Pei Chen, Lan Jiang, Hualei Geng, Xiao Han, Shuang Wu, Yahui Wang, Ruyu Yan, Yi Ren, Yihuai Zou, Pei Chen, Yinping Xu, Yan Chen, Jinbin Guo, Ruyu Yan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal Xinglouchengqi (XLCQ) decoction for the treatment of constipation in acute ischemic stroke patients, and figure out the role that bowel movements play in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 317 eligible patients were recruited and randomized to the XLCQ group (211 patients) or the control group (106 patients). In addition to conventional standard medical care and rehabilitation, participants in the XLCQ group received XLCQ decoction, while the control group received clysis therapy using glycerin enemas or lactulose oral solution...
February 2020: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Kunal Bhatia, Iqra N Akhtar, Yasemin Akinci, Jahanzeb Liaqat, Farhan Siddiq, Camilo R Gomez, Adnan I Qureshi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) have been proposed as an option for the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) following carotid artery stent placement. We report our experience and review of literature to provide additional data. METHODS: For literature review, PubMed search was conducted to identify studies published between 2005 and 2019, reporting data on management of carotid ISR with DEBs. Two cases with carotid ISR, which were successfully treated with DEB at our facility, were also included in the final compilation of results RESULTS: A total of seven studies demonstrating the use of the DEBs for treatment of carotid ISR were identified...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Andreas Brunklaus, Dennis Lal
Genetic variants in brain-expressed voltage-gated sodium channels (SCNs) have emerged as one of the most frequent causes of Mendelian forms of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). This review explores the biological concepts that underlie sodium channel NDDs, explains their phenotypic heterogeneity, and appraises how this knowledge may inform clinical practice. We observe that excitatory/inhibitory neuronal expression ratios of sodium channels are important regulatory mechanisms underlying brain development, homeostasis, and neurological diseases...
March 30, 2020: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Louisa C Boyd, Kevin J O'Brien, Neval Ozkaya, Tanya Lehky, Avner Meoded, Bernadette R Gochuico, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Avindra Nath, Camilo Toro, William A Gahl, Juvianee I Estrada-Veras, Rahul H Dave
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the spectrum of neurologic involvement in Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD), a treatable inflammatory neoplasm of histiocytes. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with ECD were prospectively enrolled in a natural history study that facilitated collection of clinical, imaging, laboratory, neurophysiologic, and pathologic data. RESULTS: Ninety-four percent of the patients had neurologic abnormalities on examination or imaging, and 22% had neurologic symptoms as the initial presentation of ECD...
March 29, 2020: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Aaron M Cook, G Morgan Jones, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Patrick Mailloux, Diane McLaughlin, Alexander Papangelou, Sophie Samuel, Sheri Tokumaru, Chitra Venkatasubramanian, Christopher Zacko, Lara L Zimmermann, Karen Hirsch, Lori Shutter
BACKGROUND: Acute treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure is a common issue in patients with neurological injury. Practical recommendations regarding selection and monitoring of therapies for initial management of cerebral edema for optimal efficacy and safety are generally lacking. This guideline evaluates the role of hyperosmolar agents (mannitol, HTS), corticosteroids, and selected non-pharmacologic therapies in the acute treatment of cerebral edema. Clinicians must be able to select appropriate therapies for initial cerebral edema management based on available evidence while balancing efficacy and safety...
March 29, 2020: Neurocritical Care
(no author information available yet)
Background: Studies suggest that dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers may be associated with reduced risk for Parkinson disease (PD). Objective: To assess the effect of isradipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker, on the rate of clinical progression of PD. Design: Multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. ( NCT02168842). Setting: 57 Parkinson Study Group sites in North America...
March 31, 2020: Annals of Internal Medicine
Qi Kong, Xin Ma, Jun-Xuan Lyu, Chen Wang, Xiang-Ying Du, Yun-Qian Guan
Background: Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES) is a chemokine actively involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis (AS), which is the major cause of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD). This study aimed to determine the associations between circulating RANTES level and overall AS conditions of cardiac and cerebral vessel beds in patients with ICVD. Methods: Patients with ICVD admitted to the department of neurology of Xuanwu Hospital from April 1, 2019 to June 30, 2019 were prospectively enrolled in the study...
