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Osmolarity

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/32246816/how-to-study-intertwined-and-autoregulated-eukaryotic-signal-transduction-pathways
#1
Jürgen J Heinisch
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are a major means of eukaryotic cells to adapt to environmental changes, in the case of microorganisms, and to nutritional and hormonal signals, in the case of multicellular organisms. Numerous defects in such architecturally conserved pathways have been associated with different human cancers. These signaling cascades usually commence with sensors located in the plasma membrane, which through specific protein kinases activate a conserved tripartite MAPK module...
April 4, 2020: FEBS Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32246162/regulation-of-filamentation-by-bacteria-and-its-impact-on-the-productivity-of-compounds-in-biotechnological-processes
#2
REVIEW
Maria Giovanna Rizzo, Laura Maria De Plano, Domenico Franco
The bacteria wall fulfills important physiological functions at the cell, depending on its composition and organization. Many researches focused their studies in understanding the change of its properties not only in strength and permeability, but also in morphological plasticity due to both chemical and physical stresses. In particular, filamentation morphology is a cryptic phenomenon, with involve for great variety of bacteria, which allow them to acquire adaptive benefits. This phenotypic alteration consists of an alteration or lack of cell septation during the cell growth, as consequence of DNA damage or development of stress, such as nutritional factors, antibiotic resistance, low temperature, non-availability of oxygen, high osmolarity, and antimicrobial agents...
April 3, 2020: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32243424/short-term-impact-of-fs-lasik-and-smile-on-dry-eye-metrics-and-corneal-nerve-morphology
#3
Alberto Recchioni, Irene Sisó-Fuertes, Andreas Hartwig, Amir Hamid, Alex John Shortt, Robert Morris, Sundeep Vaswani, Jay Dermott, Alejandro Cerviño, James Stuart Wolffsohn, Clare OʼDonnell
PURPOSE: To analyze the short-term (up to 1 month) clinical outcomes in patients undergoing corneal laser refractive surgery and the impact on dry eye disease (DED) metrics and corneal nerves using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: The unaided distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and spherical equivalent refraction (SEQ) were determined in 16 and 13 patients undergoing FS-LASIK and SMILE, respectively. DED metrics assessed were Ocular Surface Disease Index, Dry Eye Questionnaire 5-items (DEQ-5), tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus height, noninvasive keratograph breakup time (NIKBUT), ocular staining, and meibomian gland atrophy...
March 24, 2020: Cornea
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32239485/the-effect-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-on-cerebrospinal-fluid-biochemistry-and-brain-edema-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Halil Kul, Haydar Çelik, Adem Kurtuluş, Ayhan Tekiner, Yavuz Erdem, Gülnur Kul, Mehmet Akif Bayar
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osmolarity and brain tissue water ratio in a rabbit model of traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a previously established model of traumatic brain injury using liquid nitrogen, 36 New Zealand rabbits were randomized into six groups (three treatment groups, a no trauma/no treatment group, a trauma/no treatment group, and a no trauma/treatment group)...
December 25, 2019: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32236770/under-stress-conditions-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus-modulates-the-metabolic-allostatic-load-even-after-dolops-carvalhoi-challenge-to-maintain-self-protection-mechanisms
#5
Jaqueline Dalbello Biller, Leonardo Susumu Takahashi, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
Fish metabolic allostatic dynamics, when animal present physiological modifications that can be strategies to survive, are important for promoting changes to ensure whole body self-protection and survival in chronic states of stress. To determine the impact of sequential stressors on pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), fish were subjected to two trials of stressful treatments, administration of exogenous dietary cortisol, and parasite challenge. The first experiment consisted of a two-day acute stress trial and the second, an eight-day chronic stress trial, and after both experiments, fish parasite susceptibility was assessed with the ectoparasite Dolops carvalhoi challenge...
