Li Cai, Youdong Zhou, Zhiyong Wang, Yaozu Zhu
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is characterized as an effective drug for early thrombolytic therapy in acute cerebral infarction (ACI). However, tPA will increase the risk of hemorrhage if it is used beyond the treatment time window. The study aims to explore the effects of neuroserpin (NSP) on the time window of tPA thrombolysis in ACI and the underlying mechanism. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was constructed in rats, which were randomly divided into six groups: sham operation group, infarction group, 1-hour thrombolysis group, 1-hour thrombolytic + NSP intervention group, 4-hour thrombolytic group, and 4-hour thrombolysis + NSP intervention group...
July 13, 2020: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Raffaele Tinelli, Stefano Uccella, Luigi Nappi, Giuseppe D'Amato, Ettore Cicinelli, Stefano Angioni
Chemo and radiotherapy are actually the gold standard of treatment for locally-advanced cervical cancer. We report a case report showing a repaired (video 1) right obturator nerve after an incidental injury during a right internal iliac artery closure with 10 mm titanium clip for severe pelvic bleeding in a patient with locally-advanced cervical cancer. A 52 year-old postmenopausal woman with a chemo and radio-resistant locally-advanced squamous cervical cancer was admitted at our department for severe vaginal bleeding after two previous uterine artery embolizations...
July 2, 2020: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Ayman E El-Sahar, Alyasaa A Rastanawi, Muhammed F El-Yamany, Muhammed A Saad
AIMS: Huntington's disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder which is associated with defected glucose metabolism with consequent behavioral disturbance including memory and locomotion. 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) can cause, in high single dose, an acute striatal injury/Huntington's disease. Dapagliflozin, which is one of the longest duration of action of SGLTIs family, may be able to diminish that injury and its resultant behavioral disturbances. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group): normal control group (CTRL), dapagliflozin (CTRL + DAPA) group, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) group, and dapagliflozin plus 3-nitropropionic acid (DAPA + 3-NP) group...
July 10, 2020: Life Sciences
Sam Grinberg, Rachel Beth Simon, Christina Dowe, Antonio T Brecevich, Frank P Cammisa, Celeste Abjornson
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The number of complex fusions performed on Medicare beneficiaries, defined as ≥ age 65, with lumbar spinal stenosis with or without spondylolisthesis has been increasing. Typically, these procedures are longer, more invasive and pose a greater risk for complications. Interlaminar stabilization (ILS) serves as an intermediary between decompression alone and decompression with fusion. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the efficacy of ILS in patients ≥ age 65 through comparison to fusion in the same age group and ILS in younger patients...
July 10, 2020: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Joonho Byun, Moinay Kim, Wonhyoung Park, Jung Cheol Park, Jae Sung Ahn
Microsurgical treatment of thrombosed middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm is very complicated, especially in recurrent cases. We describe a case of a 48-year-old man with a recurrent thrombosed right MCA aneurysm. We performed MCA-to-MCA bypass using the superficial temporal artery (STA) interposition graft and proximal trapping. Initially, an STA-to-MCA bypass with aneurysm trapping was planned because one MCA branch of the superior trunk of the M2 segment needed flow replacement after aneurysm trapping...
July 10, 2020: World Neurosurgery
Antonio Oliviero, Fernando de Castro, Francesca Coperchini, Luca Chiovato, Mario Rotondi
COVID-19 is an ongoing viral pandemic that emerged from East Asia and quickly spread to the rest of the world. SARS-CoV-2 is the virus causing COVID-19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is definitely one of the main clinically relevant consequences in patients with COVID-19. Starting from the earliest reports of the COVID-19 pandemic, two peculiar neurological manifestations (namely, hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia) were reported in a relevant proportion of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. At present, the physiopathologic mechanisms accounting for the onset of these symptoms are not yet clarified...
July 13, 2020: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Giorgio Scivoletto, Monica Torre, Alessia Mammone, Doris D Maier, Norbert Weidner, Martin Schubert, Ruediger Rupp, Rainer Abel, Kalke Yorck-Bernhard, Kriz Jiri, Armin Curt, Marco Molinari
Background . The relative rarity of ischemic compared with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has limited a comparison of the outcomes of these conditions. Objective . To investigate the neurological and functional recovery of ischemic compared with traumatic acute SCI. Methods . Data were derived from the European Multicenter Study Spinal Cord Injury database. Patients with ischemic (iSCI) or traumatic SCI (tSCI), aged 18 years or older were evaluated at different time points from incidence: at about 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months...
