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Avian virus

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/32211197/detection-of-h3n8-influenza-a-virus-with-multiple-mammalian-adaptive-mutations-in-a-rescued-grey-seal-halichoerus-grypus-pup
#1
Divya Venkatesh, Carlo Bianco, Alejandro Núñez, Rachael Collins, Darryl Thorpe, Scott M Reid, Sharon M Brookes, Steve Essen, Natalie McGinn, James Seekings, Jayne Cooper, Ian H Brown, Nicola S Lewis
Avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) in different species of seals display a spectrum of pathogenicity, from sub-clinical infection to mass mortality events. Here we present an investigation of avian IAV infection in a 3- to 4-month-old Grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) pup, rescued from St Michael's Mount, Cornwall in 2017. The pup underwent medical treatment but died after two weeks; post-mortem examination and histology indicated sepsis as the cause of death. IAV NP antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the nasal mucosa, and sensitive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays detected trace amounts of viral RNA within the lower respiratory tract, suggesting that the infection may have been cleared naturally...
January 2020: Virus Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32210274/rank-orders-of-mammalian-pathogenicity-related-pb2-mutations-of-avian-influenza-a-viruses
#2
Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee An, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon
The PB2 gene is one of the key determinants for the mammalian adaptation of avian influenza A viruses (IAVs). Although mammalian pathogenicity-related mutations (MPMs) in PB2 genes were identified in different genetic backgrounds of avian IAVs, the relative effects of single or multiple mutations on viral fitness could not be directly compared. Furthermore, their mutational steps during mammalian adaptation had been unclear. In this study, we collectively compared the effects of individual and combined MPMs on viral fitness and determined their rank orders using a prototypic PB2 gene...
March 24, 2020: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32210092/vaccination-with-consensus-h7-elicits-broadly-reactive-and-protective-antibodies-against-eurasian-and-north-american-lineage-h7-viruses
#3
Gendeal M Fadlallah, Fuying Ma, Zherui Zhang, Mengchan Hao, Juefu Hu, Mingxin Li, Haizhou Liu, Biling Liang, Yanfeng Yao, Rui Gong, Bo Zhang, Di Liu, Jianjun Chen
H7 subtype avian influenza viruses have caused outbreaks in poultry, and even human infection, for decades in both Eurasia and North America. Although effective vaccines offer the best protection against avian influenza viruses, antigenically distinct Eurasian and North American lineage subtype H7 viruses require the development of cross-protective vaccine candidates. In this study, a methodology called computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA) was used to develop four consensus H7 antigens (CH7-22, CH7-24, CH7-26, and CH7-28)...
March 23, 2020: Vaccines
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32209169/coexpression-of-soluble-and-membrane-bound-avian-influenza-virus-h5-by-recombinant-newcastle-disease-virus-leads-to-an-increase-in-antigen-levels
#4
Magdalena Murr, Axel Karger, Constanze Steglich, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Angela Römer-Oberdörfer
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectors expressing avian influenza virus (AIV) haemagglutinin (HA) of subtype H5 simultaneously protect chickens from Newcastle disease (ND) as well as avian influenza (AI). The expressed, membrane-bound surface protein HA is incorporated into virions while soluble HA has been described as a potent antigen. We tested whether co-expression of both HA variants from the same NDV vector increased the overall level of HA, which could be important for optimal immunogenicity. Recombinant NDVsolH5_H5 co-expressed membrane-bound H5 of highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1, detectable in infected cells, and soluble H5, which was secreted into the supernatant...
March 25, 2020: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32207372/serologic-investigation-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-in-dogs-in-poland
#5
Malgorzata Kwasnik, Marcin Smreczak, Jerzy Rola, Kinga Urbaniak, Wojciech Rozek
The 2 predominant circulating subtypes of influenza A virus in the dog population, equine-origin H3N8 and avian-origin H3N2, constitute a potential zoonotic risk. We determined the prevalence of influenza A antibodies in 496 dogs in Poland and found 2.21% of sera positive by commercial ELISA. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays indicated 7.25% of sera positive using equine H3N8, swine H3N2, and pandemic H1N1 antigens, with the most frequently detected immune response being to H3N2. Considering interspecies transfer, reassortment ability, and close contact between dogs and humans, infections of dogs with influenza A virus should be monitored...
March 24, 2020: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32205590/association-between-cardiac-injury-and-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-infected-with-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus
#6
Chang Gao, Yeming Wang, Xiaoying Gu, Xinghua Shen, Daming Zhou, Shujun Zhou, Jian-An Huang, Bin Cao, Qiang Guo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cardiac injury and its association with mortality in hospitalized patients infected with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A total of 133 hospitals in 17 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of mainland China that admitted influenza A (H7N9) virus-infected patients between January 22, 2015, and June 16, 2017. PATIENTS: A total of 321 patients with influenza A (H7N9) virus infection were included in the final analysis...
