Avian virus

Louise H Moncla, Trevor Bedford, Philippe Dussart, Srey Viseth Horm, Sareth Rith, Philippe Buchy, Erik A Karlsson, Lifeng Li, Yongmei Liu, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Thomas C Friedrich, Paul F Horwood
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) periodically cross species barriers and infect humans. The likelihood that an AIV will evolve mammalian transmissibility depends on acquiring and selecting mutations during spillover, but data from natural infection is limited. We analyze deep sequencing data from infected humans and domestic ducks in Cambodia to examine how H5N1 viruses evolve during spillover. Overall, viral populations in both species are predominated by low-frequency (<10%) variation shaped by purifying selection and genetic drift, and half of the variants detected within-host are never detected on the H5N1 virus phylogeny...
January 17, 2020: PLoS Pathogens
Bingqian Qu, Xue Li, Carol J Cardona, Zheng Xing
Human infections with avian influenza viruses including H5, H7 and H9 hemagglutinin subtypes occur at a low rate. Among human infections with H7 viruses, regional outbreaks with H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 and H7N9 have been documented. Early in 2018, a human infection with a novel H7N4 avian influenza virus was reported in Jiangsu, China. This study is aimed at understanding the probable origin and molecular features of this emerging H7N4 virus. Genomic segments encoding hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of H7Nx and HxN4 viruses were compared with this H7N4 strain by alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis...
2020: PloS One
Kai-Yue Tian, Hui-Fang Guo, Ning Li, Yu-Han Zhang, Zeng Wang, Baiyu Wang, Xia Yang, Yong-Tao Li, Jun Zhao
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important and devastating avian diseases with considerable threat to the global poultry industry. Hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS), caused by virulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), is another highly infectious disease in chickens with severe economic impact. The effective way to combat ND and HHS is by vaccinating the poultry. In the present study, a recombinant NDV LaSota vaccine strain expressing full length fiber-2 gene of FAdV-4 (rLaSota-fiber2) was generated using reverse genetics...
January 13, 2020: Vaccine
Mable Chan, Anders Leung, Tamiko Hisanaga, Brad Pickering, Bryan D Griffin, Robert Vendramelli, Nikesh Tailor, Gary Wong, Yuhai Bi, Shawn Babiuk, Yohannes Berhane, Darwyn Kobasa
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 viruses have recently evolved to gain a polybasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, resulting in variants with increased lethality in poultry that meet the criteria for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. Both LPAI and HPAI variants can cause severe disease in humans (case fatality rate of ~40%). Here, we investigated the virulence of HPAI H7N9 viruses containing a polybasic HA cleavage site (H7N9-PBC) in mice. Inoculation of mice with H7N9-PBC did not result in observable disease; however, mice inoculated with a mouse-adapted version of this virus, generated by a single passage in mice, caused uniformly lethal disease...
January 5, 2020: Viruses
Mingjun Zhu, Jing Zhou, Yanfei Liang, Venugopal Nair, Yongxiu Yao, Ziqiang Cheng
The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP), as a host restriction factor, inhibits the replication of certain viruses by binding viral mRNA or proteins for degradation. However, little is known about the role of ZAP in the antiviral immune response. We now show that ZAP participates in the antiviral immune response by activating T cells. Overexpression of ZAP significantly inhibited avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) replication and reduced the associated inflammatory damage in vivo. In this study, we found that ZAP tended to be expressed in T lymphocytes, especially after ALV-J infection...
January 16, 2020: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yuncong Yin, Shengqing Yu, Yingjie Sun, Tao Qin, Sujuan Chen, Chan Ding, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Hemagglutinin (HA) glycosylation of avian influenza virus (AIV) effects differently depending on the variation of glycosylation position and numbers. The natural mutation on the glycosylation sites of the AIV HA head occurs frequently. Our previous study shows that deletion of 158 or 169 glycosylation site on the HA head of the H5 subtype AIV strain rS-144-/158+/169 + increases the viral virulence in mammals, however, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, several AIVs with different deletions at HA head glycosylation sites 144, 158 or 169 were tested for their biological characteristics to clarify the possible mechanism...
January 15, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Xiaozhan Zhang, Tongwei Deng, Jianzhou Lu, Pandeng Zhao, Lulu Chen, Mengwei Qian, Yiwen Guo, Hongxing Qiao, Yaohui Xu, Yan Wang, Xinzheng Li, Guizhi Zhang, Zeng Wang, Chuanzhou Bian
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an ongoing emergence enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome, belongs to the Gammacoronavirus genus in the Coronaviridae family. IBV-associated tracheitis, nephritis, salpingitis, proventriculitis and egg drop have caused devastating economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. Since the end of 2018, a remarkably increasing number of commercial broilers and layers, vaccinated or not, were infected with IBV in China. Here, we described two IB outbreaks with severe respiratory system or kidney injury in IBV-vaccinated commercial poultry farms in central China...
