Zhongqiu Xie, Hui Li
Our work in rhabdomyosarcoma led us to the discovery of a novel oncogene, Advillin (AVIL) in glioblastoma. Multiple lines of evidence support that AVIL is an Achilles heel of glioblastoma, with its specific targeting potentially an effective treatment approach for the disease. A new signaling axis was also established.
2020: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Tom S Ainscough, Leonie S Brose, John Strang, Ann McNeill
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Tobacco smoking prevalence in opioid addiction patients is approximately six times that of the general population, highlighting the need for novel interventions. A pilot/feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether a contingency management (CM) intervention could be added to UK standard smoking cessation treatment. The aim of this report is to describe the challenges experienced during the implementation of this CM intervention. DESIGN AND METHODS: A two-armed, randomised, pilot/feasibility study of a 5-week escalating with reset CM intervention, conducted as an adjunct to smoking cessation treatment in an outpatient drug and alcohol treatment centre...
November 24, 2020: Drug and Alcohol Review
Babita Singh, Raghavendra S Patwardhan, Sundarraj Jayakumar, Deepak Sharma, Santosh K Sandur
Differential inherent and acquired radioresistance of human lung cancer cells contribute to poor therapeutic outcome and tumor recurrence after radiotherapy. Inherent radioresistance of lung cancer cells is known to be associated with ROSLow cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, mechanism of acquired radioresistance in lung cancer cells is poorly understood. Here, we exposed human lung cancer cells (A549) to a cumulative dose of 40Gy and allowed the radioresistant (RR) survivors to divide and form macroscopic colonies after each fraction of 5Gy dose...
November 13, 2020: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Alec J DiVito, Robert F Leger
Classical psychedelics are a group of drugs characterized by their activation of the serotonin-2A (5-hydroxytryptamine-2A; 5-HT2A) receptor and the unique hallucinogenic and mystical-type experiences that result. After a substantial period of restrictions limiting investigations into the therapeutic potential of psychedelics, a relatively recent recommencement of interest has sparked the burgeoning possibility for these drugs to play a part in the treatment of a wide array of psychopathologies. One of the most promising is in the study of addiction...
November 24, 2020: Molecular Biology Reports
Seth Kalin, Salaahuddin Dakhlalla, Saurabh Bhardwaj
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant extract that exhibits opioid agonistic activity at the µ-opioid receptor. The use of this substance has increased recently due to widespread local availability across the United States, primarily at gas stations. Repeated kratom use has been shown to have major adverse effects leading to physiological dependence and addiction similar to other opioids. We used a novel contingency management (CM) program utilizing nonmonetary reinforcers along with medication-assisted treatment (MAT) using buprenorphine in an office-based setting to treat kratom use disorder in two cases...
September 2020: Journal of Opioid Management
(no author information available yet)
The coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic emerged at a time of substantial investment in the United States substance use service infrastructure. A key component of this fiscal investment was funding for training and technical assistance (TA) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to newly configured Technology Transfer Centers (TTCs), including the Addiction TTCs (ATTC Network), Prevention TTCs (PTTC Network), and the Mental Health TTCs (MHTTC Network). SAMHSA charges TTCs with building the capacity of the behavioral health workforce to provide evidence-based interventions via locally and culturally responsive training and TA...
October 9, 2020: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Elliott J Liebling, Jessica Joyce S Perez, Michael M Litterer, Connie Greene
BACKGROUND: The rise in drug overdose deaths in the United States necessitates novel approaches to reduce harms. In response, peer recovery support services for substance use disorder have been implemented in clinical and community settings in several states. OBJECTIVES: This descriptive analysis aimed to describe the implementation of hospital-based peer recovery support services for substance use disorder. METHODS: We describe the implementation of the Peer Recovery Program, which delivers recovery support services 24 hours a day, seven days a week, for patients with substance use disorder in emergency departments and inpatient settings across 20 hospitals...
