Ana Herranz Barbero, Nayra Rico, Benjamí Oller-Salvia, Victoria Aldecoa-Bilbao, Laura Macías-Muñoz, Robin Wijngaard, Josep Figueras-Aloy, MªDolors Salvia-Roigés
BACKGROUND: Human breast milk (BM) fortification is required to feed preterm newborns with less than 32 weeks of gestation. However, addition of fortifiers increases osmolarity and osmolarity values higher than 450 mOsm/kg may be related to gastrointestinal pathology. Hence, fortifier selection and dosage are key to achieve optimal feeding. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect on osmolality of adding different fortifications, including recently developed formulations, to BM and to study evolution of osmolarity over time in supplemented BM...
2020: PloS One
Daniel Krause, Damien Marycz, Khaled M Ziada
Injection of contrast media is the foundation of invasive and interventional cardiovascular practice. Iodine-based contrast was first used in the 1920s for urologic procedures and examinations. The initially used agents had high ionic and osmolar concentrations, which led to significant side effects, namely nausea, vomiting, and hypotension. Newer contrast agents had lower ionic concentrations and lower osmolarity. Modifications to the ionic structure and iodine content led to the development of ionic low-osmolar, nonionic low-osmolar, and nonionic iso-osmolar contrast media...
July 2020: Interventional Cardiology Clinics
Shweta Bansal, Rahul N Patel
Passing contrast media through the renal vascular bed leads to vasoconstriction. The perfusion decrease leads to ischemia of tubular cells. Through ischemia and direct toxicity to renal tubular cells, reactive oxygen species formation is increased, enhancing the effect of vasoconstrictive mediators and decreasing the bioavailability of vasodilative mediators. Reactive oxygen species formation leads to oxidative damage to tubular cells. These interacting pathways lead to tubular necrosis. In the pathophysiology of contrast-induced acute kidney injury, low osmolar and iso-osmolar agents have theoretic advantages and disadvantages; however, clinically the difference in incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury has not changed...
July 2020: Interventional cardiology clinics
Sadichhya Lohani, Michael R Rudnick
History of contrast dates back to the 1890s, with the invention of the radiograph. Nephrotoxicity has been a main limitation in ideal contrast media (CM). High-osmolar contrast media no longer are in clinical use due to overwhelming evidence supporting greater nephrotoxicity with these CM compared with current CM. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common cause of in-hospital acute kidney injury. The choice contrast agent is determined mainly by cost and institution practice. This review focuses on the history, chemical properties, and experimental and clinical studies on the various groups of CM and their role in CIN...
July 2020: Interventional cardiology clinics
Bindu Subhadra, Surya Surendran, Bo Ra Lim, Jong Sung Yim, Dong Ho Kim, Kyungho Woo, Hwa-Jung Kim, Man Hwan Oh, Chul Hee Choi
Adaptation to changing environmental conditions is crucial for the survival of microorganisms. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to cope with osmotic stress. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the osmotic stress response operon, betIBA, in Acinetobacter nosocomialis. The betIBA operon encodes enzymes that are important for the conversion of choline to the osmoprotectant, glycine betaine. The betIBA operon is polycistronic and is under the regulation of the first gene, betI, of the same operon...
June 2020: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Eliciane Cevolani Mattos, Giuseppe Palmisano, Gustavo H Goldman
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic and allergenic pathogenic fungus, responsible for fungal infections in humans. A. fumigatus infections are usually treated with polyenes, azoles, or echinocandins. Echinocandins, such as caspofungin, can inhibit the biosynthesis of the β-1,3-glucan polysaccharide, affecting the integrity of the cell wall and leading to fungal death. In some A. fumigatus strains, caspofungin treatment at high concentrations induces an increase of fungal growth, a phenomenon called the <u>c</u>aspofungin <u>p</u>aradoxical <u>e</u>ffect (CPE)...
