Osmolarity | Page 2

Carolin Torregroza, Katharina Feige, Laura Schneider, Sebastian Bunte, Martin Stroethoff, André Heinen, Markus W Hollmann, Ragnar Huhn, Annika Raupach
Pharmacological preconditioning (PC) and postconditioning (PoC), for example, by treatment with the α2-adrenoreceptor agonist Dexmedetomidine (Dex), protects hearts from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in experimental studies, however, translation into the clinical setting has been challenging. Acute hyperglycemia adversely affects the outcome of patients with myocardial infarction. Additionally, it also blocks cardioprotection by multiple pharmacological agents. Therefore, we investigated the possible influence of acute hyperglycemia on Dexmedetomidine-induced pre- and postconditioning...
May 13, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Srinadh Annangi, Snigdha Nutalapati, Srikanth Naramala, Pradeep Yarra, Khalid Bashir
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality encountered both in the inpatient and outpatient clinical settings in the United States. Rapid correction leads to a deranged cerebral osmotic gradient causing osmotic demyelination syndrome. Coexisting azotemia is considered to be protective against osmotic demyelination syndrome owing to its counteractive effect on osmolarity change that occurs with rapid hyponatremia correction. In this article, we report the case of a 37-year-old male who presented with altered mentation, acute azotemia, and severe electrolyte derangements, with serum blood urea nitrogen 160 mg/dL, creatinine 8...
January 2020: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Christopher-Nils Mais, Lucas Hermann, Florian Altegoer, Andreas Seubert, Alexandra A Richter, Isa Wernersbach, Laura Czech, Erhard Bremer, Gert Bange
When faced with increased osmolarity in the environment, many bacterial cells accumulate the compatible solute ectoine and its derivative 5-hydroxyectoine. Both compounds are not only potent osmostress protectants, but also serve as effective chemical chaperones stabilizing protein functionality. Ectoines are energy-rich nitrogen and carbon sources that have an ecological impact that shapes microbial communities. Although the biochemistry of ectoine and 5-hydroxyectoine biosynthesis is well understood, our understanding of their catabolism is only rudimentary...
May 13, 2020: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ekaterina V Laz, Jongmin Lee, David E Levin
Two stress-activated MAP kinase (SAPK) pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae respond to osmotic imbalances. The High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway is activated in response to hyper-osmotic stress, whereas the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway is activated in response to hypo-osmotic stress. However, there is also evidence of complex interplay and crosstalk between the two pathways. For example, treatment with zymolyase, a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes, is known to activate the SAPK Hog1 of the HOG pathway and the SAPK Mpk1 of the CWI pathway sequentially, with Mpk1 activation dependent upon Hog1...
May 2020: Fungal Biology
Philip J G M Voets, Nils P J Vogtländer, Karin A H Kaasjager
Dysnatremia-either hyponatremia or hypernatremia-is frequently encountered in the clinical practice and often poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for physicians. Despite their frequent occurrence, disorders of the water and sodium balance in the human body have puzzled many physicians over the years and often remain elusive for those lacking experience in their interpretation and management. In this article, we derive a transparent governing equation that can be used by clinicians to describe how a change in relevant physiological parameters will affect the plasma sodium concentration...
May 7, 2020: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Han Du, Chang Ye, Dan Wu, Yan-Yu Zang, Linqing Zhang, Chen Chen, Xue-Yan He, Jian-Jun Yang, Ping Hu, Zhengfeng Xu, Guoqiang Wan, Yun Stone Shi
Hypotonic stress causes the activation of swelling-activated nonselective cation channels (NSCCs), which leads to Ca2+ -dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and adaptive maintenance of the cell volume; however, the molecular identities of the osmosensitive NSCCs remain unclear. Here, we identified TMEM63B as an osmosensitive NSCC activated by hypotonic stress. TMEM63B is enriched in the inner ear sensory hair cells. Genetic deletion of TMEM63B results in necroptosis of outer hair cells (OHCs) and progressive hearing loss...
May 5, 2020: Cell Reports
Tahereh Sabaghian, Mohammad Esmail Gheydari, Fatemeh Divani
INTRODUCTION: Curcumin is turmeric extract that have antiproliferative, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant effects and has been shown that it may have reno-protective properties. This study conducted to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in the prevention of CIN. METHODS: This randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 138 patients with chronic stable angina scheduled for elective coronary angiography that had renal insufficiency. Patients were randomized to receive curcumin or placebo in addition to standard hydration with saline 0...
