Bingling Dai, Mengying Fan, Runze Yu, Qi Su, Bo Wang, Tianfeng Yang, Feng Liu, Yanmin Zhang
Targeted anti-tumor small molecules are considered to be promising candidates for cancer treatment. The novel diphenyl urea derivative (DUD) was synthesized by the molecular docking based on the structure optimization of Taspine (a natural product). In this study, we explored the anti-metastatic potential of DUD for NSCLC in vitro. DUD significantly suppressed A549 cell migration by reversing EMT. The inhibition was reflected on upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and HIF-1α...
September 14, 2020: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Sarah Courtois, Maria Haykal, Clément Bodineau, Elodie Sifré, Lamia Azzi-Martin, Armelle Ménard, Francis Mégraud, Philippe Lehours, Raúl V Durán, Christine Varon, Emilie Bessède
BACKGROUND: The main cause of gastric cancer is the infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori which induces a chronic inflammation and an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leading to the emergence of cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully characterized. Moreover, H. pylori modulates the host cell autophagic process, but a few studies have investigated the role of this process in tumoral transformation. The aim of this study was to determine whether H...
September 17, 2020: Gastric Cancer
Cheng-Ze Chen, Jia-Liang Wen, Bang-Yi Lin, Chen Zheng, Rui-da Quan, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Jin-Miao Qu
Aim: Thyroid cancer (TC) is one of the most common types of endocrine malignancy and poses a significant challenge to human health. The long noncoding RNA 389641 ( LOC389641 ) has been found to be associated with many types of cancer. However, the function of LOC389641 in papillary TC (PTC) remains unknown. Our aim is to explore LOC389641 expression and its role in TC. Materials & methods: The function of LOC389641 was determined by colony formation, migration and invasion assays in PTC. Western blot assays were performed to determine the biomarker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
July 2020: Biomarkers in Medicine
Huiwen Ren, Shengkai Zuo, Yayan Hou, Wenlong Shang, Na Liu, Zhuming Yin
Renal fibrosis is a common pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal sympathetic nerve activity is elevated in patients and experimental animals with CKD and contributes to renal interstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. However, the mechanisms underlying sympathetic overactivation in renal fibrosis remain unknown. Norepinephrine (NE), the main sympathetic neurotransmitter, was found to promote TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrotic gene expression in the human renal proximal epithelial cell line HK-2...
September 16, 2020: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Leo Valon, Simon de Beco
Optogenetics uses light to manipulate protein localization or activity from subcellular to supra-cellular level with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. We used it to control the activity of the Cdc42 Rho GTPase, a major regulator of actin polymerization and cell polarity. In this chapter, we describe how to trigger and guide cell migration using optogenetics as a way to mimic EMT in an artificial yet highly controllable fashion.
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shubham Tripathi, Jianhua Xing, Herbert Levine, Mohit Kumar Jolly
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the corresponding reverse process, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), are dynamic and reversible cellular programs orchestrated by many changes at both biochemical and morphological levels. A recent surge in identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT/MET has led to the development of various mathematical models that have contributed to our improved understanding of dynamics at single-cell and population levels: (a) multi-stability-how many phenotypes can cells attain during an EMT/MET?, (b) reversibility/irreversibility-what time and/or concentration of an EMT inducer marks the "tipping point" when cells induced to undergo EMT cannot revert?, (c) symmetry in EMT/MET-do cells take the same path when reverting as they took during the induction of EMT?, and (d) non-cell autonomous mechanisms-how does a cell undergoing EMT alter the tendency of its neighbors to undergo EMT? These dynamical traits may facilitate a heterogenous response within a cell population undergoing EMT/MET...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Noémie Kempf, Fatima Moutahir, Isabelle Goiffon, Sylvain Cantaloube, Kerstin Bystricky, Anne-Claire Lavigne
Metastasis results from the ability of cancer cells to grow and to spread beyond the primary tumor to distant organs. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a fundamental developmental process, is reactivated in cancer cells, and causes epithelial properties to evolve into mesenchymal and invasive ones. EMT changes cellular characteristics between two distinct states, yet, the process is not binary but rather reflects a broad spectrum of partial EMT states in which cells exhibit various degrees of intermediate epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cecile Davaine, Eva Hadadi, William Taylor, Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli, Hervé Acloque
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reciprocal Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition (MET) occur naturally as a cycling process during embryonic and foetal development. The capacity of such iterative cycles to drive cell fate and cellular and molecular behaviour in physiology or pathology remains unclear. We describe here a protocol to induce successive cycles of EMT/MET in an untransformed human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF10A) as well as the necessary controls for cycle validation.
