Rachel Lampe, Kari D Foss, Devon W Hague, Anne M Barger
BACKGROUND: Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid CK (CSF-CK) might be useful as a prognostic indicator in dogs with neurologic disease. Previous studies have mostly analyzed CSF-CK collected from the cerebellomedullary (CM) cisterna, but CSF collection sites could affect its levels. OBJECTIVES: This is a pilot study aimed to evaluate differences in CSF-CK concentrations when collected from the CM or lumbar cisterna in dogs presenting with neurologic disease. METHODS: Ten dogs presenting for neurologic disease underwent magnetic resonance imaging and CSF collection from both the CM and lumbar cisterna...
July 31, 2020: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Susan Morgello
Seven coronavirus (CoV) species are known human pathogens: the epidemic viruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV and those continuously circulating in human populations since initial isolation: HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63. All have associations with human central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. In infants and young children, the most common CNS phenomena are febrile seizures; in adults, non-focal abnormalities that may be either neurologic or constitutional. Neurotropism and neurovirulence are dependent in part on CNS expression of cell surface receptors mediating viral entry, and host immune response...
July 31, 2020: Journal of Neurovirology
Andrea Calcagno, José Moltó, Alberto Borghetti, Cristina Gervasoni, Maurizio Milesi, Marta Valle, Valeria Avataneo, Chiara Alcantarini, Francesc Pla-Junca, Mattia Trunfio, Antonio D'Avolio, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Dario Cattaneo, Giovanni Di Perri, Stefano Bonora
BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus are ageing under combination antiretroviral treatments but data on drug exposure in serum and cerebrospinal fluid are limited. Dolutegravir is a widely used second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor: conflicting data suggest that neuropsychiatric side effects may present at a higher frequency in patients with higher dolutegravir serum concentrations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of our therapeutic drug monitoring registry identifying patients receiving once-daily dolutegravir without concomitant interacting drugs and significant clinical conditions...
August 1, 2020: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Monica Bandettini di Poggio, Danilo Toni, Carlo Gandolfo, Damiano Paolicelli, Andrea Zini, Elio Agostoni, Fabio Bandini, Michele Ragno, Maria Concetta Altavista, Antonio Bertolotto, Gabriele Siciliano, Michele Vecchio, Nicola Tambasco, Antonio Gambardella, Paolo Manganotti, Maurizio Melis, Marco Onofrj, Giuseppe De Michele, Nicoletta Reale, Gioacchino Tedeschi, GianLuigi Mancardi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In the scientific literature, there is unanimous consensus that hospitalization in stroke unit (SU) is the most important treatment for stroke patients. In this regard, the Act number 70/2015 by the Italian government identified specific skills that contribute to a classification of SU and outlined a "hub and spoke" stroke network. The aim of our study was to check the coverage of requirements of first and second level SU in the national territory and to shed light on any deficit or misdistribution of resources...
July 31, 2020: Neurological Sciences
Nima Fadakar, Sara Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Masoom Masoompour, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh, Ali Akbari, Sedighe Hooshmandi, Vahid Reza Ostovan
Novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2: SARS-CoV-2), which originated from Wuhan, China, has spread to the other countries in a short period of time. We report a 47-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital due to suffering from progressive vertigo and ataxia for 7 days prior to the admission. Neurological examination revealed cerebellar dysfunction, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted edema of the cerebellar hemisphere associated with leptomeningeal enhancement...
July 31, 2020: Cerebellum
Xiqian Chen, Yijun Ren, Yiliu Zhang, Wei Lu
To compare the clinical, imaging, and prognostic characteristics of AQP4 antibody-related diseases and MOG antibody-related diseases. The clinical data of 56 AQP4 antibody-positive patients and 14 MOG antibody-positive patients in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from June 2016 to June 2019 were collected. 92.9% of the patients with positive AQP4 antibody were females and 64.3% of patients with positive MOG antibody were females (P = 0.004). Patients with positive AQP4 antibody were more likely to have limb movement (P < 0...
July 31, 2020: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Mohammad Ejaz Ahmed, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi Selvakumar, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Ramasamy Thangavel, Kieran Bazley, Kristopher Wu, Osaid Khan, Asher Khan, Smita Zaheer, Shankar Iyer, Casey Burton, Donald James, Asgar Zaheer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces inflammatory responses through microglial activation and polarization towards a more inflammatory state that contributes to the deleterious secondary brain injury. Glia maturation factor (GMF) is a pro-inflammatory protein that is responsible for neuroinflammation following insult to the brain, such as in TBI. We hypothesized that the absence of GMF in GMF-knockout (GMF-KO) mice would regulate microglial activation state and the M1/M2 phenotypes following TBI. We used the weight drop model of TBI in C57BL/6 mice wild-type (WT) and GMF-KO mice...