March 2020: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
Shawn Gerstein, Pranisha Gautam-Goyal, Sameer Goyal
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacillus known to cause various human infections including central nervous system infections. The most common central nervous system manifestations are meningitis and rhomboencephalitis, however rare complications including hydrocephalus and intracerebral hemorrhage can occur and are associated with increased mortality and incidence of lasting neurologic sequelae. The mortality ranges from 17 % to greater than 30 % in patients with neurological involvement [[1], [2], [3]]...
2020: IDCases
Otto Jesus Hernandez Fustes, Renato Puppi Munhoz, Carlos Arteaga Rodriguez, Olga Judith Hernandez Fustes
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD), which usually manifests as a focal neurological deficit, is presented here as a movement disorder. This unusual manifestation corresponds to 1% of the CVDs and 8% of the striatal lesions. We report a 37-year-old right-handed woman who developed choreic movements as the first manifestation of an acute stroke. The computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a cortical/subcortical hypodense lesion in the right middle cerebral artery territory. This picture slowly improved and remitted completely after six weeks...
March 24, 2020: Curēus
Devang Padalia, Allan R Escher, Nasrin N Aldawoodi, Neal Shah
Chronic back pain patients may require escalating doses of systemic opioids. In refractory cases, implantation of an intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS) may provide effective relief of pain and improve overall function. This system infuses opioid directly into the cerebrospinal fluid via a catheter. While efficacious, it can be associated with complications, one of the most severe being the formation of a catheter-tip granuloma that can lead to permanent neurological deficits. We present a case of a 38-year-old male with an IDDS for pain related to retroperitoneal fibrosis, who began developing worsening back pain along with new-onset lower extremity weakness...
March 23, 2020: Curēus
Kyle W Scott, Jonathan Arias, Kourosh Tavanaiepour, Daryoush Tavanaiepour, Gazanfar Rahmathulla
Traumatic lumbosacral dissociation is a unique, but well-documented, phenomenon that generally stems from high-energy impact injuries to the lower lumbar spine. Patients typically present with complicated and multisystem injuries with wide-ranging neurological deficits below the level of trauma. This presents stark challenges regarding the diagnosis, management, and surgical correction technique utilized. In this study, we present the case of a 21-year-old, morbidly obese, male patient that presented after a traumatic motor vehicle accident with L5-S1 lumbosacroiliac dissociation, cauda equina syndrome, and left lower extremity monoplegia...
February 24, 2020: Curēus
Zeynep Günes Ozunal, Sibel Karsidag, Sevki Sahin
A 52-year-old woman presented with orbital cellulitis and sixth cranial nerve palsy as a result of striking the tail of a stingray while swimming. Her ophthalmologic and neurologic examination showed injury of the conjunctiva, corneal abrasion without mention of foreign body, contusion of the eyelid, and isolated lateral gaze palsy and ptosis in the right eye. Orbital magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR venography showed orbital cellulitis, superior and lateral rectus edema, and thrombosis of the superior ophthalmic vein on the right eye...
February 23, 2020: Curēus
Emily H Steen, Jill M Tuley, Swathi Balaji, Timothy C Lee, Sundeep G Keswani
Objective: Gastrostomy tubes (GTs) are one of the most common procedures in neonatal surgery, and their malfunction represents one of the most common complaints in the emergency room and clinic. Complications can occur in up to one-third of patients and include pain, peristomal leak, and infection, but can range in severity. We hypothesize that a preventative strategy employing a GT fixation dressing at the time of operation minimizes these postoperative complications in neonates. Approach: All patients less than 1 year of age who underwent laparoscopic GT placement by a single surgeon in the study period were reviewed...
May 1, 2020: Advances in Wound Care
Agnieszka Olszewska, Daniela Farke, Martin Jürgen Schmidt
Background: Overdrainage and collapse of the hemispheres is a potential severe complication after surgical treatment of internal hydrocephalus using ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Here we describe a case of a spontaneous hemispheric ventricular collapse in an untreated dog with congenital hydrocephalus internus. Case presentation: A twelve-week-old, male, intact Golden Retriever was presented with a history of peracute obtundation, impaired vision, and progressive gait abnormalities of all limbs for three days...