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Robert J Norgard, Ben Z Stanger
Metastasis and chemoresistance, the most lethal features of cancer progression, are strongly associated with a form of cellular plasticity known as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Carcinoma cells undergoing EMT lose their epithelial morphology and become more mobile, allowing them to invade and migrate more efficiently. This shift is also associated with a change in vulnerability to chemotherapeutic agents. Importantly, EMT does not involve a single mechanism, but rather encompasses a spectrum of phenotypes with differing degrees of epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Abdull J Massri, Geoffrey R Schiebinger, Alejandro Berrio, Lingyu Wang, Gregory A Wray, David R McClay
An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in almost every metazoan embryo at the time mesoderm begins to differentiate. Several embryos have a long record as models for studying an EMT given that a known population of cells enters the EMT at a known time thereby enabling a detailed study of the process. Often, however, it is difficult to learn the molecular details of these model EMT systems because the transitioning cells are a minority of the population of cells in the embryo and in most cases there is an inability to isolate that population...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Helena Canever, Pietro Salvatore Carollo, Romain Fleurisson, Philippe P Girard, Nicolas Borghi
Molecular Tension Microscopy has been increasingly used in the last years to investigate mechanical forces acting in cells at the molecular scale. Here, we describe a protocol to image the tension of the junctional protein E-cadherin in cultured epithelial cells undergoing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). We report how to prepare cells and induce EMT, and how to acquire, analyze, and quantitatively interpret FRET data.
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nadège Gouignard, Christian Rouvière, Eric Theveneau
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) converts coherent epithelial structures into single cells. EMT is a dynamic cellular process that is not systematically completed (not all EMTs lead to single cells) and reversible (cells can re-epithelialize). EMT is orchestrated at multiple levels from transcription, to posttranslational modifications, to protein turnover. It involves remodeling of polarity and adhesion and enhances migratory capabilities. During physiological events such as embryogenesis or wound healing EMT is used to initiate cell migration, but EMT can also occur in pathological settings...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gi Fay Mok, James McColl, Andrea Münsterberg
Avian (chick) embryos are an established and accessible model organism making them ideal for studying developmental processes. Chick embryos can be harvested from the egg and cultured allowing real-time observations and imaging. Here, we describe ex vivo culture and preparation of somite tissue followed by time-lapse multi-photon microscopy, image capture and processing. We applied this approach to perform live imaging of somites, the paired segments in vertebrate embryos that form in a regular sequence on either side of the neural tube, posteriorly from presomitic mesoderm (psm)...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jamie Adams, Andreu Casali, Kyra Campbell
Metastasis underlies the majority of cancer-related deaths. Until recently, research on this complex multi-step process has been hindered by a lack of genetically tractable experimental models amenable to high-throughput analyses. This was recently overcome with the development of a model of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) in adult flies, which relies on the activation of a partial-epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in intestinal tumors. In this model, tumor cells are labeled with both GFP and luciferase reporters, enabling high-throughput analyses...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wallis Nahaboo, Bechara Saykali, Navrita Mathiah, Isabelle Migeotte
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is often studied in pathological contexts, such as cancer or fibrosis. This chapter focuses on physiological EMT that allows the separation of germ layers during mouse embryo gastrulation. In order to record individual cells behavior with high spatial and temporal resolution live imaging as they undergo EMT, it is very helpful to label the cells of interest in a mosaic fashion so as to facilitate cell segmentation and quantitative image analysis. This protocol describes the isolation, culture, and live imaging of E6...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sofia Golenkina, Rosemary Manhire-Heath, Michael J Murray
In the early stages of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila) metamorphosis, a partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (pEMT) takes place in the peripodial epithelium of wing imaginal discs. Blocking this pEMT results in adults with internalized wings and missing thoracic tissue. Using peripodial GAL4 drivers, GAL80ts temporal control, and UAS RNAi transgenes, one can use these phenotypes to screen for genes involved in the pEMT. Dominant modifier tests can then be employed to identify genetic enhancers and suppressors...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mary Cathleen McKinney, Paul M Kulesa
Live embryo imaging may provide a wealth of information on intact cell and tissue dynamics, but can be technically challenging to sustain embryo orientation and health for long periods under a microscope. In this protocol, we describe an in vivo method to mount and image cell movements during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of neural crest cells within the chick dorsal neural tube. We focus on describing the collection of images and data preparation for image analysis throughout the developmental stages HH15-21 in the chick trunk...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lingkun Gu, Mo Weng
Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) drive the generation of cell diversity during both evolution and development. More and more evidence has pointed to a model where EMT is not a binary switch but a reversible process that can be stabilized at intermediate states. Despite our vast knowledge on the signaling pathways that trigger EMT, we know very little about how EMT happens in a step-wise manner. Live imaging of cells that are undergoing EMT in intact, living, animals will provide us valuable insights into how EMT is executed at both the cellular and molecular levels and help us identify and understand the intermediate states...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Katja Röper
The evolutionary emergence of the mesenchymal phenotype greatly increased the complexity of tissue architecture and composition in early Metazoan species. At the molecular level, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was permitted by the innovation of specific transcription factors whose expression is sufficient to repress the epithelial transcriptional program. The reverse process, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), involves direct inhibition of EMT transcription factors by numerous mechanisms including tissue-specific MET-inducing transcription factors (MET-TFs), micro-RNAs, and changes to cell and tissue architecture, thus providing an elegant solution to the need for tight temporal and spatial control over EMT and MET events during development and adult tissue homeostasis...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jean Paul Thiery
Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) initially discovered as a key developmental mechanism is now shown to be indirectly involved in fibrosis and is contributing to the progression of carcinomas. Additionally, to transcription factors driving the morphological transition, novel mechanisms are now described to modulate the different features of the transition. The debate as to whether EMT is essential for the dissemination of carcinoma cells from the primary tumors is likely to be resolved soon, considering that EMT is not a linear transition from an epithelial to a mesenchymal state...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
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