January 13, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yuto Kikutani, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Shoko Nishihara, Sayaka Takase-Yoden, Takahiro Hiono, Robert P de Vries, Ryan McBride, Keita Matsuno, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) recognize sialic acid linked α2,3 to galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as receptors. In this study, the interactions between hemagglutinins (HAs) of AIVs and sulfated SAα2,3Gal glycans were analyzed in order to clarify the molecular basis of interspecies transmission of AIVs from ducks to chickens. It was revealed that E190V and N192D substitutions of the HA increased the recovery of viruses derived from an H6 duck virus isolate, A/duck/Hong Kong/960/1980 (H6N2), in chickens. Recombinant HAs from an H6 chicken virus, A/chicken/Tainan/V156/1999 (H6N1), bound to sulfated SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the HAs from an H6 duck virus did not...
January 14, 2020: Microbiology and Immunology
Pakorn Aiewsakun
This study reports and characterises two novel distinct lineages of foamy viruses (FVs) in the forms of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Several closely related elements were found in the genome of oriental stork ( Ciconia boyciana ) and other was found in the genome of spine-bellied sea snake ( Hydrophis hardwickii ), designated ERV-Spuma.N-Cbo (where 'N' runs from one to thirteen) and ERV-Spuma.1-Hha, respectively. This discovery of avian and serpentine endogenous FVs adds snakes, and perhaps more crucially, birds to the list of currently known hosts of FVs, in addition to mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and fish...
January 2020: Virus Evolution
Inae Lee, Seong-Eun Kim, Jiho Lee, Deok Ha Woo, Seok Lee, Heesoo Pyo, Chang-Seon Song, Joonseok Lee
Conventional electrochemical biosensing systems rely on a single output signal, which limits their certain practical application, specifically from the viewpoint of external interference factors causing electrochemical signal errors. This study reports a self-calibrating dual-electrode based electrochemical aptasensor for the reliable and independent detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are the primary cause of highly contagious respiratory diseases, under external interference factors. Both electrodes were fabricated using tungsten rods surface-modified with a 3D nanostructured porous silica film (3DNRE)...
January 8, 2020: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Tarka Raj Bhatta, Anthony Chamings, Jessy Vibin, Marcel Klaassen, Soren Alexandersen
The present study reports the genetic characterization of a low-pathogenicity H9N2 avian influenza virus, initially from a pool and subsequently from individual faecal samples collected from Chestnut teals ( Anas castanea ) in southeastern Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of six full gene segments and two partial gene segments obtained from next-generation sequencing showed that this avian influenza virus, A/Chestnut teal/Australia/CT08.18/12952/2018 (H9N2), was a typical, low-pathogenicity, Eurasian aquatic bird lineage H9N2 virus, albeit containing the North American lineage nucleoprotein (NP) gene segment detected previously in Australian wild birds...
January 13, 2020: Viruses
Deeksha S Tare, Sadhana S Kode, Aeron C Hurt, Shailesh D Pawar
Background & objectives: The susceptibility of influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is studied using enzyme-based assays, sequence analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies. Oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is the active prodrug of the NAI oseltamivir. There is lack of information on the use of embryonated chicken eggs for studying susceptibility of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses to antiviral drugs. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of 10 day old embryonated chicken eggs for studying antiviral susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses...
November 2019: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Z Broomand, M Mayahi, H Hosseini, S Valadbeigi
Avian influenza (AI) is an acute infectious disease with worldwide significance causing extensive economic losses in the poultry industry. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and categorized in the genus influenza virus A. These viruses have been isolated from more than 100 species of free-living birds. Migratory birds are considered as reservoirs for AIVs and are the major agents responsible for global outbreaks. The Passeriformes are found in most parts of the world and cover a variety of habitats from rural to urban areas...
