Shalom Haggiag, Luca Prosperini, Alessandro Stasolla, Carmela Gerace, Carla Tortorella, Claudio Gasperini
BACKGROUND: Ozone based treatments can be associated with central nervous system toxicity which we have termed Ozone Induced Encephalopathy (OIE). A detailed description of its phenotype is lacking. METHODS: Three cases with findings suggestive of OIE are presented, and the literature is reviewed. RESULTS: Case 1 is a healthy 59-year-old man presenting with loss of consciousness, cortical blindness, restlessness and anterograde amnesia, immediately following a cervical Ozone Therapy (OT) session for chronic neck pain...
March 3, 2021: European Journal of Neurology
Merel C Broers, Carina Bunschoten, Judith Drenthen, Tiago A O Beck, Esther Brusse, Hester F Lingsma, Jeffrey A Allen, Richard A Lewis, Pieter A van Doorn, Bart C Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of over- and underdiagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and to identify related diagnostic pitfalls. METHODS: Retrospective study of Dutch patients referred to the Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam between 2011-2017 with either (1) a diagnosis of CIDP or (2) another diagnosis that was revised to CIDP. We used the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS) 2010 diagnostic criteria for CIDP to classify patients in three groups: overdiagnosis, underdiagnosis or confirmed diagnosis of CIDP...
March 3, 2021: European Journal of Neurology
Huiyou Chen, Wen Geng, Song'an Shang, Mengye Shi, Leilei Zhou, Liang Jiang, Peng Wang, Xindao Yin, Yu-Chen Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate whether capsular stroke (CS) and pontine stroke (PS) have different topological alterations of structural connectivity (SC), functional connectivity (FC) and the SC-FC coupling correlation with the movement assessment scores. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were prospectively acquired in 46 CS, 36 PS, and 29 healthy controls (HCs)...
March 3, 2021: European Journal of Neurology
Julian J Weiss, Tuki N Attuquayefio, Elizabeth B White, Fangyong Li, Rachel S Herz, Theresa L White, Melissa Campbell, Bertie Geng, Rupak Datta, Anne L Wyllie, Nathan D Grubaugh, Arnau Casanovas-Massana, M Catherine Muenker, Adam J Moore, Ryan Handoko, Akiko Iwasaki, Richard A Martinello, Albert I Ko, Dana M Small, Shelli F Farhadian
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCW) treating COVID-19 patients are at high risk for infection and may also spread infection through their contact with vulnerable patients. Smell loss has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is unknown whether monitoring for smell loss can be used to identify asymptomatic infection among high risk individuals. In this study we sought to determine if tracking smell sensitivity and loss using an at-home assessment could identify SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW...
2021: PloS One
Anna L Funk, Bruno Hoen, Ingrid Vingdassalom, Catherine Ryan, Philippe Kadhel, Kinda Schepers, Stanie Gaete, Benoit Tressières, Arnaud Fontanet
BACKGROUND: In the French Territories in the Americas (FTA), the risk of birth defects possibly associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was 7.0% (95%CI: 5.0 to 9.5) among foetuses/infants of 546 women with symptomatic RT-PCR confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Many of these defects were isolated measurement-based microcephaly (i.e. without any detected brain or clinical abnormalities) or mild neurological conditions. We wanted to estimate the proportion of such minor findings among live births of women who were pregnant in the same region during the outbreak period but who were not infected with ZIKV...
March 2021: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jing Chen, Xing-Yun Yuan, Xu Zhang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high rate of mortality and morbidity, but lacks effective therapies. Accumulating studies indicated that the hippocampal neurogenesis plays an essential role in the recovery of neurological function after ICH. The Notch1 signaling pathway shows important roles in neurogenesis. However, the effects of Notch1 on the recovery of neurological function after ICH remain unclear. Here, we used ICH mice model to investigate whether Notch1 signaling was involved in the hippocampal neurogenesis and the recovery of neurological function post-ICH...
March 1, 2021: Neuroreport
Jung-Hoon Kim, Chiyeon Lim, Suin Cho
BACKGROUND: Interest is growing in the role played by intestinal flora in the pathogeneses of diseases and in the possibility of treating disease by altering intestinal flora compositions. Recent studies have focused on the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and brain function as proposed by the brain-gut axis hypothesis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between ischemic stroke and plasma equol monosulfate levels (a soy isoflavone metabolite) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mouse model...
March 1, 2021: Neuroreport
Meissane Benbrahim, Kelsey Norman, Vaishali Sanchorawala, Omar K Siddiqi, David Hughes
Transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is a multisystem disease caused by organ deposition of amyloid fibrils derived from the misfolded transthyretin (TTR) protein. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of current treatment regimens and summarize important considerations for each agent. A literature search was performed with the PubMed database for articles published through October 2020. Search criteria included therapies available on the market and investigational therapies used for ATTR amyloidosis treatment...
