Xiangyu Chen, Tong Yang, Yue Zhou, Zhigang Mei, Wenli Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Astragaloside IV (AST IV) and ligustrazine (Lig), the main ingredients of Astragali Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma respectively, have demonstrated significant benefits in treatment of cerebral ischemia -reperfusion injury (CIRI); however, the mechanisms underlying its benificial effects remain unclear. SUMO-1ylation and deSUMO-2/3ylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) results in mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance following CIRI, which subsequently aggravates cell damage...
April 2024: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Barry A Singer, Jenny Feng, Horacio Chiong-Rivero
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by progressive neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration from disease onset that, if left untreated, can result in the accumulation of irreversible neurological disability. Early intervention with high-efficacy therapies (HETs) is increasingly recognized as the best strategy to delay or mitigate disease progression from the earliest stages of the disease and to prevent long-term neurodegeneration. Although there is growing clinical and real-world evidence supporting early HET intervention, foregoing this strategy in favor of a traditional escalation approach prioritizing lower-efficacy disease-modifying therapies remains a common approach in clinical practice...
April 14, 2024: Journal of Neurology
Michal Fila, Lukasz Przyslo, Marcin Derwich, Ezbieta Pawlowska, Janusz Blasiak
Focal cortical dysplasias are abnormalities of the cerebral cortex associated with an elevated risk of neurological disturbances. Cortical spreading depolarization/depression is a correlate of migraine aura/headache and a trigger of migraine pain mechanisms. However, cortical spreading depolarization/depression is associated with cortical structural changes, which can be classified as transient focal cortical dysplasias. Migraine is reported to be associated with changes in various brain structures, including malformations and lesions in the cortex...
April 1, 2024: Cerebral Cortex
Nermin R Abdelwahab, Randa R Mabrouk, Nahla M Zakaria, Azza Abdel Nasser, Afaf A Mostafa, Nancy S Wahba
One of the most common neurological illnesses in the world is multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). MS has both a genetic and an environmental origin. In terms of environmental factors, vitamin D deficiency is one of the most important risk factors and closely connected with gene polymorphisms involved in vitamin D metabolism, transport, or activity. Since vitamin D activity requires a receptor-mediated response, any changes to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) may have an effect on the pathophysiology of the disease...
April 2024: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Surabhi Aryal, Arun Kumar Sharma
Polycythemia is a rare condition in children. Myeloproliferative neoplasms, including polycythemia vera although rare, is an important cause of childhood primary polycythemia. Secondary polycythemia is more common in children due to conditions causing hypoxia or due to pathologic erythropoietin production in malignancies like renal cell carcinoma, Wilms tumor or Hepatocellular carcinoma. Central nervous system hemangioblastoma is one of the rare causes of polycythemia. We report a 13-year-old girl with primarily neurological symptoms identified to be polycythemic during routine evaluation...
March 22, 2024: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Christine A Habib, Aziza A El-Sebai, Mohamed M Fouad, Marwa A El-Mohamdy, Amani M Abdel Ghani, Somia A Bawady
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial polygenic disease; results from autoimmune and neurodegenerative processes which lead to multifocal lesions of the central nervous system. Axonal degeneration was found to be prominent in the inflammation period of MS and contribute to the progression of disability. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) complex plays a vital role in the release of neurotransmitter by synaptic vesicle fusion. Stx-1A protein (Stx-1A), a major component of the SNARE complex, is widely expressed in brain tissue...
April 2024: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Joel Eyamu, Wuon-Shik Kim, Kahye Kim, Kun Ho Lee, Jaeuk U Kim
BACKGROUND: The worldwide trend of demographic aging highlights the progress made in healthcare, albeit with health challenges like Alzheimer's Disease (AD), prevalent in individuals aged 65 and above. Its early detection at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage is crucial. Event-related potentials (ERPs) obtained by averaging EEG segments responded to repeated events are vital for cognitive impairment research. Consequently, examining intra-trial ERP variability is vital for comprehending fluctuations within psychophysiological processes of interest...
April 13, 2024: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Anja Holz, Nadia Obi, Wolfgang Ahrens, Klaus Berger, Barbara Bohn, Hermann Brenner, Beate Fischer, Julia Fricke, Amand Führer, Sylvia Gastell, Karin Halina Greiser, Volker Harth, Jana-Kristin Heise, Bernd Holleczek, Thomas Keil, Carolina J Klett-Tammen, Michael Leitzmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Claudia Meinke-Franze, Karin B Michels, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Katharina Nimptsch, Annette Peters, Tobias Pischon, Oliver Riedel, Tamara Schikowski, Sabine Schipf, Börge Schmidt, Matthias B Schulze, Andreas Stang, Kerstin Hellwig, Karin Riemann-Lorenz, Christoph Heesen, Heiko Becher
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) represents the most common inflammatory neurological disease causing disability in early adulthood. Childhood and adolescence factors might be of relevance in the development of MS. We aimed to investigate the association between various factors (e.g., prematurity, breastfeeding, daycare attendance, weight history) and MS risk. METHODS: Data from the baseline assessment of the German National Cohort (NAKO) were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between childhood and adolescence factors and risk of MS...
April 13, 2024: BMC Neurology
Motoharu Yonekawa, Tohru Watanabe, Osamu Kogawara, Chihiro Yoshii, Masako Yamaji, Masakazu Aizawa, Wilhelm Erber, Shuhei Ito, Bogdan Jug, Doris Koelch, Richard de Solom, Stephen P Lockhart
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus infects the central nervous system and may lead to severe neurological complications or death. This study assessed immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of TBE vaccine in Japanese participants 1 year of age and older. METHODS: This phase 3, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study was conducted in Japanese adult (≥ 16 years) and pediatric (1-< 16 years) populations. Participants received a single 0...