November 20, 2020: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Alli Murugesan, Grégoire Lassalle-Claux, Lauren Hogan, Elise Vaillancourt, Ayyoub Selka, Katie Luiker, Min Ji Kim, Mohamed Touaibia, Tony Reiman
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, 2 ), a natural compound from propolis, is a well-documented antitumor agent with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitory activity. Key transcription factors regulated by NF-κB, namely, interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) and octameric binding protein-2 (OCT2), are implicated in the tumorigenesis of multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable bone marrow cancer. Adverse effects and resistance to current chemotherapeutics pose a great challenge for MM treatment. Hence, the structure-activity relationships of CAPE ( 2 ) and 21 of its analogues were evaluated for their antimyeloma potential...
November 19, 2020: Journal of Natural Products
Shauni Lien Geeraerts, Kim Rosalie Kampen, Gianmarco Rinaldi, Purvi Gupta, Melanie Planque, Nikolaos Louros, Elien Heylen, Kaat De Cremer, Katrijn De Brucker, Stijn Vereecke, Benno Verbelen, Pieter Vermeersch, Joost Schymkowitz, Frederic Rousseau, David Cassiman, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Arnout Voet, Bruno P A Cammue, Karin Thevissen, Kim De Keersmaecker
Metabolic rewiring is a hallmark of cancer that supports tumor growth, survival and chemotherapy resistance. While normal cells often rely on extracellular serine and glycine supply, a significant subset of cancers becomes addicted to intracellular serine/glycine synthesis, offering an attractive drug target. Previously developed inhibitors of serine/glycine synthesis enzymes did not reach clinical trials due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic profiles, implying that further efforts to identify clinically applicable drugs targeting this pathway are required...
November 17, 2020: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Kristina Adorjan, Simon Langgartner, Maximilian Maywald, Susanne Karch, Oliver Pogarell
The last 2 decades have seen an increase in the number of reports of excessive internet use. Therefore, this study aimed to examine internet use among university students to gain more insight into the novel phenomenon of addictive internet use (AIU). Data were collected by the means of an online questionnaire sent to 4391 students. Approximately 10% of the 4391 students could be included in the statistical analysis. Of those 483 students, almost all (99.2%) used the internet, and a quarter (24.8%) showed AIU...
November 16, 2020: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Elizabeth J Crofton, Miroslav N Nenov, Yafang Zhang, Cynthia M Tapia, Joseph Donnelly, Shyny Koshy, Fernanda Laezza, Thomas A Green
Substance use disorders for cocaine are major public health concerns with few effective treatment options. Therefore, identification of novel pharmacotherapeutic targets is critical for future therapeutic development. Evolution has ensured that genes are expressed largely only where they are needed. Therefore, examining the gene expression landscape of the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh), a brain region important for reward related behaviors, may lead to the identification of novel targets for cocaine use disorder...
November 9, 2020: Neuropharmacology
Sarah Tabi, Sarah A Heitner, Swati Shivale, Scott Minchenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Brian Johnson
Background: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is common, expensive, and hurts opioid addicted women and their families. Current treatments do not sufficiently address comorbid addictions, especially tobacco use, among pregnant buprenorphine-maintained women. Methods: 25 consecutive admissions of pregnant, opioid addicted women were treated with buprenorphine maintenance and a novel intervention for pregnant opioid addicted patients, Drug Use Targeted Therapy (DUST)...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Changqiong Xu, Ran Li, Jie Wu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at determining the synergistic effects of Yuanhu Zhitong tablets (YHZTP) on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice, in addition, the intervention mechanism was preliminarily explored based on traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) network pharmacology on alcohol addiction. METHODS: Alcohol-induced CPP mice were used to evaluate the effects of either YHZTP or levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) plus imperatorin (IMP) administration on animal behavior...
November 7, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Jeffrey A Lowell, Emre Dikici, Pratibha M Joshi, Ralf Landgraf, Vance P Lemmon, Sylvia Daunert, Sari Izenwasser, Pirouz Daftarian
Pharmacological therapies for the treatment of cocaine addiction have had disappointing efficacy, and the lack of recent developments in the clinical care of cocaine-addicted patients indicates a need for novel treatment strategies. Recent studies have shown that vaccination against cocaine to elicit production of antibodies that reduce concentrations of free drug in the blood is a promising method to protect against the effects of cocaine and reduce rates of relapse. However, the poorly immunogenic nature of cocaine remains a major hurdle to active immunization...