December 2019: Archives of Razi Institute
H Yaghoubi, A Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, V Karimi, S A Ghafouri, M Hashemzadeh, H Hosseini, M H Fallah Mehrabadi, F Sadat Mousavi, H Najafi
Gamma Coronaviruses (GCoVs) are distributed worldwide, affecting a wide range of bird species, the beluga whale, and bottlenose dolphins. Because of the limited proofreading capability in the viral encoded polymerase, they emerge genetically diverse. There has been no molecular surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of GCOVs in avian species. The present study was conducted to detect GCOVs in Tehran birds&amp;rsquo; parks, 2015. Cloacal swabs (267 samples) from eight different bird species ((Chickens (Gallus gallus), Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Partridge (Perdix perdix), Quail (Coturnix coturnix), Duck (Anas platyrhynchos), Goose (Anserini),and Guinea fowl (Numididae)) were collected, the viral RNA was extracted, the RT-PCR was performed using QIAGEN one step RT-PCR kit and the primers targeting &amp;ldquo;3&amp;#39;-UTR&amp;rdquo; and &amp;ldquo;Nucleocapsid&amp;rdquo; genes...
December 2019: Archives of Razi Institute
Lulai Xu, Zhenqiao Qin, Lei Qiao, Jie Wen, Huabin Shao, Guoyuan Wen, Zishu Pan
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been used as a vector in the development of vaccines and gene delivery. In the present study, we generated the thermostable recombinant NDV (rNDV) expressing the different forms of hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 based on the full-length cDNA clone of thermostable TS09-C strain. The recombinant thermostable Newcastle disease viruses, rTS-HA, rTS-HA1 and rTS-tPAs/HA1, expressed the HA, HA1 or modified HA1 protein with the tissue plasminogen activator signal sequence (tPAs), respectively...
January 11, 2020: Vaccine
Tomo Daidoji, Junichi Kajikawa, Yasuha Arai, Yohei Watanabe, Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya
Despite the possible relationships between tracheal infection and concomitant infection of the terminal part of the lower respiratory tract (bronchioles/alveoli), the behavior of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), such as H5N1, in the conducting airways is unclear. To examine the tropism of AIVs for cells lining the conducting airways of humans, we established human tracheal epithelial cell clones (HTEpC-Ts) and examined their susceptibility to infection by AIVs. The HTEpC-Ts showed differing susceptibility to H5N1 and non-zoonotic AIVs...
January 9, 2020: Viruses
Alex D Byas, Gregory D Ebel
West Nile virus (WNV) continues to be a major cause of human arboviral neuroinvasive disease. Susceptible non-human vertebrates are particularly diverse, ranging from commonly affected birds and horses to less commonly affected species such as alligators. This review summarizes the pathology caused by West Nile virus during natural infections of humans and non-human animals. While the most well-known findings in human infection involve the central nervous system, WNV can also cause significant lesions in the heart, kidneys and eyes...
January 7, 2020: Pathogens
Georgi M Stoimenov, Gabriela V Goujgoulova, Branimir Nikolov, Kalin Hristov, Atanaska Teneva
Introduction: The study of histopathological changes caused by influenza A (H5N8) viral infection in bird species is essential for the understanding of their role in the spread of this highly infectious virus. However, there are few such studies under natural conditions in minor gallinaceous species. This article describes the pathomorphological findings in Colchis pheasants infected naturally with H5N8 during an epizootic outbreak in Bulgaria. Material and Methods: Samples of internal organs of 10 carcasses were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation, virus isolation and identification, and nucleic acid detection...
December 2019: Journal of Veterinary Research
Wakako Furuyama, Pierce Reynolds, Elaine Haddock, Kimberly Meade-White, Mai Quynh Le, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Heinz Feldmann, Andrea Marzi
The avian influenza virus outbreak in 1997 highlighted the potential of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus to cause severe disease in humans. Therefore, effective vaccines against H5N1 viruses are needed to counter the potential threat of a global pandemic. We have previously developed a fast-acting and efficacious vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) using the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) platform. In this study, we generated recombinant VSV-based H5N1 influenza virus vectors to demonstrate the feasibility of this platform for a fast-acting pan-H5 influenza virus vaccine...
2020: NPJ Vaccines
Evelyn M Covés-Datson, Steven R King, Maureen Legendre, Auroni Gupta, Susana M Chan, Emily Gitlin, Vikram V Kulkarni, Jezreel Pantaleón García, Donald F Smee, Elke Lipka, Scott E Evans, E Bart Tarbet, Akira Ono, David M Markovitz
There is a strong need for a new broad-spectrum antiinfluenza therapeutic, as vaccination and existing treatments are only moderately effective. We previously engineered a lectin, H84T banana lectin (H84T), to retain broad-spectrum activity against multiple influenza strains, including pandemic and avian, while largely eliminating the potentially harmful mitogenicity of the parent compound. The amino acid mutation at position 84 from histidine to threonine minimizes the mitogenicity of the wild-type lectin while maintaining antiinfluenza activity in vitro...
January 13, 2020: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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