July 13, 2020: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Anouk Lamontagne
Virtual reality (VR)-based interventions are gaining widespread attention for managing neurological disorders such as stroke. A metastatistical consensus regarding the intervention is strongly warranted. In this study, we attempt to address this gap in the literature and provide the current state of evidence for the effects of VR on gait performance. We conducted both between- and within-group meta-analyses to provide a state of evidence for VR. Moreover, we conducted a search adhering to PRISMA guidelines on nine databases...
July 13, 2020: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Turki Al-Driweesh, Fatemah Altheyab, Mazyad Alenezi, Sultan Alanazy, Turki Aldrees
OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness and the index of suspicion regarding Grisel's syndrome among otolaryngologists after otolaryngology procedures. METHOD: We conducted a search of MEDLINE/PubMed for articles published through January 2020 utilizing the following terms: Grisel's syndrome, Grisel syndrome, and atlantoaxial subluxation alone and in combination with other terms like ENT, otolaryngology, head & neck, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, adenotonsillectomy, mastoidectomy, tympanoplasty, and tympanomastoidectomy...
June 27, 2020: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Kriti Kashyap, Rita Kakkar
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in various biological processes, but are also notorious for their over-expression in numerous cancers and neurological disorders. Therefore, the development of isoform selective HDAC inhibitors is crucial in order to prevent any side effects of pan inhibition. This work focuses on identifying novel inhibitors for the selective inhibition of HDAC8, an isoform implicated in fatal diseases like T-cell lymphoma, colon cancer and childhood neuroblastoma. Virtual screening of the 'In-trials' subset of ZINC database has been carried out with the help of two pharmacophore models signifying potent and selective HDAC8 inhibition...
July 4, 2020: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sheila A M Rauch, Carly W Yasinski, Loren M Post, Tanja Jovanovic, Seth Norrholm, Andrew M Sherrill, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Kathryn Black, Liza Zwiebach, Boadie W Dunlop, Laura Loucks, Brittany Lannert, Monika Stojek, Laura Watkins, Mark Burton, Kelsey Sprang, Lauren McSweeney, Katie Ragsdale, Barbara O Rothbaum
High rates of drop-out from treatment of PTSD have challenged implementation. Care models that integrate PTSD focused psychotherapy and complementary interventions may provide benefit in retention and outcome. The first 80 veterans with chronic PTSD enrolled in a 2-week intensive outpatient program combining Prolonged Exposure (PE) and complementary interventions completed symptom and biological measures at baseline and posttreatment. We examined trajectories of symptom change, mediating and moderating effects of a range of patient characteristics...
July 13, 2020: Psychological Services
P Alfieri, F Scibelli, L Sinibaldi, G Valeri, C Caciolo, R L Novello, A Novelli, M C Digilio, M Tartaglia, S Vicari
Increasing evidence links heterozygosity for NRXN1 gene deletions to a clinically wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. However, to date, the neurocognitive and social communication features of children carrying this genomic rearrangement have not been assessed in detail. The cognitive and behavioral profiles of five children carrying a heterozygous NRXN1 deletion were investigated through systematic assessment of the cognitive and developmental levels, adaptive profile, and presence of behavioral symptoms and autistic features...
July 13, 2020: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Daniele Mannina, Laura Berneking, Anna Both, Wiebke Timm, Tatiana Urbanowicz, Christine Wolschke, Francis Ayuketang Ayuk, Nicole Fischer, Jens Fiehler, Ulrich Grzyska, Sabine Rösner, Chi-Un Choe, Nicolaus Kröger, Maximilian Christopeit
OBJECTIVES: Major complications affecting the central nervous system (CNS) present a challenge after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). METHODS: Incidence, risk factors, and outcome were retrospectively analyzed in 888 patients in a monocentric study. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence (CI) of major CNS complications at one year was 14.8% (95%CI 12.3%-17.2%). Median follow-up is 11 months. CNS complications were documented in 132 patients: in 36 cases classified metabolic, 26 drug-related neurotoxicity (14 attributed to cyclosporine A, 4 to antilymphocyte globulin), 11 cerebrovascular (ischemic n=8, bleeding n=3), 9 infections, 9 malignant...