November 3, 2020: Vaccine
Bao-Zhu Yang, Iris M Balodis, Hedy Kober, Patrick D Worhunsky, Cheryl M Lacadie, Joel Gelernter, Marc N Potenza
Impaired cognitive control has been implicated in cocaine use disorder (CUD). GABAergic treatments have been proposed for CUD. Here we examined relationships between GABAergic genes and neural correlates of cognitive control in CUD. We analyzed two independent African American cohorts: one of >3000 genomewide-genotyped subjects with substance dependence and another of 40 CUD and 22 healthy control (HC) subjects who were exome-array genotyped and completed an fMRI Stroop task. We used five association thresholds to select variants of GABAergic genes in the reference cohort, yielding five polygenic risk scores (i...
October 10, 2020: Addictive Behaviors
Helmut Schmidhammer, Filippo Erli, Elena Guerrieri, Mariana Spetea
Among the opioid receptors, the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) has been gaining substantial attention as a promising molecular target for the treatment of numerous human disorders, including pain, pruritus, affective disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety), drug addiction, and neurological diseases (i.e., epilepsy). Particularly, the knowledge that activation of the KOR, opposite to the mu opioid receptor (MOR), does not produce euphoria or leads to respiratory depression or overdose, has stimulated the interest in discovering ligands targeting the KOR as novel pharmacotherapeutics...
November 2, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Darlene Mae Ortiz, Raly James Perez Custodio, Arvie Abiero, Chrislean Jun Botanas, Leandro Val Sayson, Mikyung Kim, Hyun Jun Lee, Hee Jin Kim, Youngdo Jeong, Sulmin Yoon, Yong Sup Lee, Jae Hoon Cheong
Novel psychoactive substances remain the popular recreational drugs of use over the years. They continue to bypass government restrictions due to their synthesis and modifications. Recent additions to the lists are the 4-F-PCP and 4-Keto-PCP, analogs of the drug phencyclidine (PCP) known to induce adverse effects and abuse potential. However, studies on the abuse potential of 4-F-PCP and 4-Keto-PCP remain scarce. The rewarding and reinforcing effects of the drugs were assessed using conditioned place preference (CPP), self-administration, and locomotor sensitization tests...
November 1, 2020: Addiction Biology
Rolando Tringale, Andrew M Subica
Syringe exchange patients in Los Angeles' Skid Row endure conditions such as deep poverty, polysubstance use, underlying health problems, and living on the streets or in homeless encampments/shelters that make them uniquely vulnerable to acquiring and dying from COVID-19. In this commentary, we discuss two essential changes that Homeless Health Care Los Angeles (HHCLA) made to modify existing medication for addiction treatment (MAT) services to address the specific treatment needs of this high-risk population during COVID-19...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Boris Tabakoff, Paula L Hoffman
We report on the ongoing project "A Novel Therapeutic to Ameliorate Chronic Pain and Reduce Opiate Use." Over 100 million adults in the U.S. suffer from intermittent or constant chronic pain, and chronic pain affects at least 10% of the world's population. The primary pharmaceuticals for treatment of chronic pain have been natural or synthetic opioids and the use of opioids for pain treatment has resulted in what has been called an "epidemic" of opioid abuse, addiction and lethal overdoses...
2020: Journal of Psychiatry and Brain Science
Ryan D Shepard, Fereshteh S Nugent
Psychiatric illnesses are a major public health concern due to their prevalence and heterogeneity of symptom presentation resulting from a lack of efficacious treatments. Although dysregulated dopamine (DA) signaling has been observed in a myriad of psychiatric conditions, different pathophysiological mechanisms have been implicated which impede the development of adequate treatments that work across all patient populations. The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a major source of DA neurons in the brain reward pathway, has been shown to have altered activity that contributes to reward dysregulation in mental illnesses and drug addiction...
2020: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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