Maryam Said, Meltem Gümüs, Annika Herten, Thiemo Florin Dinger, Mehdi Chihi, Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Cornelius Deuschl, Karsten H Wrede, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Ulrich Sure, Ramazan Jabbarli
OBJECTIVE: The severity of early brain edema after aneurysm rupture was reported to be strongly associated with the risk of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using the recently developed SEBES (Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score), we analyzed the predictors of early brain edema and its impact on the complications related to intracranial pressure (ICP) increase after SAH and poor outcome. METHODS: All consecutive SAH cases treated between January 2003 and June 2016 with assessable SEBES were included (n=745)...
July 22, 2021: European Journal of Neurology
Simón Cárdenas-Robledo, Susana Otero-Romero, Maria Angels Passarell-Bacardit, Pere Carbonell-Mirabent, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Xavier Montalban, Mar Tintoré
BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been associated with worse outcomes and increased healthcare resource usage. We studied the frequency of comorbidities and adverse health behaviors (AHB) in MS patients in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia. METHODS: Population-based, case-control study using primary healthcare information covering 80% of Catalonia's population. Cases were matched by age/sex with randomly-chosen controls (ratio 1:5)...
July 22, 2021: European Journal of Neurology
Rafael Falcón-Moya, Irene Martínez-Gallego, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno
Kainate (KA) receptors (KARs) are important modulators of synaptic transmission. We studied here the role of KARs on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the CA2 region of the hippocampus where the actions of these receptors are unknown. We observed that KA depresses glutamatergic synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA2 synapses; an effect that was antagonized by NBQX (a KA/AMPA receptors antagonist) under condition where AMPA receptors were previously blocked. The study of paired-pulse facilitation ratio, miniature responses and fluctuation analysis indicated a presynaptic locus of action for KAR...
July 22, 2021: Journal of Neurochemistry
Alba Farré Mariné, Luisa De Risio, Joan Mascort, Manuel Jiménez Peláez, Marta López, Fabio Stabile, Alejandro Luján Feliu-Pascual
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique and outcomes of dogs with congenital thoracic vertebral body malformations (CTVBM) treated with unilateral vertebral distraction and stabilization with monocortical screws and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). STUDY DESIGN:  Medical records of 10 client-owned dogs with CTVBM were retrospectively searched for signalment, history, neurological examination, neurological grade based on the modified Frankel scale (MFS), diagnostic method, CTVBM location, Cobb's angle, and vertebral canal angle (VCA), surgical procedure, complications and long-term follow-up...
July 22, 2021: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Jianqin Xue, Yu Zhang, Junhua Zhang, Zhujun Zhu, Qi Lv, Jianhua Su
Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system that mediate neuroinflammation. It is widely known that microglia-mediated inflammation in the brain contribute to the widespread tissue damage and neurological deficits in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the mechanisms responsible for this inflammatory response remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of astrocyte-derived chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) in microglial-controlled inflammation following TBI. Our results demonstrated that astrocyte-derived CCL7 induced microglial activation and the release of proinflammatory mediators in the cortex and serum of rats that underwent experimental TBI...
July 19, 2021: International Immunopharmacology
G Simonetti, A Silvani, I Tramacere, M Farinotti, F Legnani, V Pinzi, B Pollo, A Erbetta, P Gaviani
INTRODUCTION: Meningiomas are usually considered benign lesions, however a proportion of them shows a more aggressive behavior, defined high-grade meningiomas (HGM). Effective medical treatments are lacking, especially at the time of recurrence. METHODS: Through a retrospective analysis, we examined epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, recurrence information and survival data of HGM treated at our institution between 2010 and 2018. RESULTS: 183 patients (105 females and 78 males), with median age of 58 years (25-88), were included; 168 were atypical, 12 anaplastic, 3 rhabdoid...
July 10, 2021: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Chao Chen, Yina Wu, Kaijun Zhao, Guoli Duan, Jianmin Liu, Qinghai Huang
Vertebro-Vertebral arteriovenous fistula (VV-AVF) associated with neurofibromatosis Type I (NF-1) is rare. We presented two female NF-1 patients with a diagnosis of VV-AVF treated with endovascular approach. The fistula was completely obliterated with balloon assisted embolization and covered stent separately and VA patency was preserved in both cases. Reviewing the literature with a focus on endovascular treatment, endovascular occlusion of VV-AVF in NF-1 patients is safe and effective. To preserve the parent VA patency and obliterate the fistula simultaneously is challenging generally, but feasible in some cases...
