Małgorzata Kowalczyk, Janusz Szemraj, Katarzyna Bliźniewska, Michael Maes, Michael Berk, Kuan-Pin Su, Piotr Gałecki
The prevalence of depression worldwide is increasing from year to year and constitutes a serious medical, economic and social problem. Currently, despite multifactorial risk factors and pathways contributing to depression development, a significant aspect is attributed to the inflammatory process. Cytokines are considered a factor activating the kynurenine pathway, which leads to the exhaustion of tryptophan in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. This results in the activation of potentially neuroprogressive processes and also affects the metabolism of many neurotransmitters...
May 28, 2019: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Kiran Sankar Maiti, Michael Lewton, Ernst Fill, Alexander Apolonski
By checking the reproducibility of conventional mid-infrared Fourier spectroscopy of human breath in a small test study (15 individuals), we found that a set of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the individual breath samples remains reproducible at least for 18 months. This set forms a unique individual's "island of stability" (IOS) in a multidimensional VOC concentration space. The IOS stability can simultaneously be affected by various life effects as well as the onset of a disease. Reflecting the body state, they both should have different characteristics...
November 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Susan Westfall, Umar Iqbal, Maria Sebastian, Giulio Maria Pasinetti
The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become outdated as researchers and clinicians recognize that lifestyle factors and environmental stressors have a greater impact on the etiology of AD than genetic predispositions. When persistent over decades, chronic psychological and physical stressors disrupt the body's natural adaptions to stress (allostasis) resulting in a general "wear and tear" on the body termed allostatic overload. Allostatic overload results in hypercortisolemia, disrupted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, elevated proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reduced synaptic plasticity, persistently activated microglia, and importantly, a dysbiotic gut microbiota...
2019: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Bruce S McEwen
Cortisol has many roles not only in mediating the response to stress but also in the circadian rhythm, and it does so by both genomic and nongenomic cellular and molecular mechanisms. Yet, it is common to associate cortisol only with stress and, in particular, with the negative aspects of stress even though we would not survive without it. This commentary provides a brief overview not only of the diverse roles of cortisol but also of how to measure it to get meaningful information in the context of other mediators of stress and adaptation and the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load and overload...
January 2019: Chronic Stress
Gabriella Lobitz, Katrina Armstrong, John Concato, Burton H Singer, Ralph I Horwitz
Construction of a patient narrative (case history) is a core strategy in the care of patients. Recent advances in biomarker identification and digital sensors to monitor physiological and behavioral features have made constructing a case history more complex. Notably, however, although a biological profile is increasingly a part of the patient's profile, an analogous patient-based biographical (life experience) profile is typically overlooked. Evolving concepts such as allostasis and allostatic load refer to processes promoting stability of physiological systems in the presence of diverse life experiences...
October 2, 2019: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Joseph Fridman, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Jolie B Wormwood, Karen S Quigley
Law enforcement personnel commonly make decisions in stressful circumstances, where the costs associated with errors are high and sometimes fatal. In this paper, we apply a powerful theoretical approach, the theory of constructed emotion (TCE), to understand decision making under evocative circumstances. This theory posits that the primary purpose of a brain is to predictively regulate physiological resources to coordinate the body's motor activity and learning in the short term, and to meet the body's needs for growth, survival, and reproduction in the long term...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Georgia Panayiotou, Maria Panteli, Elke Vlemincx
In this conceptual review, we discuss models of emotion and its regulation and identify a spectrum of processes that characterise adaptive adjustment to the affective environment. We describe a dynamic-phasic model of emotion processing and regulation, focusing on five stages: anticipation, response, recovery, habituation and rest as part of a cascade of responses to emotional challenges, as these become progressively expected, proximal, chronic or repeated. We argue for the need to investigate beyond simple reactivity to emotional stimuli, in order to understand mental and physical health conditions where emotional dysregulation plays a role...
September 26, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Giovanni Tomaselli, Monique Vallée
The pregnenolone-progesterone-allopregnanolone pathway is receiving increasing attention in research on the role of neurosteroids in pathophysiology, particularly in stress-related and drug use disorders. These disorders involve an allostatic change that may result from deficiencies in allostasis or adaptive responses, and may be downregulated by adjustments in neurotransmission by neurosteroids. The following is an overview of findings that assess how pregnenolone and/or allopregnanolone concentrations are altered in animal models of stress and after consumption of alcohol or cannabis-type drugs, as well as in patients with depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder or psychosis and/or in those diagnosed with alcohol or cannabis use disorders...
September 13, 2019: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jay Schulkin, Peter Sterling
Although the concept of allostasis was proposed some 30 years ago, doubts persist about its precise meaning and whether it is useful. Here we review the concept in the context of recent studies as a strategy to efficiently regulate physiology and behavior. The brain, sensing the internal and external milieu, and consulting its database, predicts what is likely to be needed; then, it computes the best response. The brain rewards a better-than-predicted result with a pulse of dopamine, thereby encouraging the organism to learn effective regulatory behaviors...
September 2, 2019: Trends in Neurosciences
Anja Baethge, Tim Vahle-Hinz, Thomas Rigotti
In this study, we investigate autonomic nervous system regulation during a regular workday and how coworker support relates to this allostatic system. We first examined the trajectory of the heart rate variability (HRV) as an indicator of autonomic nervous system activation throughout the workday. Furthermore, we proposed that coworker support is directly related to the typical autonomic regulation of the workday and facilitates a stable high parasympathetic and low sympathetic activation level during the workday...