April 2020: Critical Care Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32205415/h7n9-influenza-virus-in-china
#7
Chengjun Li, Hualan Chen
In early 2013, human infections caused by a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) were first reported in China; these infections caused severe disease and death. The virus was initially low pathogenic to poultry, enabling it to spread widely in different provinces, especially in live poultry markets. Importantly, the H7N9 low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) evolved into highly pathogenic AIVs (HPAIVs) in the beginning of 2017, causing a greater threat to human health and devastating losses to the poultry industry...
March 23, 2020: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32200160/amino-acid-substitutions-involved-in-the-adaptation-of-a-novel-h7n7-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#8
Haibo Wu, Fumin Liu, Fan Yang, Yixin Xiao, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu
The H7N7 avian influenza viruses can infect humans and poses a great threat to human health. To identify the amino acid substitutions that are associated with adaptation of avian-origin H7N7 virus to mammals, adaptation of the H7N7 virus was carried out by serial lung-to-lung passage in mice. Genomic analysis of the mouse-adapted virus revealed amino acid changes in the PB2 (E525G, M645I, and D701N), NP (I475V), HA(D103N), and NA(K142E) proteins. The adapted H7N7 virus was more virulent in mice than the wild-type virus...
March 10, 2020: Research in Veterinary Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32198442/publisher-correction-specific-memory-b-cell-response-in-humans-upon-infection-with-highly-pathogenic-h7n7-avian-influenza-virus
#9
Brenda Westerhuis, Hinke Ten Hulscher, Ronald Jacobi, Josine van Beek, Marion Koopmans, Guus Rimmelzwaan, Adam Meijer, Rob van Binnendijk
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
March 20, 2020: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32196515/knowledge-and-remaining-gaps-on-the-role-of-animal-and-human-movements-in-the-poultry-production-and-trade-networks-in-the-global-spread-of-avian-influenza-viruses-a-scoping-review
#10
Claire Hautefeuille, Gwenaëlle Dauphin, Marisa Peyre
Poultry production has significantly increased worldwide, along with the number of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks and the potential threat for human pandemic emergence. The role of wild bird movements in this global spread has been extensively studied while the role of animal, human and fomite movement within commercial poultry production and trade networks remains poorly understood. The aim of this work is to better understand these roles in relation to the different routes of AI spread. A scoping literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) using a search algorithm combining twelve domains linked to AI spread and animal/human movements within poultry production and trade networks...
2020: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32193996/generation-of-neutralizing-and-non-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies-against-h7n9-influenza-virus
#11
Fan Yang, Yixin Xiao, Rufeng Lu, Bin Chen, Fumin Liu, Liyan Wang, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu, Haibo Wu
The H7N9 viruses have been circulating for six years. The insertion of a polybasic cleavage site in the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of H7N9 has resulted in the emergence of a highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus. Currently, there are limited studies on neutralizing monoclonal antibodies(mAbs) against HP H7N9 AIVs. In this study, mice were immunized with inactivated H7N9 vaccine of A/ZJU01/PR8/2013 to produce murine mAbs. Finally, two murine mAbs against the HA of low pathogenic (LP) virus were produced and characterized...
2020: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32193766/application-of-an-improved-micro-amount-of-virion-enrichment-technique-mivet-for-the-detection-of-avian-influenza-a-virus-in-spiked-chicken-meat-samples
#12
Ryohei Makino, Yasuko Yamazaki, Konomu Nagao, Francis Victor Apego, Hirohisa Mekata, Wataru Yamazaki
Highly sensitive detection of pathogens is effective for screening meat during quarantine inspection and export. The "micro-amount of virion enrichment technique" (MiVET) was recently developed, which is a new method combining virus concentration with immunomagnetic beads and simple RNA extraction with sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) for the specific and sensitive detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). AIV subtypes H3N2 and H4N2 were used to spike the surface of chicken breast meat samples...
March 19, 2020: Food and Environmental Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32193749/surveillance-for-avian-influenza-virus-in-captive-wild-birds-and-indigenous-chickens-in-nigeria
#13
O B Daodu, H O Jegede, J O Aiyedun, O O Oludairo, I D Olorunshola, O C Daodu, A Ajadi, S F Ambali
Several reports of avian influenza virus (AIV) have been made on commercial chickens and wild birds in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is paucity of information of AIV among captive wild birds and indigenous chickens. Blood samples were obtained randomly from captive wild birds and chickens. AIV nucleoprotein antibody detection involved the use of enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and subsequent subtyping with H5 and H7 AIV antigens (haemagglutination inhibition). Four hundred birds belonging to nine families and 14 species were sampled, and overall prevalence of 23% (92/400) was obtained (captive wild birds (10...
March 20, 2020: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32193135/influence-of-herd-immunity-in-the-cyclical-nature-of-arboviruses
#14
REVIEW
Guilherme S Ribeiro, Gabriel L Hamer, Mawlouth Diallo, Uriel Kitron, Albert I Ko, Scott C Weaver
We review and contrast the evidence for an effect of amplifying host herd immunity on circulation and human exposure to arboviruses. Herd immunity of short-lived West Nile virus avian amplifying hosts appears to play a limited role in levels of enzootic circulation and spillover infections of humans, which are not amplifiers. In contrast, herd immunity of nonhuman primate hosts for enzootic Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses is much stronger and appears to regulate to a large extent the periodicity of sylvatic amplification in Africa...