July 14, 2021: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Luying Li, Hui Yang, Jie Li, Yijun Zeng, Peng Li, Ding Lei, Heng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To report the vascular anatomic characteristics and surgical outcomes of hemifacial spasm (HFS) caused by an anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) segment passing between cranial nerve VII (CN VII) and cranial nerve VIII (CN VIII). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case series study retrospectively reviewed records of 1040 consecutive patients treated with MVD for HFS in our hospital in 10 years. 25 patients had the culprit vessel recorded as an AICA segment passing between CN VII and CN VIII...
June 24, 2021: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Anaïs Corgier-Pattberg, Marie Beylerian, Stephanie Clave, Mathilde Cailliez, Benoit Testud, Beatrice Desnous
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure in children younger than five years. Central nervous system involvement occurs in 15% of patients, with clinical manifestations including confusion, coma, seizures, stroke, and cortical blindness. Ocular involvement in children with HUS is rare, but retinal and choroidal hemorrhages as well as ischemic retinopathy due to thrombotic microangiopathic lesions have been documented. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a 26-month-old girl with typical HUS who experienced severe visual loss likely resulting from cytotoxic injury of both lateral geniculate nuclei with bilateral damage to optic pathways coupled with macular thrombotic microangiopathic lesions...
June 25, 2021: Pediatric Neurology
Brian LaGrant, Daniel M Goldenholz, Marvin Braun, Robert E Moss, Zachary M Grinspan
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic seizure diaries (e-diaries) by caregivers of children with epileptic spasms is not well understood. We describe the demographic and seizure-related information of children with epileptic spasms captured in a widely used e-diary and explore the potential biases in how caregivers report these data. METHODS: We analyzed children with epileptic spasms in an e-diary, Seizure Tracker, from 2007 to 2018. We described variables including sex, time of seizure, percentage of spasms occurring as individual spasms (versus in clusters), cluster duration, and number of spasms per cluster...
April 23, 2021: Pediatric Neurology
Sebastian Powell, Tangunu Fosi, Jenny Sloneem, Christina Hawkins, Hanna Richardson, Sarah Aylett
INTRODUCTION: This study of children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) profiled neurological presentations; compared patients with (+) and without (-) port-wine stain (PWS); and determined risk factors for intellectual and language impairments. METHODS: A retrospective case note review was conducted at a national centre. RESULTS: This cohort (n = 140, male 72, median follow up 114 months) showed sex parity. Intellectual disability ("ID": IQ ≤ 70) affected half (66), being severe (IQ ≤ 40) in two-fifths (27) with ID...
July 9, 2021: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Siddhant Lalwani, Kavita Srivastava, Bina Thakor, Bijoy Kumar Panda, Harsimran Kaur, Suparna Karmarkar, Nirmala Dhumak, Surekha Rajadhyaksha
PURPOSE: To compare Melatonin with Triclofos for efficacy (proportion of successful EEG, need of augmentation, sleep onset latency (SOL), yield of discharges, duration of sleep, presence and grade of artifacts) and tolerability (adverse effect profile). METHODS: A randomized trial was performed (block randomization). All children were advised regarding sleep deprivation, EEG technician administered the drug. EEG was labelled successful if at least 30 min of record could be obtained (sleep with or without awake state)...
July 7, 2021: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Lei Wang, Wanxin Han, Yusaku Iwasaki, Rakhat Yermek, Geoffrey W G Sharp, Yutaka Seino, Toshihiko Yada
Appetite loss or anorexia substantially decreases the quality of life in patients with cancer, depression and gastrointestinal disorders, and can lead to sarcopenia and frailty. Foods that restore appetite have been sought-for but are not currently available. Historically, onion intake was adopted to treat a variety of diseases with reduced appetite including cancer and gastrointestinal disturbances. While isoalliin is a core component of onion, the effects of isoalliin on feeding behavior and feeding centers remain unknown...