May 27, 2020: MSphere
Nina A Kamennaya, Kalotina Geraki, David J Scanlan, Mikhail V Zubkov
Bacteria acquire phosphate (Pi ) by maintaining a periplasmic concentration below environmental levels. We recently described an extracellular Pi buffer which appears to counteract the gradient required for Pi diffusion. Here, we demonstrate that various treatments to outer membrane (OM) constituents do not affect the buffered Pi because bacteria accumulate Pi in the periplasm, from which it can be removed hypo-osmotically. The periplasmic Pi can be gradually imported into the cytoplasm by ATP-powered transport, however, the proton motive force (PMF) is not required to keep Pi in the periplasm...
May 26, 2020: Nature Communications
Angela Bonaccorso, Maria Rosa Gigliobianco, Rosalia Pellitteri, Debora Santonocito, Claudia Carbone, Piera Di Martino, Giovanni Puglisi, Teresa Musumeci
Intranasal (IN) drug delivery is recognized to be an innovative strategy to deliver drugs to the Central Nervous System. One of the main limitations of IN dosing is the low volume of drug that can be administered. Accordingly, two requirements are necessary: the drug should be active at a low dosage, and the drug solubility in water must be high enough to accommodate the required dose. Drug nanocrystals may overcome these limitations; thus, curcumin was selected as a model drug to prepare nanocrystals for potential IN administration...
May 23, 2020: Pharmaceutics
Zorisadday Gonzalez, Daniel Herlihy, Cong Phan, Jesus Diaz, Kenneth Dominguez, Richard McCallum
Alcohol has been associated with alterations in gastric motility. The literature identifies that various factors play a role in alcohol's effect on gastric emptying including differences in alcohol concentration, osmolarity, caloric content, amino acids as well as different processing techniques (fermentation vs distillation). Additionally, chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to alter the myenteric nitrergic system resulting in impaired gastrointestinal motor function, and it also has an inhibitory effect on the release of several neurotransmitters that play a key role in gastrointestinal motility, including acetylcholine...
May 23, 2020: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Pramod Theetha Kariyanna, Lyudmila Aurora, Amog Jayarangaiah, Sushruth Das, Jose Casillas Gonzalez, Sudhanva Hegde, Isabel M McFarlane
Contrast media enhances the visualization of the anatomic structures in radiological studies, allowing internal tissues such as blood vessels, kidney, ureters, adrenals and other organs to be identified. The evolution of contrast media highlights the efforts to develop less toxic chemical agents that possess low viscosity and osmolality. However, adverse effects such as idiosyncratic reactions, and organ specific damage are well characterized. Neurotoxicity, an important and dose related effect, appears to be due to disruption of the blood-brain-barrier by the high osmolarity of the contrast agent...
2020: American Journal of Medical Case Reports
Sebastian Werner, Christian Bez, Clemens Hinterleitner, Marius Horger
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) and presumed contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) following contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) with intravenous application of a reduced dose of the iso-osmolar contrast agent iodixanol in cancer patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: 198 oncology patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60ml/min/1.73m2 undergoing a total of 237 CECTs using a reduced dose of 60ml iodixanol were retrospectively analyzed...
2020: PloS One
Eva Schneider, Friedrich Paulsen, Christina Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most common ocular diseases and is associated with a considerable decrease in the quality of life. It is accompanied by symptoms of discomfort, tear film instability, hyperosmolarity of the tear film, inflammation of the ocular surface and neurosensory abnormalities. It is still not clear yet if the density of Langerhans cells in the central cornea can be used for objective evaluation of the inflammation in the tear film and the ocular surface...
May 2020: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Susanna König, Siegfried Priglinger, Markus Schaumberger, Elisabeth M Messmer
INTENTION: The hyperosmolarity of the tear film is an important clinical sign of dry eye disease. It is the most important diagnostic parameter. In addition to the TearLab osmometer (TearLab Corp, San Diego, CA), which has been available for several years, the I-Pen osmometer (I-MED Pharma Inc, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Quebec, Canada) has been recently marketed. The intention of our study was to compare tear film osmolarities in normal individuals as measured by TearLab and I-Pen. METHODS: 51 healthy subjects (mean age 40...
