan, Oğuz Kılınç
Background: Nicotine addiction is associated with nicotine absorption from buccal mucosa and it is stated that the main factor that determines the nicotine absorption is saliva pH. In the literature, the effects of changes in saliva pH values after eating and drinking on smoking desire in the smokers were not questioned. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to show the effect of saliva pH changes on smoking desire. The secondary aims were to show the effects of coffee and water drinking on saliva pH and the effects of smoking on oral-dental health (oral hygiene, gingival bleeding)...
December 25, 2020: Balkan Medical Journal
Maryam Amooei, Zohreh Meshkati, Rozita Nasiri, Amir Bahador Dakhili
Heavy metals are considered contaminants that hazardously influence the healthy life of humans and animals as they are widely used in industry. Contact of youngsters and women at ages of parturition with lead (Pb+2 ) is a main related concern, which passes through the placental barricade and its better absorption in the intestine leads to flaws in the fetal developfment. However, the metals threaten animal and human life, in particular throughout developmental stages. Products existing in the nature have a major contribution to innovating chemo-preventives...
December 18, 2020: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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