February 19, 2021: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Benedict Wild, Stefan Treue
Primate visual cortex consists of dozens of distinct brain areas, each providing a highly specialized component to the sophisticated task of encoding the incoming sensory information and creating a representation of our visual environment that underlies our perception and action. One such area is the medial superior temporal cortex (MST), a motion-sensitive, direction-selective part of the primate visual cortex. It receives most of its input from the middle temporal (MT) area, but MST cells have larger receptive fields and respond to more complex motion patterns...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jonathan Sanching Tsay, Hyosub E Kim, Darius E Parvin, Alissa R Stover, Richard B Ivry
Recent studies have revealed an upper bound in motor adaptation, beyond which other learning systems may be recruited. The factors determining this upper bound are poorly understood. The multisensory integration hypothesis states that this limit arises from opposing responses to visual and proprioceptive feedback. As individuals adapt to a visual perturbation, they experience an increasing proprioceptive error in the opposite direction, and the upper bound is the point where these two error signals reach an equilibrium...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Anita M Mepani, Sarah Verhulst, Kenneth E Hancock, Markus Garrett, Viacheslav Vasilkov, Kara Bennett, Victor G De Gruttola, M Charles Liberman, Stéphane F Maison
Permanent threshold elevation after noise exposure or aging is caused by loss of sensory cells; however, animal studies show that hair cell loss is often preceded by degeneration of the synapses between sensory cells and auditory nerve fibers. Silencing these neurons is likely to degrade auditory processing and may contribute to difficulties understanding speech in noisy backgrounds. Reduction of suprathreshold ABR amplitudes can be used to quantify synaptopathy in inbred mice. However, ABR amplitudes are highly variable in humans, and thus more challenging to use...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Philippe Haouzi, Marissa McCANN, Nicole Tubbs
We have investigated the potential acute desensitizing role of the beta arrestin 2 (b-arr2) pathway on the ventilatory depression produced by levels of fentanyl ranging from analgesic to life-threatening (0.1 to 60 mg/kg IP) in control and b-arr2 deficient non-sedated mice. Fentanyl at doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg IP - corresponding to the doses previously used to study the role of b-arr2 arrestin pathway - decreased ventilation, but along the V̇E/V̇CO2 relationship established in baseline conditions, which was therefore indistinguishable from animals that were immobile...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mami Okada, Rena Kono, Yu Sato, Chiaki Kobayashi, Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya
Mean firing rates vary across neurons in a neuronal network. Whereas most neurons infrequently emit spikes, a small fraction of neurons exhibit extremely high frequencies of spikes; this fraction of neurons plays a pivotal role in information processing; however, little is known about how these outliers emerge and whether they are maintained over time. In primary cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons, we traced highly active neurons every 24 h for 7 weeks by optically observing the fluorescent protein dVenus; the expression of dVenus was controlled by the promoter of Arc, an immediate early gene that is induced by neuronal activity...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Myrto Mantziara, Tsvetoslav Ivanov, George Houghton, Katja Kornysheva
Humans can learn and produce skilled movement sequences from memory, yet the nature of sequence planning is not well understood. Previous computational and neurophysiological work suggests that movements in a sequence are planned as parallel graded activations and selected for output through competition. However, the relevance of this planning patterns to sequence production fluency and accuracy, as opposed to the temporal structure of sequences, is unclear. To resolve this question, we assessed the relative availability of constituent movements behaviourally during the preparation of motor sequences from memory...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Udaysankar Chockanathan, Emily J W Crosier, Spencer Waddle, Edward Lyman, Richard C Gerkin, Krishnan Padmanabhan
Neural codes for sensory inputs have been hypothesized to reside in a broader space defined by ongoing patterns of spontaneous activity. To understand the structure of this spontaneous activity in the olfactory system, we performed high-density recordings of neural populations in the main olfactory bulb of awake mice. We observed changes in pairwise correlations of spontaneous activity between mitral and tufted (M/T) cells when animals were running which resulted in an increase in the entropy of the population...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Laurent Opsomer, Frédéric Crevecoeur, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Joseph McIntyre, Philippe Lefèvre
In humans, practically all movements are learnt and performed in a constant gravitational field. Yet, studies on arm movements and object manipulation in parabolic flight have highlighted very fast sensorimotor adaptations to altered gravity environments. Here, we wondered if the motor adjustments observed in those altered gravity environments could also be observed on Earth in a situation where the body is upside-down. To address this question, we asked participants to perform rhythmic arm movements in two different body postures (right-side-up and upside-down) while holding an object in precision grip...
March 3, 2021: Journal of Neurophysiology
Amir Garakani
Two cases are presented involving neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. The first case involved a middle-age man with no known psychiatric history who presented with acute psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganization) after recovery from a recent respiratory illness. This patient tested positive for COVID-19 on admission. The patient's symptoms were not consistent with delirium and testing did not suggest a neurological etiology...
March 5, 2021: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Catherine Parker, Aaron Slan, Daniel Shalev, Adam Critchfield
INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 Coronavirus (SARS-2-CoV). Although most prominently associated with pulmonary manifestations, COVID-19 is increasingly implicated in neuropsychiatric complications, including delirium and psychosis. There is a potential causal link between COVID-19 infection and psychotic symptoms; however, case reports to date have been incomplete, as the patients described had known psychiatric histories or other plausible medical causes for altered mental status...
March 5, 2021: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Isabelle Pastor Bandeira, Marco Antônio Machado Schlindwein, Leticia Caroline Breis, Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron, Marcus Vinícius Magno Gonçalves
The recently emerged coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19, is the newest threat to human health. It has already infected more than 54.5 million people worldwide, currently leading to more than 1.3 million deaths. Although it causes a mild flu-like disease in most patients, lethality may increase to more than 20% in elderly subjects, especially in those with comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes, or lung and cardiac disease, and the mechanisms are still elusive...
2021: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shui Tian, Rongxin Zhu, Mohammad Ridwan Chattun, Huan Wang, Zhilu Chen, Siqi Zhang, Junneng Shao, Xinyi Wang, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu
Bipolar disorder type II (BD-II) is linked to an increased suicidal risk. Since a prior suicide attempt (SA) is the single most important risk factor for sequent suicide, the elucidation of involved neural substrates is critical for its prevention. Therefore, we examined the spontaneous brain activity and its temporal variabilities in suicide attempters with bipolar II during a major depressive episode. In this cross-sectional study, 101 patients with BD-II, including 44 suicidal attempters and 57 non-attempters, and 60 non-psychiatric controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 3, 2021: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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