May 2020: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Uwe Pleyer, Gerd Geerling, Stefan Schrader, Christina Jacobi, Friedemann Kimmich, Elisabeth Messmer
Dry eye disease (DED) is a heterogenous disease of the ocular surface. Multiple pathogenetic factors are responsible for the disease process, but DED is generally linked to an increase in the osmolarity of the tear film and to inflammation of the ocular surface. The significance of inflammatory processes in DED is highlighted in the most recent definition of dry eye in the Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS). It is therefore critically important for the management of dry eye disease to understand the pathomechanisms and therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory processes...
May 2020: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Gysbert Botho van Setten
The association of severe dry eye disease with elevated osmolarity in the tear film is a subject of ongoing discussions. As the absolute value of osmolarity in tear film is highly variable, the daily variation in osmolarity (DVO) has recently been proposed to further identify the osmotic stress at the ocular surface. However, the DVO alone does not explain the variations in the available published data or allow their use in diagnostic testing or therapy. We therefore investigated and evaluated further details of osmokinetics and their importance for ocular surface disease on the basis of the available literature...
May 2020: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Qiushuo Song, Madhumita Joshi, James DiPiazza, Vijay Joshi
A non-protein amino acid, citrulline, is a compatible solute involved in the maintenance of cellular osmolarity during abiotic stresses. Despite its significance, a coherent model indicating the role of citrulline during stress conditions has not yet emerged. We have used watermelon, naturally rich in citrulline, as a model to understand its accumulation during drought stress and nitrogen perturbation using transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis. Experiments were performed in the semi-controlled environment, and open field to study the accumulation of drought-induced citrulline in the vegetative tissues of watermelon by monitoring the stress treatments using physiological measurements...
2020: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lisa Baaske, Gotthold Gäbel, Franziska Dengler
The reticulorumen, as the main fermentation site of ruminants, delivers energy in the form of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) for both the animal as well as the ruminal wall. By absorbing these SCFA, the ruminal epithelium plays a major role in the maintenance of intraruminal and intraepithelial acid-base homoeostasis as well as the balance of osmolarity. It takes up SCFA via several pathways which additionally lead to either a reduction of protons in the ruminal lumen or the secretion of bicarbonate, ultimately buffering the ruminal content effectively...
May 20, 2020: Journal of Dairy Research
Masanari Kuwabara, Mehmet Kanbay, Koichiro Niwa, Ryusuke Ae, Ana Andres-Hernando, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Gabriela Garcia, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ichiro Hisatome, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
The potential contribution of serum osmolarity in the modulation of blood pressure has not been evaluated. This study was done to examine the relationship between hyperosmolarity and hypertension in a five-year longitudinal design. We enrolled 10,157 normotensive subjects without diabetes who developed hypertension subsequently as determined by annual medical examination in St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, between 2004 and 2009. High salt intake was defined as >12 g/day by a self-answered questionnaire and hyperosmolarity was defined as >293 mOsm/L serum osmolarity, calculated using serum sodium, fasting blood glucose, and blood urea nitrogen...
May 14, 2020: Nutrients
Patricia König, Beate Averhoff, Volker Müller
The extraordinary desiccation resistance of the opportunistic human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is a key to its survival and spread in medical care units. The accumulation of compatible solute such as glutamate, mannitol and trehalose contributes to the desiccation resistance. Here, we have used osmolarity as a tool to study the response of cells to low water activities and studied the role of a potential inorganic osmolyte, K+ , in osmostress response. Growth of A. baumannii was K+ dependent and the K+ dependence increased with the osmolarity of the medium...
May 17, 2020: Environmental Microbiology Reports
H E Hinson, Elizabeth Sun, Bradley J Molyneaux, Rüdiger von Kummer, Andrew Demchuk, Javier Romero, W Taylor Kimberly, Kevin N Sheth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Malignant edema can be a life-threatening complication of large hemispheric infarction (LHI), and is often treated with osmotherapy. In this exploratory analysis of data from the GAMES-RP study, we hypothesized that patients receiving osmotherapy had symptomatic cerebral edema, and that treatment with intravenous (IV) glibenclamide would modify osmotherapy use as compared with placebo. METHODS: GAMES-RP was a phase 2 multi-center prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in LHI...
May 13, 2020: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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