March 31, 2020: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32233138/pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-levofloxacin-after-intravenous-intramuscular-and-subcutaneous-administration-to-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#6
Andrejs Sitovs, Laura Voiko, Dmitrijs Kustovs, Liga Kovalcuka, Dace Bandere, Santa Purvina, Mario Giorgi
Levofloxacin pharmacokinetic profiles were evaluated in 6 healthy female rabbits after intravenous (I/V), intramuscular (I/M), or subcutaneous (S/C) administration routes at a single dose of 5 mg/kg in a 3 × 3 cross-over study. Plasma levofloxacin concentrations were detected using a validated Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography method with a fluorescence detector. Levofloxacin was quantifiable up to 10 h post-drug administration. Mean AUC0-last values of 9.03 ± 2.66, 9.07 ± 1.80, and 9.28 ± 1.56 mg/h*L were obtained via I/V, I/M, and S/C, respectively...
March 2020: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32232633/tolvaptan-therapy-to-treat-severe-hyponatremia-in-pediatric-nephrotic-syndrome
#7
Jean-Daniel Delbet, Cyrielle Parmentier, Tim Ulinski
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist. Some data have implicated stimulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) as an important factor in oedema formation in a rodent model of nephrotic syndrome (NS) and adult NS patients. We report case of pediatric NS with severe hyponatremia efficiently treated by tolvaptan. CASE/DIAGNOSIS - TREATMENT: A 22-month-old girl presented first with NS. She remained nephrotic after a 30-day course of oral steroids...
March 30, 2020: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226912/-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-its-industrial-applications
#8
REVIEW
Maria Parapouli, Anastasios Vasileiadis, Amalia-Sofia Afendra, Efstathios Hatziloukas
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best studied eukaryote and a valuable tool for most aspects of basic research on eukaryotic organisms. This is due to its unicellular nature, which often simplifies matters, offering the combination of the facts that nearly all biological functions found in eukaryotes are also present and well conserved in S . cerevisiae . In addition, it is also easily amenable to genetic manipulation. Moreover, unlike other model organisms, S . cerevisiae is concomitantly of great importance for various biotechnological applications, some of which date back to several thousands of years...
2020: AIMS Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32218518/utility-of-tear-osmolarity-measurement-in-diagnosis-of-dry-eye-disease
#9
Bezhod Tashbayev, Tor Paaske Utheim, Øygunn Aass Utheim, Sten Ræder, Janicke Liaaen Jensen, Mazyar Yazdani, Neil Lagali, Valeria Vitelli, Darlene A Dartt, Xiangjun Chen
The prevalence of dry eye disease is high worldwide and poses a great burden on patients' daily lives. Accurate diagnosis of the disease is important, and it requires application of various methods. Hyperosmolarity is believed to be the disease marker and thus measuring it provides useful information. In this study we investigated utility of tear osmolarity measured with TearLab osmometer, along with other diagnostic tests (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, Tear film break-up time, Ocular Protection Index, Ocular Surface Staining, Schirmer I test, Meibomian gland functionality in 757 patients (1514 eyes) with dry eye disease and 29 healthy controls (58 eyes)...
March 26, 2020: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32211393/engineering-the-osmotic-state-of-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440-for-efficient-cell-disruption-and-downstream-processing-of-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates
#10
Ignacio Poblete-Castro, Carla Aravena-Carrasco, Matias Orellana-Saez, Nicolás Pacheco, Alex Cabrera, José Manuel Borrero-de Acuña
In the last decade, the development of novel programmable cell lytic systems based on different inducible genetic constructs like the holin-endolysin and lysozyme appears as a promising alternative to circumvent the use of costly enzymes and mechanical disrupters for downstream processing of intracellular microbial products. Despite the advances, upon activation of these systems the cellular disruption of the biocatalyst occurs in an extended period, thus delaying the recovery of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)...