March 16, 2020: Current Opinion in Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32188100/a-turkey-origin-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-shows-low-pathogenicity-but-different-within-host-diversity-in-experimentally-infected-turkeys-quail-and-ducks
#15
Edyta Świętoń, Karolina Tarasiuk, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Ewelina Iwan, Krzysztof Śmietanka
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a highly diverse and widespread poultry pathogen. Itsevolution and adaptation may be affected by multiple host and ecological factors, which are stillpoorly understood. In the present study, a turkey-origin H9N2 AIV was used as a model toinvestigate the within-host diversity of the virus in turkeys, quail and ducks in conjunction with theclinical course, shedding and seroconversion. Ten birds were inoculated oculonasally with a doseof 106 EID50 of the virus and monitored for 14 days...
March 16, 2020: Viruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32184788/duck-trim32-functions-in-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-against-the-infection-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#16
Siyu Wu, Junsheng Zhang, Qian Xue, Jing Liu, Bingzhong Huang, Zhuoliang He, Jianni Huang, Shaopo Zu, Zuxian Chen, Bingbing Zhao, Ming Liao, Peirong Jiao
In mammals, tripartite motif 32 (TRIM32) is essential for regulating host innate immune responses to viral infections. However, the antiviral effect of TRIM32 in birds has not been reported. Here, we cloned the full-length duck TRIM32 (duTRIM32) cDNA from total spleen RNA of Peking duck. DuTRIM32 consists of 682 amino acids and has 95.5% similarity in amino acid sequences with chicken TRIM32 and 84.9% similarity with human TRIM32, respectively. DuTRIM32 mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues from healthy ducks...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32183621/live-bird-markets-as-evolutionary-epicentres-of-h9n2-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-viruses-in-korea
#17
Sung-Su Youk, Dong-Hun Lee, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Chang-Seon Song, David E Swayne
Live bird markets (LBMs) in Korea have been recognized as a reservoir, amplifier, and source of avian influenza viruses (AIVs); however, little was known about the role of LBMs in the epidemiology of AIVs in Korea until recently. Through 10 years of surveillance (2006-2016) we have isolated and sequenced H9N2 viruses in Korean LBMs. To understand how H9N2 evolves and spreads in Korea, a statistical Bayesian phylogenetic model was used. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that three separate introductions of progenitor gene pools, Korean domestic duck-origin and two wild aquatic bird-origin AIVs, contributed to the generation of the five genotypes of H9N2 viruses in Korea...
December 2020: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32183248/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-chicken-mda5-response-genes
#18
Shiman Yu, Haiying Mao, Meilin Jin, Xian Lin
RIG-I and MDA5 are two key pattern recognition receptors that sense RNA virus invasion, but RIG-I is absent in chickens. Although chickens have intact MDA5, the genes downstream of chicken MDA5 (chMDA5) that may mediate antiviral response are not well studied. We compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (DF1) transfected with chMDA5, and poly(I:C), using RNA-seq. Transfected chMDA5 and poly(I:C) in DF1 cells were associated with the marked induction of many antiviral innate immune genes compared with control...
March 13, 2020: Genes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32182813/a-plant-produced-recombinant-fusion-protein-based-newcastle-disease-subunit-vaccine-and-rapid-differential-diagnosis-platform
#19
Fanshu Ma, Erqin Zhang, Qingmei Li, Qianru Xu, Jiquan Ou, Heng Yin, Kunpeng Li, Li Wang, Xiangyue Zhao, Xiangxiang Niu, Xueyang Li, Shenli Zhang, Yanan Wang, Ruiguang Deng, Enmin Zhou, Gaiping Zhang
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious avian disease, causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. To obtain a safe, inexpensive, and effective ND vaccine to meet the international trade requirements of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), here we report the production of Oryza sativa recombinant fusion (F) protein in stably transformed transgenic rice seeds via agroinfiltration. The F protein expression level was enhanced 3.6-fold with a genetic background in low glutelin...
March 9, 2020: Vaccines
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32180490/the-specificity-protein-3-sp3-gene-in-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-cloning-characterization-and-expression-during-viral-infection
#20
Zhengfeng Cao, Wen Gao, Tiantian Gu, Weiran Huo, Yang Zhang, Yu Zhang, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen
Specificity Protein 3 (SP3) is a newly identified regulator of tumor growth and invasiveness in humans. In this study, we identified and characterized the function of duck SP3 ( duSP3 ). The full-length cDNA sequence of the duSP3 gene was cloned via rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It contained 2468 nucleotides, including a 111 base pair (bp) 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 215 bp 3'-UTR, and 2142 bp open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a 713 amino acid (AA) strongly conserved with Avian SP3 . Tissue specificity analysis demonstrated that duSP3 was constitutively expressed in the eight tissues tested: liver, spleen, lung, heart, kidney, thymus, breast, and leg; and low expression levels were observed in all tissues, except the spleen and thymus...
March 17, 2020: Animal Biotechnology
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