Verena Untiet, Alexei Verkhratsky
The way the central nervous system (CNS) responds to diverse stimuli is contingent upon the specific brain state of the individual, including sleep and wakefulness. Despite the wealth of readout parameters and data delineating the brain states, the primary mechanisms are yet to be identified. Here we highlight the role of astrocytes, with a specific emphasis on chloride (Cl- ) homeostasis as a modulator of brain states. Neuronal activity is regulated by the concentration of ions that determine excitability...
April 14, 2024: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Elena Borra, Gemma Ballestrazzi, Dalila Biancheri, Roberto Caminiti, Giuseppe Luppino
The claustrum is an ancient telencephalic subcortical structure displaying extensive, reciprocal connections with much of the cortex and receiving projections from thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. This structure has a general role in modulating cortical excitability and is considered to be engaged in different cognitive and motor functions, such as sensory integration and perceptual binding, salience-guided attention, top-down executive functions, as well as in the control of brain states, such as sleep and its interhemispheric integration...
April 14, 2024: Brain Structure & Function
Darby Saxbe, Magdalena Martínez-García
Perinatal reductions in gray matter volume have been observed in human mothers transitioning to parenthood, with preliminary evidence for similar changes in fathers. These reductions have been theorized to support adaptation to parenting, but greater investigation is needed. We scanned 38 first-time fathers during their partner's pregnancy and again after 6 months postpartum, and collected self-report data prenatally and 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum. Significant gray matter volume reductions were observed across the entire cortex but not the subcortex...
April 1, 2024: Cerebral Cortex
Carlijn A Wagenaar, Alie Toonstra, Wendy Walrabenstein, Dirkjan van Schaardenburg, Femke van Nassau
BACKGROUND: Plants for Joints (PFJ) is a multidisciplinary intervention centered around a whole-food plant-based diet, physical activity, and sleep and stress management. The PFJ intervention successfully improved disease activity and symptoms in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA), respectively, and metabolic health. To investigate how these effects were achieved a mixed methods process evaluation was conducted to understand the context, implementation, and mechanism of impact of the PFJ intervention...
April 13, 2024: BMC Public Health
Ana Cristóvão Ferreira, Joana Moniz Dionísio, Rosário Ferreira, Joana Coelho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2024: Anales de pediatría
Liuqiao Ning, Shihen Li, Fengzhen Li, Yuenv Wang, Yingjie Fu, Tingting Lin, Qianying Deng, Yawei Zeng, Jufang Li
BACKGROUND: Nursing students are prone to sleep problems that affect their core self-evaluations. However, little attention has been paid to the specific roles of emotion regulation (including cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and resilience in this process. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore 1) the direct effect of sleep problems on core self-evaluations among nursing students; 2) the chain-mediating effect of cognitive reappraisal and resilience on the relationship between sleep problems and core self-evaluations; 3) the moderating effect of expressive suppression on the direct relationship between sleep problems and core self-evaluations; and 4) the moderating effect of expressive suppression on the indirect relationship between sleep problems affecting core self-evaluations through resilience...
2024: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Caroline J Magri, Sara Xuereb, Rachel-Anne Xuereb, Robert G Xuereb, Stephen Fava, Joseph Galea
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess whether poor sleep is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in subjects with T2DM aged between 40 and 80 years. Sleep assessment was achieved by actigraphy and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score. RESULTS: The study population comprised 108 subjects with T2DM. The mean age was 64...
July 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Rebekah Young, Andrea Benjamin
Obesity is associated with respiratory dysfunction. It is a key risk and contributory factor in the sleep related breathing disorders, obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Weight management is an integral part of the management of these disorders, in addition to continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Untreated, these conditions are associated with a high disease burden and as treatment is effective, early recognition and referral is critical...
July 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Sheena Gupta, Mimi Chen
Obesity is a global epidemic that has worsened over the past few decades. It is strongly associated with multiple health conditions, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, obstructive sleep apnoea, certain malignancies and has an increased mortality risk. The annual cost of obesity to the NHS is around £6 billion, projected to increase to just under £10 billion by 2050. In 2020-2021, obesity was cited as a factor in over 1 million hospital admissions. An early and pragmatic approach to the management of obesity would reduce obesity-associated multiple health conditions and result in cost savings for the NHS...
July 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Vivian Lee
Obesity is a multifaceted and complex condition that requires holistic management. It currently affects nearly one in four adults in the UK, with the UK ranked 10th globally for the highest obesity rates. Obesity is projected to have an economic burden of ∼£2 billion per year by 2030 in the UK.1 Excess weight gain can coincide with myriad health concerns and multiple health conditions, which can be physical, metabolic or psychosocial. This includes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, reproductive disorders, depression and cancer2 ; hence, there has been a significant emphasis on obesity prevention...
July 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Beenish Masood, Myuri Moorthy
Obesity research is advancing swiftly, but the increase in obesity prevalence is faster. Over the past three decades, researchers have found that biopsychosocial factors determine weight gain much more than personal choices and responsibility. Various genes have found to predispose people to obesity by interacting with our obesogenic environment. In this review, we discuss the impact of physical inactivity, excessive caloric intake, intrauterine environment, postnatal influences, insufficient sleep, drugs, medical conditions, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, psychosocial stress, endocrine disrupting chemicals and the gastrointestinal microbiome, on the occurrence of obesity...