2020: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32205777/locking-y-lateral-canthopexy-as-a-treatment-for-dry-eye-disease-caused-by-eyelid-malposition
#11
Leticia Ortega-Evangelio, Cristina Peris-Martínez, Amelia Marco-Campmany, Joaquín Ortega-Serrano, Juan M Tomás-Torrent
PURPOSE: The signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) can affect the quality of life of patients. This study analyzes whether locking Y lateral canthopexy improves patients' quality of life and in what way it does so (based on the ocular surface disease index questionnaire) and DED signs (measured by the fluorescein breakup time, tear osmolarity, Schirmer test, and corneal staining) in patients with DED caused by a eyelid malposition or impaired blink dynamics. METHODS: This was a case-control study...
March 19, 2020: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32202345/mechanisms-of-t-reg-cell-adaptation-to-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Fernando Alvarez, Tho-Alfakar Al-Aubodah, Yujian H Yang, Ciriaco A Piccirillo
Inflammation is an important defense mechanism. In this complex and dynamic process, drastic changes in the tissue micro-environment play key roles in dictating the nature of the evolving immune response. However, uncontrolled inflammation is detrimental, leading to unwanted cellular damage, loss of physiological functions, and even death. As such, the immune system possesses tools to limit inflammation while ensuring rapid and effective clearance of the inflammatory trigger. Foxp3+ regulatory T (TREG ) cells, a potently immunosuppressive CD4+ T cell subset, play a crucial role in immune tolerance by controlling the extent of the response to self and non-self Ags, all-the-while promoting a quick return to immune homeostasis...
March 23, 2020: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32195754/differential-diagnosis-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-versus-non-sj%C3%A3-gren-dry-eye-through-tear-film-biomarkers
#13
Esen K Akpek, Henry Y Wu, Sezen Karakus, Qin Zhang, Sharmila Masli
PURPOSE: Systemic implications necessitate the identification of dry eye patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS). This study aims to explore the utility of tear MUC5AC and inflammatory cytokine levels in the differential diagnosis of SS-related dry eye. METHODS: A prospective, observational, case-control study was conducted on 62 patients (those with a definitive diagnosis of SS dry eye, non-SS dry eye, and age-matched healthy controls with no dry eye). Clinical evaluations included the following tests in the order listed here: noninvasive tear break-up time, osmolarity, tear sampling, Schirmer test without anesthesia, and ocular surface staining (lissamine green for conjunctiva and fluorescein for cornea)...
March 13, 2020: Cornea
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32191774/klebsiella-pneumoniae-type-vi-secretion-system-mediated-microbial-competition-is-phopq-controlled-and-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent
#14
Daniel Storey, Alan McNally, Mia Åstrand, Joana Sa-Pessoa Graca Santos, Isabel Rodriguez-Escudero, Bronagh Elmore, Leyre Palacios, Helina Marshall, Laura Hobley, Maria Molina, Victor J Cid, Tiina A Salminen, Jose A Bengoechea
Klebsiella pneumoniae is recognized as an urgent threat to human health due to the increasing isolation of multidrug resistant strains. Hypervirulent strains are a major concern due to their ability to cause life-threating infections in healthy hosts. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely implicated in microbial antagonism, and it mediates interactions with host eukaryotic cells in some cases. In silico search for genes orthologous to T6SS component genes and T6SS effector genes across 700 K. pneumoniae genomes shows extensive diversity in T6SS genes across the K...
March 19, 2020: PLoS Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32190115/gene-targets-for-engineering-osmotolerance-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#15
Kyle B Sander, Daehwan Chung, Dawn M Klingeman, Richard J Giannone, Miguel Rodriguez, Jason Whitham, Robert L Hettich, Brian H Davison, Janet Westpheling, Steven D Brown
Background: Caldicellulosiruptor bescii , a promising biocatalyst being developed for use in consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol, grows poorly and has reduced conversion at elevated medium osmolarities. Increasing tolerance to elevated fermentation osmolarities is desired to enable performance necessary of a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biocatalyst. Results: Two strains of C. bescii showing growth phenotypes in elevated osmolarity conditions were identified...