May 2020: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Daniela S Nosch, Roland E Joos, Michael Job
PURPOSE: To subjectively and objectively evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of preservative-free Ectoin ® Eye Spray - Colloidal (EES09) and Tears Again ® Eye Spray (TA) in subjects with mild-moderate dry eye disease (DED), and to compare efficacy of these two eye sprays with each other. METHODS: Thirty-six volunteers (average age 32.3 ± 16.1 years; 26 females) were successfully recruited for this prospective double-blind study with between-subject design and randomly divided into two groups (gender and age balanced): Group A received EES09 and Group B received TA during the treatment phase...
April 27, 2020: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Aleksander S Reshetnikov, Olga N Rozova, Yuri A Trotsenko, Sergey Yu But, Valentina N Khmelenina, Ildar I Mustakhimov
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms living in saline environments are forced to regulate turgor via the synthesis of organic osmoprotective compounds. Microbial adaptation to fluctuations in external salinity includes degradation of compatible solutes. Here we have examined the biochemical pathway of degradation of the cyclic imino acid ectoine, the major osmoprotector in halotolerant methane-utilizing bacteria. METHODS: The BLAST search of the genes involved in ectoine degradation in the halotolerant methanotroph Methylotuvimicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z was performed with the reference sequences of Halomonas elongata...
2020: PloS One
Konstantinos Mantantzis, Johanna Drewelies, Sandra Duezel, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Ilja Demuth, Gert G Wagner, Ulman Lindenberger, Denis Gerstorf
Adequate hydration is essential for health, with even mild forms of dehydration often having negative effects on cognition and well-being. Despite evidence of higher risk for dehydration among older adults, links between dehydration and cognitive or well-being outcomes have not been established in old age. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study II (age range 60-89) to investigate whether trajectories of cognitive functioning (digit symbol, N = 1,111) and well-being (Diener satisfaction with life, N = 1,066; Socio-Economic Panel Study life satisfaction, N = 1,067; and Lawton morale, N = 1,067) are associated with objective dehydration (osmolarity; 33% dehydrated)...
April 30, 2020: Psychology and Aging
C El-Chami, A R Foster, C Johnson, R P Clausen, P Cornwell, I S Haslam, M C Steward, R E B Watson, H S Young, C A O'Neill
BACKGROUND: The epidermal barrier is important for water conservation, failure of which is evident in dry skin conditions. Barrier function is fulfilled by the stratum corneum, tight junctions (TJs; which control extracellular water) and keratinocyte mechanisms, such as organic osmolyte transport, which regulate intracellular water homeostasis. Organic osmolyte transport by keratinocytes is largely unexplored and nothing is known regarding how cellular and extracellular mechanisms of water conservation may interact...
April 29, 2020: British Journal of Dermatology
Lily A Parkinson, Christoph Mans
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of 3 electrolyte solutions administered SC to experimentally dehydrated inland bearded dragons ( Pogona vitticeps ). ANIMALS: 9 inland bearded dragons. PROCEDURES: In a randomized, complete crossover study, experimental dehydration was induced by means of furosemide (10 mg/kg, SC, q 12 h for 4 doses), and then lactated Ringer solution, Plasma-Lyte A, or reptile Ringer solution (RRS; 1:1 mixture of 5% dextrose solution and isotonic crystalloid solution) was administered SC in a single 50-mL/kg dose in 3 treatments sessions separated by a minimum of 14 days...
May 2020: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Marta Urbanska, Hector E Muñoz, Josephine Shaw Bagnall, Oliver Otto, Scott R Manalis, Dino Di Carlo, Jochen Guck
The mechanical phenotype of a cell is an inherent biophysical marker of its state and function, with many applications in basic and applied biological research. Microfluidics-based methods have enabled single-cell mechanophenotyping at throughputs comparable to those of flow cytometry. Here, we present a standardized cross-laboratory study comparing three microfluidics-based approaches for measuring cell mechanical phenotype: constriction-based deformability cytometry (cDC), shear flow deformability cytometry (sDC) and extensional flow deformability cytometry (xDC)...