September 2, 2019: Journal of Applied Psychology
Shir Atzil, Wei Gao, Isaac Fradkin, Lisa Feldman Barrett
It has long been assumed that social animals, such as humans, are born with a brain system that has evolved to support social affiliation. However, the evidence does not necessarily support this assumption. Alternatively, social animals can be defined as those who cannot survive alone and rely on members from their group to regulate their ongoing physiology (or allostasis). The rather simple evolutionary constraint of social dependency for survival can be sufficient to make the social environment vitally salient, and to provide the ultimate driving force for socially crafted brain development and learning...
September 2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Nigel S Bamford, Wengang Wang
Small fluctuations in striatal glutamate and dopamine are required to establish goal-directed behaviors and motor learning, while large changes appear to underlie many neuropsychological disorders, including drug dependence and Parkinson's disease. A better understanding of how variations in neurotransmitter availability can modify striatal circuitry will lead to new therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we examined dopamine-induced plasticity in prefrontal cortical projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core...
July 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Qianbin Wang, Weiyi Qian, Xiaoyu Xu, Apratim Bajpai, Kevin Guan, Zijing Zhang, Roy Chen, Vittoria Flamini, Weiqiang Chen
Allostasis is a fundamental biological process through which living organisms achieve stability via physiological or behavioral changes to protect against internal and external stresses, and ultimately better adapt to the local environment. However, an full understanding of cellular-level allostasis is far from developed. By employing an integrated micromechanical tool capable of applying controlled mechanical stress on an individual cell and simultaneously reporting dynamic information of subcellular mechanics, individual cell allostasis is observed to occur through a biphasic process; cellular mechanics tends to restore to a stable state through a mechanoadaptative process with excitative biophysical activity followed by a decaying adaptive phase...
July 4, 2019: Advanced Materials
Bruce S McEwen, Alfred E Mirsky
Stress has both a good and bad side which are discussed in terms of the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load and overload. Stressful experiences can cause health damaging behaviors which lead to allostatic load and overload and accelerate disease processes.
June 25, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Nils J Bergman, Robert Ludwig, Björn Westrup, Martha Welch
Behavioral and emotional outcomes for babies who experienced maternal separation due to prematurity or birth defects have not improved significantly for the last 20 years. Current theories and treatment paradigms based on neuroscience have not generated explanatory mechanisms that work, or provided testable hypotheses. This article proposes a new field of scientific investigation, "nurturescience" within which new hypotheses can be tested with novel instruments. Key distinctions between neuroscience and nurturescience are described...
May 30, 2019: Birth Defects Research
V Nold, C Sweatman, A Karabatsiakis, C Böck, T Bretschneider, N Lawless, K Fundel-Clemens, I-T Kolassa, K A Allers
Allostasis is the process by which the body's physiological systems adapt to environmental changes. Chronic stress increases the allostatic load to the body, producing wear and tear that could, over time, become pathological. In this study, young adult male Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to an unpredictable chronic mild stress (uCMS) protocol to increase allostatic load. First, physiological systems which may be affected by extended uCMS exposure were assessed. Secondly, 5 weeks of uCMS were used to investigate early adaptations in the previously selected systems...
April 23, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sung W Lee
There are two main paradigms for brain-related science, with different implications for brain-focused intervention or advancement. The paradigm of homeostasis ("stability through constancy," Walter Cannon), originating from laboratory-based experimental physiology pioneered by Claude Bernard, shows that living systems tend to maintain system functionality in the direction of constancy (or similitude). The aim of physiology is to elucidate the factors that maintain homeostasis, and therapeutics aim to correct abnormal factor functions...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nathalie Brunkhorst-Kanaan, Katharina Klatt-Schreiner, Juliane Hackel, Katrin Schröter, Sandra Trautmann, Lisa Hahnefeld, Sabine Wicker, Andreas Reif, Dominique Thomas, Gerd Geisslinger, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Irmgard Tegeder
Changes of sphingolipid metabolism were suggested to contribute to the patho-etiology of major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In a pilot study we assessed if lipid allostasis manifested in pathological plasma concentrations of bioactive lipids i.e. endocannabinoids, sphingolipids, ceramides, and lysophosphatidic acids. METHODS: Targeted and untargeted lipidomic analyses were performed according to GLP guidelines in 67 patients with unipolar or bipolar disorders (20-67 years, 36 male, 31 female) and 405 healthy controls (18-79 years, 142 m, 263 f), who were matched according to gender, age and body mass index...
April 4, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Rodrigo A Cunha
Adenosine modulation is considered both a paracrine signal coordinating different cells in a tissue and a stress signal. Both functions are ensured by 4 types of adenosine receptors (ARs), which have been studied individually. Mice with knockout of all ARs (quad-AR-KO) now allow enquiring the overall function of the adenosine modulation system. The observed "normal'" physiology of quad-AR-KO mice indicates that ARs do not regulate homeostasis and are likely recruited to selectively control allostasis...
April 5, 2019: PLoS Biology
Birgit Mazurek, Benjamin Boecking, Petra Brueggemann
: This contribution focuses on the relationship between stress and tinnitus. While the causal and directional pathways between these constructs continue to remain unclear, this paper uses an allostasis-based framework to discuss associations between physiological stress responses, individuals' idiosyncratic experiences of the tinnitus percept, and psychological treatment approaches.
April 2019: Otology & Neurotology
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