July 13, 2020: European Journal of Haematology
Shehryar R Sheikh, Nicholas Thompson, Feride Frech, Manoj Malhotra, Lara Jehi
OBJECTIVE: Compared to other seizure types, generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures may be disproportionately related to increased morbidity, and reducing seizure frequency could translate into improvements across measures of morbidity in medically treated patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). The primary objective of this analysis was to quantify the burden of patients with DRE who experience GTC seizures (GTC+) compared to patients with DRE who do not experience GTC seizures (GTC-)...
July 13, 2020: Epilepsia
Babak Razavi, Vikram R Rao, Christine Lin, Krzysztof A Bujarski, Sanjay E Patra, David E Burdette, Eric B Geller, Mesha-Gay M Brown, Emily A Johnson, Cornelia Drees, Edward F Chang, Janet E Greenwood, Christianne N Heck, Barbara C Jobst, Ryder P Gwinn, Nicole M Warner, Casey H Halpern
OBJECTIVE: The RNS System is a direct brain-responsive neurostimulation system that is US Food and Drug Administration-approved for adults with medically intractable focal onset seizures based on safety and effectiveness data from controlled clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the real-world safety and effectiveness of the RNS System. METHODS: Eight comprehensive epilepsy centers conducted a chart review of patients treated with the RNS System for at least 1 year, in accordance with the indication for use...
July 13, 2020: Epilepsia
Satoshi Takenaka, Nobuhito Araki, Hidetatsu Outani, Ken-Ichiro Hamada, Hideki Yoshikawa, Tadashi Kamada, Reiko Imai
BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is one of the few curative treatments for unresectable pelvic bone sarcoma. The current study investigated the complications, functional outcomes, and risk factors of CIRT. METHODS: Of 112 patients who were treated with CIRT for unresectable pelvic bone sarcoma, the authors enrolled 29 patients who were without local disease recurrence or distant metastasis. The mean follow-up was 93 months. Complications, functional outcomes, and quality of life scores were assessed...
July 13, 2020: Cancer
Supriya Ramesha, Sruti Rayaprolu, Srikant Rangaraju
Microglia and central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating macrophages, collectively called CNS mononuclear phagocytes (CNS-MPs), play central roles in neurological diseases including neurodegeneration and stroke. CNS-MPs are involved in phagocytic clearance of pathological proteins, debris and neuronal synapses, each with distinct underlying molecular pathways. Characterizing these phagocytic properties can provide a functional readout that compliments molecular profiling of microglia using traditional flow cytometry, transcriptomics and proteomics approaches...
June 23, 2020: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Melissa K Robinson, Kristi Coe, Wanda T Bradshaw
BACKGROUND: A genetic disorder should be considered when an infant presents with multiple congenital anomalies. Because of the acute presentation of an infant with multiple life-threatening defects, a genetic diagnosis of a rare disorder took weeks to delineate. CLINICAL FINDINGS: This case describes a late preterm infant who presented at birth with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, tetralogy of Fallot, cleft lip, low-set ears, and hypertelorism. PRIMARY DIAGNOSIS: Donnai-Barrow syndrome was the final diagnosis confirmed by a defect observed on the LRP2 (2q31...
July 7, 2020: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Rebecca E Foust Winton, Claire B Draucker, Diane Von Ah
BACKGROUND: Brain tumors account for the majority of central nervous system tumors, and most are removed by craniotomies. Many postcraniotomy patients experience moderate or severe pain after surgery, but patient perspectives on their experiences with pain management in the hospital have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe how patients who have undergone a craniotomy for brain tumor removal experience pain management while hospitalized...
July 9, 2020: Cancer Nursing
Raúl Martínez-Fernández, José A Pineda-Pardo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the path of technological developments that have led to the actual application of MRI-guided focused ultrasound in multiple neurological disorders and to update the more recent technical advances in the field. An insight into the latest clinical achievements in movement disorders will be provided, together with the neuroimaging advances for the screening, planning, and outcome evaluation. RECENT FINDINGS: Developments, such as phased array transducers and MRI guidance have allowed the use of focused ultrasound to successfully perform incisionless therapeutic ablation in deep brain structures...
August 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
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