April 27, 2020: Nature Methods
Jianhua Guo, Lihua Hou, Junpeng Hou, Jiali Yu, Qingming Hu
Microcapsules are attractive core-shell configurations for studies of controlled release, biomolecular sensing, artificial microbial environments, and spherical film buckling. However, the production of microcapsules with ultra-thin shells remains a challenge. Here we develop a simple and practical osmolarity-controlled swelling method for the mass production of monodisperse microcapsules with ultra-thin shells via water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double-emulsion drops templating. The size and shell thickness of the double-emulsion drops are precisely tuned by changing the osmotic pressure between the inner cores and the suspending medium, indicating the practicability and effectiveness of this swelling method in tuning the shell thickness of double-emulsion drops and the resultant microcapsules...
April 23, 2020: Micromachines
K Z Isoardi, C B Page, M S Roberts, G K Isbister
Introduction: Triclopyr is a synthetic auxin-like herbicide. It is considered to have low toxicity and there are few reports of poisoning. We report two cases of life-threatening toxicity following ingestions of 250 mL of 50 g/L triclopyr co-formulated with diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE). Case reports: A 79-year-old male with a background of hypertension and atrial fibrillation presented two hours after ingestion with sedation, a severe high anion gap metabolic acidosis, raised osmolar gap and an aspiration pneumonitis...
April 27, 2020: Clinical Toxicology
Yi Huang, Yuhang Hong, Zhiqiu Huang, Hongying He
Abamectin is widely utilized in both agricultural and aquaculture areas in China for pest control. However, information about toxic effects of abamectin on non-target aquatic organisms is still incomplete. The Chinese mitten crab, Erocheir sinensis has been extensively bred in the rice-crab co-culture system for years, resulting in the frequent exposure to pesticides including abamectin. In the present study, a primary haemocyte culture model was established to investigate the immune response under exposure of abamectin...
April 8, 2020: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Marta Nieckarz, Patrycja Kaczor, Karolina Jaworska, Adrianna Raczkowska, Katarzyna Brzostek
Yersinia enterocolitica exhibits a dual lifestyle, existing as both a saprophyte and a pathogen colonizing different niches within a host organism. OmpR has been recognized as a regulator that controls the expression of genes involved in many different cellular processes and the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Here, we have examined the influence of OmpR and varying temperature (26°C vs. 37°C) on the cytoplasmic proteome of Y . enterocolitica Ye9N (bio-serotype 2/O:9, low pathogenicity). Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that OmpR affects the cellular abundance of a number of proteins including subunits of urease, an enzyme that plays a significant role in acid tolerance and the pathogenicity of Y...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nikhil Sood, Kailash Nath Sharma, Pratibha Himral, Tarun Sharma, Dhiraj Kapoor
Introduction: Hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) <135 mEq/L. It is not a disease but rather a pathophysiologic process indicating disturbed water homeostasis. Hyponatremia should be further classified to provide directions for diagnosis and treatment. It is a heterogeneous disorder. The classifications of hyponatremia are commonly based on tonicity and volume status. The initial differentiation in hypotonic and non-hypotonic hyponatremia is important because management is different...
February 2020: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Juliette N Wilms, Leonel N Leal, Javier Martín-Tereso
A major goal in treatment of calves with diarrhea is to restore hydration and to correct metabolic acidosis. This can be achieved by the administration of oral electrolyte solutions (OES). However, the composition of OES products and the administration protocols in practice vary widely, which can potentially compromise the efficacy and safety of these treatments. In particular, administration of OES in milk replacer (MR) and the absence of water supply in young calves are not unusual and these conditions could compromise calf health...
April 16, 2020: Journal of Dairy Science
Bakoliarisoa Nivomalala Voahangy Rasoanirina, Mohamed Ali Lassoued, Karim Miladi, Zoarilala Razafindrakoto, Raja Chaâbane-Banaoues, David Ramanitrahasimbola, Muriel Cornet, Souad Sfar
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effectiveness of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) in improving voriconazole transcorneal permeability. METHODS: Voriconazole-SNEDDS was prepared with isopropyl myristate, PEG 400, Tween 80® and Span 80® and was subjected for physicochemical characterization after reconstitution with NaCl 0.9% (1/9; v/v). In-vitro antifungal activity was assessed and compared with the marketed formulation. In-vivo studies, namely ocular irritation test via modified Draize test and pharmacokinetic study, were investigated using rabbit as animal model...
April 15, 2020: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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