July 31, 2020: Molecular Neurobiology
Kyoko Aoyagi, Yoshinori Higuchi, Shigeo Matsunaga, Toru Serizawa, Shoji Yomo, Hitoshi Aiyama, Osamu Nagano, Takeshi Kondoh, Hiroyuki Kenai, Takashi Shuto, Jun Kawagishi, Hidefumi Jokura, Sonomi Sato, Kiyoshi Nakazaki, Kotaro Nakaya, Toshinori Hasegawa, Mariko Kawashima, Hideya Kawai, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Yasushi Nagatomo, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Tomoyoshi Aoyagi, Tomoo Matsutani, Yasuo Iwadate
INTRODUCTION: Brain metastasis (BM) is one of the most important issues in the management of breast cancer (BC), since BMs are associated with neurological deficits. However, the importance of BC subtypes remains unclear for BM treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS). Thus, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study to compare clinical outcomes based on BC subtypes, with the aim of developing an optimal treatment strategy. METHODS: We studied 439 patients with breast cancer and 1-10 BM from 16 GKS facilities in Japan...
August 1, 2020: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Esra Sarigecili, Khatuna Makharoblidze, Meltem Direk Çobanogullari, Didem Derici Yildirim, Mustafa Komur, Cetin Okuyaz
PURPOSE: To evaluate neurological development of completely healthy children with anterior fontanelle premature closure via Denver Developmental Screening Test II and to compare the results with control group. METHOD AND RESULTS: The records of 140 patients applied to Mersin University Pediatric Neurology Outpatient Clinic between 2011 and 2019 with the complaint of premature closure of the anterior fontanelle were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with microcephaly, craniosynostosis, infection, sequelae of hypoxia-ischemia, metabolic disorders, intracranial hemorrhage, epilepsy, endocrine problems, and dysmorphic features were excluded from the study...
July 31, 2020: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Giovanni Ventura, Cosima D Calvano, Vito Porcelli, Luigi Palmieri, Andrea De Giacomo, Yun Xu, Royston Goodacre, Francesco Palmisano, Tommaso R I Cataldi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a broad and heterogeneous group of neurological developmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted and repetitive behavioural patterns, and altered sensory processing. Currently, no reliable ASD molecular biomarkers are available. Since immune dysregulation has been supposed to be related with ASD onset and dyslipidaemia has been recognized as an early symptom of biological perturbation, lipid extracts from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), consisting primarily of lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and NK cells) and monocytes, of 38 children with ASD and their non-autistic siblings were investigated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with electrospray ionization and Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FTMS)...
August 1, 2020: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ayda Kebapçı, Gül Dikeç, Serpil Topçu
BACKGROUND: Intensive care units frequently use the Glasgow Coma Scale to objectively assess patients' levels of consciousness. Interobserver reliability of Glasgow Coma Scale scores is critical in determining the degree of impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interobserver reliability of intensive care unit patients' Glasgow Coma Scale scores. Methods This prospective observational study evaluated Glasgow Coma Scale scoring agreement among 21 intensive care unit nurses and 2 independent researchers who assessed 202 patients with neurosurgical or neurological diseases...
August 1, 2020: Critical Care Nurse
Daniel Wolff, Philipp Y Herzberg, Anne Herrmann, Steven Z Pavletic, Pia Heussner, Friederike Mumm, Christina Höfer, Inken Hilgendorf, Philipp G Hemmati, Ernst Holler, Hildegard Greinix, Sandra A Mitchell
Comorbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) impairs quality of life (QoL), physical functioning, and survival. We developed a new standardized measure to capture comorbidity after transplantation, the Post-transplant Multimorbidity Index (PTMI) in a cohort of 50 long term survivors. We subsequently evaluated the content validity and impact on survival and QoL within a multicenter trial, including 208 patients (pts) after alloHSCT, who were prospectively evaluated applying the FACT-BMT, the Human Activity Profile (HAP), the SF-36 v...