2020: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32189048/metabolic-pathway-construction-and-optimization-of-escherichia-coli-for-high-level-ectoine-production
#16
Jun Chen, Pengfu Liu, Xiaohe Chu, Jianwei Chen, Huawei Zhang, David C Rowley, Hong Wang
Ectoine is widely produced by various bacteria as a natural cell protectant against environment stress, e.g., osmotic and temperature stress. Its protective properties therefore exhibit high commercial value, especially in agriculture, medicine, cosmetics, and biotechnology. Here, we successfully constructed an engineered Escherichia coli for the heterologous production of ectoine. Firstly, the ectABC genes from Halomonas elongata were introduced into E. coli MG1655 to produce ectoine without high osmolarity...
March 18, 2020: Current Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32182637/intense-pulsed-light-ipl-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Sharlotta Cote, Alexis Ceecee Zhang, Victoria Ahmadzai, Amina Maleken, Christine Li, Jeremy Oppedisano, Kaavya Nair, Ljoudmila Busija, Laura E Downie
BACKGROUND: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease, which is the more prevalent form of dry eye disease. Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, involving treatment of the skin near the eyelids, has emerged as a potential treatment for MGD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intense pulsed light (IPL) for the management dry eye disease resulting from meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase Ovid and three trial registers for eligible clinical trials on 1 August 2019...
March 18, 2020: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32182133/dry-eye-and-dry-nose-caused-by-the-effect-of-allergic-rhinitis-on-tear-and-nasal-secretion-osmolarity
#18
Alper Yenigun, Ahmet Elbay, Abdullah Ozdem, Havvanur Bayraktar, Omer Faruk Ozer, Remzi Dogan, Orhan Ozturan
OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction of immunoglobulin E in the rhino-ocular mucosa. This study was planned to demonstrate in patients with allergic rhinitis to evaluate changes in tear, nasal secretions, and blood osmolarity compared to healthy individuals. METHOD: Forty allergic rhinitis patients, 25 patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections, and 26 healthy participants were included in the study. Positive patients with allergic symptoms and skin prick test results were included in the allergic rhinitis group...
March 17, 2020: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32178569/correlation-of-non-invasive-tear-break-up-time-with-tear-osmolarity-and-other-invasive-tear-function-tests
#19
Kemal Ozulken, Gozde Aksoy Aydemir, Kemal Tekin, Tarkan Mumcuoğlu
Aim : To compare the outcomes of non-invasive break-up time (NI-BUT) test and the other conventional dry eye tests. Methods : The right eyes of 170 subjects were included in the study. In order to evaluate the tear quality of the patients, NI-BUT levels were measured by the Scheimplug-Placido disk system (Sirius topography). Tear osmolarity test was performed with TearLab Osmolarity System. Topical anesthesia-assisted type I Schirmer test and topical anesthesia-assisted BUT were lastly applied to all patients in order not to affect other measurements...
January 2, 2020: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32168767/pharmacotechnical-development-of-a-nasal-drug-delivery-composite-nanosystem-intended-for-alzheimer-s-disease-treatment
#20
Thomas Adnet, Anne-Claire Groo, Céline Picard, Audrey Davis, Sophie Corvaisier, Marc Since, Frédéric Bounoure, Christophe Rochais, Loïc Le Pluart, Patrick Dallemagne, Aurélie Malzert-Fréon
Direct nose-to-brain delivery has been raised as a non-invasive powerful strategy to deliver drugs to the brain bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study aimed at preparing and characterizing an innovative composite formulation, associating the liposome and hydrogel approaches, suitable for intranasal administration. Thermosensitive gel formulations were obtained based on a mixture of two hydrophilic polymers (Poloxamer 407, P407 and Poloxamer 188, P188) for a controlled delivery through nasal route via liposomes of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of potential interest for Alzheimer's disease...
March 11, 2020: Pharmaceutics
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