July 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Heinrich C Haller, Susan L Moore, Katherine K Green, Rachel L Johnson, Mary D Sammel, C Neill Epperson, Andrew M Novick
Objective: This pilot study assessed the effects of electronic noise-masking earbuds on subjective sleep perception and objective sleep parameters among healthcare workers (HCWs) reporting sleep difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using a pre-post design, 77 HCWs underwent 3 nights of baseline assessment followed by a 7-night intervention period. Participants wore an at-home sleep monitoring headband to assess objective sleep measures and completed subjective self-report assessments. The difference in mean sleep measures from baseline to intervention was estimated in linear mixed models...
2024: Science Progress
Wentao Zhang, Dan Liu, Mei Yuan, Ling-Qiang Zhu
Sleep is a highly intricate biological phenomenon, and its disorders play a pivotal role in numerous diseases. However, the specific regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. In recent years, the role of mitochondria in sleep disorders has gained considerable attention. Sleep deprivation not only impairs mitochondrial morphology but also decreases the number of mitochondria and triggers mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the onset and progression of various sleep disorder-related neurological diseases, especially neurodegenerative conditions...
April 11, 2024: Ageing Research Reviews
Lalitkumar K Vora, Amol D Gholap, Navnath T Hatvate, Padmashri Naren, Sabiya Khan, Vivek P Chavda, Pankti C Balar, Jimil Gandhi, Dharmendra Kumar Khatri
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aromatherapy, a holistic healing practice utilizing the aromatic essences of plant-derived essential oils, has gained significant attention for its therapeutic potential in promoting overall well-being. Use of phytoconstituent based essential oil has played a significant role in the evolving therapeutic avenue of aromatherapy as a complementary system of medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: This comprehensive review article aims to explore the usage of essential oils for aromatherapy, shedding light on their diverse applications, scientific evidence, and safety considerations...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Karen M Switkowski, Selma Kronsteiner-Gicevic, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Jenifer R Lightdale, Emily Oken
BACKGROUND: Few diet quality indices have been developed and validated for use among children and adolescents. Additionally, many available indices require completion of burdensome dietary assessments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to calculate and evaluate the performance of a modified version of the food-based Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) derived from different diet assessment methods conducted at four time points in a single study population from childhood through adolescence...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Nutrition
C Cousin, J Di Maria, S Hartley, I Vaugier, V Delord, D Bensmail, H Prigent, A Léotard
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaires have been evaluated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) but not yet validated in patients with advanced disease. The aim of this study is to identify OSA predictive factors in advanced MS and to discuss screening strategies. METHODS: Oximetry data from 125 patients were retrospectively derived from polysomnographic reports. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine predictive factors for OSA...
April 9, 2024: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Chao Guo, Li Lan, Yan Yan, Mengyuan Kang
The sleep quality of lowlanders in hypoxic environments has become increasingly important with an increase in highland and alpine activities. This study aimed to identify the effects of acute exposure to hypoxia on the sleep structure of lowlanders and to analyze the changes in sleep indicators at varying levels of hypoxia. This review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twenty-three studies were screened and included in the quantitative analysis...
April 1, 2024: Sleep Medicine Reviews
David A Isaacs, Kaitlyn R Hay, Jennifer Hoadley, Katherine E McDonell, Amy E Brown, Amy Wynn, Daniel O Claassen, Jessie Gibson
INTRODUCTION: Anosognosia, defined as reduced awareness of one's deficit or symptom, is common in Huntington's disease (HD) and detectable at each disease stage. The impact of anosognosia on self-reporting in HD populations is critical to understand given growing use of patient-reported outcomes in HD clinical care and research. We aimed to determine the influence of anosognosia on patient-reported outcome measures assessing psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in HD. METHODS: We enrolled HD patients to complete a battery of patient-reported and rater-administered measures, including the Anosognosia Scale, at baseline and 6 months later...
April 9, 2024: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Xiaofei Ye, Panpan Hu, Bin Yang, Yang Yang, Ding Gao, Ginger Qinghong Zeng, Kai Wang
PURPOSE: Some individuals with idiopathic focal epilepsy (IFE) experience recurring seizures accompanied by the evolution of electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we aimed to develop a predictor for the early detection of seizure recurrence with ESES in children with IFE using resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) data. METHODS: The study group included 15 IFE patients who developed seizure recurrence with ESES. There were 17 children in the control group who did not experience seizure recurrence with ESES during at least 2-year follow-up...
March 27, 2024: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Uchenna Ezedinma, Scott Burgess, Jane Nikles, Terri Downer, Evan Jones, Alexandra Metse, Shauna Fjaagesund, Florin Oprescu
Sleep difficulties can co-occur with autistic traits and have been frequently reported in children diagnosed with autism. Thus, sleep difficulties may impact neural development, cognition, and behavioural functioning in children with autism. Interventions, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), that target aberrant neural structures underpinning autistic traits and sleep difficulties in children could have beneficial effects. The rTMS effects on the pathophysiological pathways hypothesised to underpin autism and sleep difficulties are well-established in the literature; however, clinical evidence of its potential to improve sleep difficulties in children with autism is limited...
April 9, 2024: Sleep Medicine
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