July 31, 2020: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Josh Echols, Amna Siddiqui, Yanying Dai, Viktoria Havasi, Richard Sun, Aneta Kaczmarczyk, Kim M Keeling
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) targets mRNAs that contain a premature termination codon (PTC) for degradation, preventing their translation. By altering the expression of PTC-containing mRNAs, NMD modulates the inheritance pattern and severity of genetic diseases. NMD also limits the efficiency of suppressing translation termination at PTCs, an emerging therapeutic approach to treat genetic diseases caused by in-frame PTCs (nonsense mutations). Inhibiting NMD may help rescue partial levels of protein expression...
July 31, 2020: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Maya Scott
Jahi McMath's story has been an important reference in medicine and ethics as the landscape of the understanding of death by neurologic criteria is shifting, with families actively questioning the once-firm criterion. Palliative care providers have a role in seeking understanding and collaborating with families and clinical teams to navigate the many challenges that arise when a medical team has determined that a child has died, and their parents disagree. In this case-based narrative discussion we consider the complexity of the family experience of brain death...
August 2020: Pediatrics
Robert D Truog
Death is defined biologically as the irreversible loss of the functioning of the organism as a whole, which typically occurs after the loss of cardiorespiratory function. In 1968, a Harvard committee proposed that death could also be defined neurologically as the irreversible loss of brain function. Brain death has been considered to be equivalent to cardiorespiratory arrest on the basis of the belief that the brain is required to maintain functioning of the organism as a whole and that without the brain, cardiorespiratory arrest and biological death are both rapid and certain...
August 2020: Pediatrics
Tyler Tate
The alleviation of suffering has always been central to the care of the sick. Yet as medical technology has advanced and life-sustaining treatments multiplied, medicine's capacity to both prevent and create suffering has grown exponentially. In pediatric medicine, the ability to stave off death with life-sustaining treatments allows children to survive but also to suffer in ways that are diverse and unprecedented. However, although parents and pediatric clinicians broadly agree that all children can suffer, there is little published literature in which researchers analyze or clarify the concept of pediatric suffering...
August 2020: Pediatrics
Skye E Smith, Nicholas K Coker, Eric S Tucker
Aberrant migration of inhibitory interneurons can alter the formation of cortical circuitry and lead to severe neurological disorders including epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. However, mechanisms involved in directing the migration of interneurons remain incompletely understood. Using a mouse model, we performed live-cell confocal microscopy to explore the mechanisms by which the c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK) pathway coordinates leading process branching and nucleokinesis, two cell biological processes that are essential for the guided migration of cortical interneurons...
July 31, 2020: ENeuro
Fa Liang, Yan Zhao, Xiang Yan, Youxuan Wu, Xiuheng Li, Yang Zhou, Minyu Jian, Shu Li, Zhongrong Miao, Ruquan Han, Yuming Peng
INTRODUCTION: Observational and interventional studies indicate that the type of anaesthesia may be associated with the postprocedural neurological function in patients with anterior circulation acute ischaemic stroke undergoing endovascular treatment. Patients with acute posterior circulation ischaemic stroke may experience different physiological changes and result in severe neurological outcome. However, the effect of the type of anaesthesia on postprocedure neurological function remained unclear in this population...
July 31, 2020: BMJ Open
Yoshiyuki Suzuki
In lysosomal diseases, enzyme deficiency is caused by misfolding of mutant enzyme protein with abnormal steric structure that is expressed by gene mutation. Chaperone therapy is a new molecular therapeutic approach primarily for lysosomal diseases. The misfolded mutant enzyme is digested rapidly or aggregated to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress. As a result, the catalytic activity is lost. The following sequence of events are follows the chaperone therapy to achieve correction of molecular pathology. An orally administered low molecular competitive inhibitor (chaperone) is absorbed into the bloodstream and reaches the target cells and tissues...
July 28, 2020: Brain & Development
Hans Wouters, Sarah N Hilmer, Jos Twisk, Martina Teichert, Helene G Van Der Meer, Hein P J Van Hout, Katja Taxis
OBJECTIVES: Anticholinergic/antimuscarinic and sedative medications (eg, benzodiazepines) have been found to be associated with poorer cognitive and physical function and mobility impairment in older age. However, previous studies were mostly conducted among community-dwelling older individuals and had often a cross-sectional design. Accordingly, our aim was to examine longitudinal associations between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications and cognitive and physical function among residents from aged care homes...
August 2020: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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