2020: Irish Veterinary Journal
Zhaochong Cai, Liang Zhu, Mengqi Wang, Anna Wang Roe, Wang Xi, Jun Qian
Vasculature architecture of the brain can provide revealing information about mental and neurological function and disease. Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) regime with less light scattering is a more promising method for detecting cortical vessels than traditional visible and NIR-I modes. Methods : Clinically approved dye indocyanine green (ICG) was used for NIR-II fluorescence imaging. Here, for the first time, we developed two NIR-II fluorescence microscopy systems for brain vasculature imaging in macaque monkeys...
2020: Theranostics
Danni Ran, Jianfen Zhou, Zhilan Chai, Jinyang Li, Cao Xie, Jiani Mao, Linwei Lu, Yanyu Zhang, Sunyi Wu, Changyou Zhan, Weiyue Lu
Uncontrollable cell proliferation and irreversible neurological damage make glioma one of the most deadly diseases in clinic. Besides the multiple biological barriers, glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are responsible for the maintenance and recurrence of tumor tissues also hinder the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. Therefore, all-stage precisional glioma targeted therapy regimens that could efficiently deliver drugs to glioma cells and GSCs after overcoming multiple barriers have received increasing scrutiny...
2020: Theranostics
Fei Teng, Yanxin Yin, Jia Guo, Ming Jiang
Calpain activation may have an important role in early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The present study investigated the effects of the calpastatin peptide, a cell-permeable peptide that functions as a potent inhibitor of calpain, on EBI in a rat SAH model. It was revealed that calpastatin peptide treatment significantly reduced SAH-induced body weight loss and neurological deficit at 72 h when compared with untreated SAH controls. Furthermore, the quantification of brain water content and the extravasation of Evans blue dye revealed a significant reduction in SAH-induced brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability at 72 h due to treatment with the calpastatin peptide when compared with untreated SAH controls...
April 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Stephen E Nadeau
Representations in the brain are encoded as patterns of activity of large populations of neurons. The science of population encoded representations, also known as parallel distributed processing (PDP), achieves neurological verisimilitude and has been able to account for a large number of cognitive phenomena in normal people, including reaction times (and reading latencies), stimulus recognition, the effect of stimulus salience on attention, perceptual invariance, simultaneous egocentric and allocentric visual processing, top-down/bottom-up processing, language errors, the effect of statistical regularities of experience, frequency, and age of acquisition, instantiation of rules and symbols, content addressable memory and the capacity for pattern completion, preservation of function in the face of noisy or distorted input, inference, parallel constraint satisfaction, the binding problem and gamma coherence, principles of hippocampal function, the location of knowledge in the brain, limitations in the scope and depth of knowledge acquired through experience, and Piagetian stages of cognitive development...
2020: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fateheya M Metwally, Hend Rashad, Hala M Zeidan, Adel F Hashish
Early developmental exposures to endocrine disruptors including bisphenol A (BPA) may affects the body's endocrine system producing adverse neurologic, reproductive, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune effects in humans. Many studies show the effect of BPA on human reproduction at lower concentrations than that of the safety limit recommendations. However, limited studies have been associated between environmental exposure of BPA and gonadotropic hormone levels in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
April 2020: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Paola V Pedraza-Flechas, Rocío P Pereira-Ospina, Juan S Molinares-Mejía, José M Suescún-Vargas, Javier Y Pinzón-Salamanca
Background: Congenital hyperinsulinism is a disease of the glucose metabolism, relevant in pediatric endocrinology because of the elevated production of insulin according to blood glucose level, which leads to persistent severe hypoglycemia. This condition can produce important neurological sequelae in the patient due to the irreversible damage that occurs in the neuron caused by the exposure to hypoglycemia for short periods of time. Congenital hyperinsulinism diagnosis is not simple and it requires a high index of suspicion...
2020: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
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