July 10, 2021: Neuropeptides
Mia Levite, Rifaat Safadi, Yael Milgrom, Muhammad Massarwa, Eithan Galun
T cells of aged people, and of patients with either cancer or severe infections (including COVID-19), are often exhausted, senescent and dysfunctional, leading to increased susceptibilities, complications and mortality. Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides bind their receptors in T cells, and induce multiple beneficial T cell functions. Yet, T cells of different people vary in the expression levels of Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide receptors, and in the magnitude of the corresponding effects. Therefore, we performed an individual-based study on T cells of 3 healthy subjects, and 3 Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients...
May 12, 2021: Neuropeptides
C Giannì, D Belvisi, A Conte, S Tommasin, A Cortese, N Petsas, V Baione, M Tartaglia, E Millefiorini, A Berardelli, P Pantano
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether abnormal thalamic resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) contributes to altered sensorimotor integration and hand dexterity impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: To evaluate sensorimotor integration, we recorded kinematic features of index finger abductions during somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) testing in 36 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 39 healthy controls (HC). Participants underwent a multimodal 3T structural and functional MRI protocol...
June 25, 2021: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Monica Alcantara, Hans-Peter Hartung, John-Philip Lawo, Billie L Durn, Orell Mielke, Vera Bril
OBJECTIVE: To assess axonal function prior to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) therapy or placebo in relation to relapse in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) to determine whether axonal damage can predict therapy response. METHODS: Relapse rates in patients from the Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra (PATH) study, where patients were treated with placebo or SCIG (IgPro20), were analyzed by baseline (post-intravenous immunoglobulin stabilization) axonal damage (≤1 mV peroneal compound muscle action potential) status...
June 12, 2021: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Fadi Al Saiegh, Lucas Philipp, Liam P Hughes, Thiago Scharth Montenegro, Kevin Hines, Glenn A Gonzalez, Aria Mahtabfar, Carrie Andrews, Kavantissa Keppetipola, Daniel Franco, Karim Hafazalla, Omaditya Khanna, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Dwight Mitchell Self, Joshua Heller, Srinivas Prasad, Jack Jallo, Ashwini D Sharan, James S Harrop
BACKGROUND: Instrumented fusion procedures are essential in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disease to alleviate pain and improve neurologic function, but are being performed with increasing incidence and variability. OBJECTIVE: We implemented a training module for neurosurgery residents that is based on evidence-based criteria for lumbar fusion surgery and measured its effectiveness in the residents' decision making regarding whether patients should or should not undergo instrumented fusion...
July 19, 2021: World Neurosurgery
Emma E J Kasteel, Leonie S Lautz, Maxime Culot, Nynke I Kramer, Anne Zwartsen
Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models can simulate concentrations of chemicals in tissues over time without animal experiments. Nevertheless, in vivo data are often used to parameterise PBK models. This study aims to illustrate that a combination of kinetic and dynamic readouts from in vitro assays can be used to parameterise PBK models simulating neurologically-active concentrations of xenobiotics. Baclofen, an intrathecally administered drug to treat spasticity, was used as a proof-of-principle xenobiotic...
July 19, 2021: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Rodrigo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Túlio C Bernardino, Maria Carolina Machado da Silva, Antônio C P de Oliveira, Luciana E Drumond, Daniela V Rosa, André R Massensini, Márcio F D Moraes, Maria C Doretto, Marco A Romano-Silva, Helton J Reis
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that affects 1% of the population. However, the neurochemical alterations observed in epilepsy are not fully understood. There are different animal models of epilepsy, such as genetic or drug induced. In the present study, we utilize Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WAR), a murine strain that develops seizures in response to high intensity audio stimulation, in order to investigate abnormalities in glutamatergic and GABAergic systems...
July 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Gregory S Walsh
Visual input facilitates stable postural control; however, ageing alters visual gaze strategies and visual input processing times. Understanding the complex interaction between visual gaze behaviour and the effects of age may inform future interventions to improve postural control in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of age and dual task on gaze and postural sway dynamics, and the sway-gaze complexity coupling to explore the coupling between sensory input and motor output. Ten older and 10 younger adults performed single and dual task quiet standing while gaze behaviour and centre of mass motion were recorded...
July 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
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