April 12, 2024: Vaccine
Vijay Kumawat, Parmatma Prasad Tripathi, Netravathi M, Anita Mahadevan, Anchan Vidyashree Vittal
INTRODUCTION: The stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare and disabling neurological disorder characterized by muscle stiffness, painful spasms and rigidity involving the proximal and axial limb muscles, with an estimated incidence of 1 case per million per year. The first line of treatment for symptomatic management includes gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agonists, benzodiazepines and baclofen. The therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), alone or as an adjuvant to other forms of immunomodulation, has been used as a therapeutic option, particularly in refractory cases...
February 1, 2024: Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy
Patrícia Oliveira Cunha Terra, Gil Cunha De Santis, Benedito de Pina Almeida Prado Júnior, Luciana Correa Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is characterized by acute systemic microvascular thrombosis and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality, especially in delayed diagnosis (later than 6-7 days from symptoms). iTTP data in Brazil is scarce, so we aimed to characterize the clinical presentation and identify predictors of death risk in patients with this disease in Brazil. METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study the patients who underwent therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) for presumptive or confirmed iTTP were evaluated regarding the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial characteristics and management...
December 30, 2023: Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy
L Ratié, S Humbert
Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by the dysfunction and death of cortical and striatal neurons. Striatal degeneration in Huntington's disease is due, at least in part, to defective cortical signalling to the striatum. Although Huntington's disease generally manifests at the adult stage, mouse and neuroimaging studies of presymptomatic mutation carriers suggest that it may affect neurodevelopment. In support of this notion, the development of the cortex is altered in mice with Huntington's disease and the foetuses of human Huntington's disease gene carriers...
April 12, 2024: Revue Neurologique
Xingzhi He, Wenwen Li, Huan Ma
In a recent study, Oliveira and colleagues revealed how growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), an effector of the integrated stress response, initiates the translation of synaptic plasticity-related mRNAs following brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation. This work suggests that GADD34 may link transcriptional products with translation control upon neuronal activation, illuminating how protein synthesis is orchestrated in neuronal plasticity.
April 12, 2024: Trends in Neurosciences
Julia R Ferrante, Julie A Blendy
Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) is a growing public health concern. The complexity of in utero opioid exposure in clinical studies makes it difficult to investigate underlying mechanisms that could ultimately inform early diagnosis and treatments. Clinical studies are unable to dissociate the influence of maternal polypharmacy or the environment from direct effects of in utero opioid exposure, highlighting the need for effective animal models. Early animal models of prenatal opioid exposure primarily used the prototypical opioid, morphine, and opioid exposure that was often limited to a narrow period during gestation...
April 12, 2024: Trends in Neurosciences
Clara Moriano Morales, Jenaro Graña Gil, Noé Brito García, José Luis Martín Varillas, Vanesa Calvo Del Río, Patricia Moya Alvarado, Francisco Javier Narváez García, Gerard Espinosa, Petra Díaz Del Campo Fontecha, Mercedes Guerra Rodríguez, José Mateo Arranz, Manuela López Gómez, Félix Manuel Francisco Hernández, M Mar Trujillo, Raquel Dos Santos Sobrín, Juan Ignacio Martín Sánchez, Jesús Maese Manzano, Julio Suárez Cuba
OBJECTIVE: To develop multidisciplinary recommendations based on available evidence and expert consensus for the therapeutic management of patients with refractory Behçet's syndrome (BS) (difficult to treat, severe resistant, severe relapse) to conventional treatment. METHODS: A group of experts identified clinical research questions relevant to the objective of the document. These questions were reformulated in PICO format (patient, intervention, comparison and outcome)...
April 12, 2024: Reumatología clinica
Coriene Catsman-Berrevoets
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2024: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Mark S Scher, Sonika Agarwal, Charulata Venkatesan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2024: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Mohamad Gamal Nada, Yassir Edrees Almalki, Mohammad Abd Alkhalik Basha, Maha Ibrahim Metwally, Riham Dessouky, Mohamed Hesham Saleh Saleh Radwan, Mohamed M A Zaitoun, Ahmed A El-Hamid M Abdalla, Ahmed A A Bessar, Engy Fathy Tantwy, Mostafa Mohamad Assy, Bassant Mahmoud Dawoud, Diana Hanna, Mahmoud M Gohary, Sharifa Khalid Alduraibi, Alaa K Lduraibi, Diaa Bakry Eldib, Hamada M Khater, Noha T Sarhan, Dina Esmat Hamed, Sara F Saadawy, Mohammed A Huneif, Ahmed M Abdelkhalik Basha, Yasmin Ibrahim Libda
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Neurological complications associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported in children; however, data on neuroimaging findings remain limited. This study aimed to comprehensively examine neuroimaging patterns of COVID-19 in children and their relationship with clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study involved reviewing the medical records and MRI scans of 95 children who developed new neurological symptoms within 2-4 weeks of clinical and laboratory confirmation of COVID-19...
April 12, 2024: Academic Radiology
Jonathan P Rogers, Michael S Zandi, Anthony S David
Catatonia is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome that affects emotion, speech, movement and complex behaviour. It can occur in a wide range of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including depression, mania, schizophrenia, autism, autoimmune encephalitis (particularly NMDAR encephalitis), systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid disease, epilepsy and medication-induced and -withdrawal states. This concise guideline highlights key recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) Catatonia Guideline, published in April 2023...
May 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Arina Madan, Pinky Agarwal, Sudeshna Ray, Brad Tyson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
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