Jahanavi M Ramakrishna, Claudia R Libertin, Jason Siegel, Matthew J Binnicker, Dana Harris, Gautam V Matcha, Thomas Caulfield, W D Freeman
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to overwhelm global healthcare systems. While the disease primarily causes pulmonary complications, reports of central nervous system (CNS) involvement have recently emerged ranging from encephalopathy to stroke. This raises a practical dilemma for clinicians as to when to pursue neuroimaging and lumbar tap with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms. We present a case of an encephalopathic patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 with no pulmonary symptoms...
October 23, 2020: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine
Brian Fiani, Juliana Runnels, Ashley Taylor, Manraj Sekhon, Daniel Chacon, Michael McLarnon, Rebecca Houston, Sasha Vereecken
Spinal injury is among the most severe and feared injuries an athlete may face. We present an up-to-date review of the recent literature, stratifying recommendations based on injury location (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine) and type, as well as, the level of competitive play (high school, collegiate, professional). A literature search was completed to identify all publications reporting return to play guidelines for athletic injuries or injury-related surgery irrespective of the study design. Publication dates were not restricted by year...
October 26, 2020: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Amanda Farias Zuniga, Amer A Ghavanini, Gaspar Israelian, Peter J Keir
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a peripheral neuropathy resulting from chronic median nerve compression. Chronic compression leads to neurological changes that are quantified through nerve conduction studies (NCS). Although NCS represent the gold standard in CTS assessment, they provide limited prognostic value. Several studies have identified ultrasound as a tool in diagnosing and potentially predicting the progression of CTS in patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of ultrasound examination in CTS patients...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
A E Pukhalskaia, A S Dyatlova, N S Linkova, K L Kozlov, T V Kvetnaia, M V Koroleva, I M Kvetnoy
Verification of signaling molecules in the saliva is a non-invasive method of diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effectiveness in different pathologies. Sirtuins (SIRT), proteins from NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimerэs disease. Age-related decrease in sirtuins expression induces many pathophysiological processes that could lead to neurodegeneration. We studied the expression of SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT5, and SIRT6 in the hippocampus and saliva of humans without neurological pathologies and in patients with Alzheimer's disease of elderly and senile age...
October 24, 2020: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Brittney L Blevins, Harry V Vinters, Seth Love, Donna M Wilcock, Lea T Grinberg, Julie A Schneider, Rajesh N Kalaria, Yuriko Katsumata, Brian T Gold, Danny J J Wang, Samantha J Ma, Lincoln M P Shade, David W Fardo, Anika M S Hartz, Gregory A Jicha, Karin B Nelson, Shino D Magaki, Frederick A Schmitt, Merilee A Teylan, Eseosa T Ighodaro, Panhavuth Phe, Erin L Abner, Matthew D Cykowski, Linda J Van Eldik, Peter T Nelson
Brain arteriolosclerosis (B-ASC), characterized by pathologic arteriolar wall thickening, is a common finding at autopsy in aged persons and is associated with cognitive impairment. Hypertension and diabetes are widely recognized as risk factors for B-ASC. Recent research indicates other and more complex risk factors and pathogenetic mechanisms. Here, we describe aspects of the unique architecture of brain arterioles, histomorphologic features of B-ASC, relevant neuroimaging findings, epidemiology and association with aging, established genetic risk factors, and the co-occurrence of B-ASC with other neuropathologic conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE)...
October 24, 2020: Acta Neuropathologica
Y Zhang, Z Liu, Y Zhang, H Wang, X Liu, S Zhang, X Liu, D Fan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small-fiber nerves are the first to be involved in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) patients. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive technique to detect small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFN) by quantifying corneal nerve morphology. The characteristic whorl-like pattern of the corneal nerve provides a static landmark for observation. We aimed to evaluate whether CCM images of the whorl-like plexus can sensitively evaluate and monitor disease progression in FAP patients...
October 24, 2020: European Journal of Neurology
Habib Khoury, Nikhil Bellamkonda, Peyman Benharash, Jivianne T Lee, Marilene B Wang, Jeffrey D Suh
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the incidence, causes, risk factors, and costs of 30-day readmission after inpatient functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to characterize readmission after inpatient sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis from 2015 to 2017. International Classification of Disease codes were used to identify the patient population, which included 5,644 patients...
October 24, 2020: Laryngoscope
Lanfang Du, Kang Zheng, Lu Feng, Yu Cao, Zhendong Niu, Zhenju Song, Zhi Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Xudong Xiang, Qidi Zhou, Hui Xiong, Fengying Chen, Guoqiang Zhang, Qingbian Ma
AIMS: To investigate current awareness and practices of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 1600 emergency physicians in 75 hospitals which were selected randomly from China between January and July 2018. RESULTS: 92.1% respondents fulfilled the survey. The predictive value of brain stem reflex, motor response and myoclonus was confirmed by 63.5%, 44...
October 23, 2020: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Raduan Ahmed Franca, Lorenzo Ugga, Elia Guadagno, Daniela Russo, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro
Coronaviridae family includes pathogen viruses for humans, that lead to clinical conditions with main respiratory involvement; many of these viruses have notoriously a neuroinvasive potential, as demonstrated by published data on SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV epidemics, as well by results obtained in experimental models. During pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) it is noticed that the central nervous system involvement represented a truly significant moment in the history of some COVID-19 patients; indeed, clinical and radiological features published in literature regarding COVID-19 disease are consistent with a neurological involvement...
October 23, 2020: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Emilio L Streck, Felipe P Bussular, Leticia B Wessler, Mariane B Duarte, Victoria L Rezende, Matheus S Rodrigues, Carolina A Torres, Isabela S Lemos, Gabriela Candiotto, Fernanda F Gava, Jade de Oliveira, Samira S Valvassori
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that affects the activity of the branched-chainα-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCDK). This deficiency on BCDK complex results in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, valine, and their corresponding α-keto acids. Epigenetic changes can negatively affect the metabolism of BCAA. These changes are catalyzed by the epigenetic regulatory enzymes, e.g., DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone deacetylases (HDAC), and histone acetyltransferases (HAT)...
October 24, 2020: Metabolic Brain Disease
Jisun Jeong, Sun Woong Kim, Duk Hyun Sung
OBJECTIVES: Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a disease characterized by the infiltration of malignant lymphocytes into the peripheral nervous system. We report clinical features, radiographic findings, modes of treatment, and outcomes of patients with NL. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated patients with NL. We extracted data, including clinical features, magnetic resolution imaging (MRI), 18 F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans, cerebrospinal fluid cytology findings, the results of electrodiagnostic studies, as well as patient treatments and outcomes...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Neurology
Robert C Wolf, Mahmoud Rashidi, Mike M Schmitgen, Stefan Fritze, Fabio Sambataro, Katharina M Kubera, Dusan Hirjak
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are well documented in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), yet so far, the relationship between NSS and specific symptom expression is unclear. We studied 76 SZ patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine associations between NSS, positive symptoms, gray matter volume (GMV), and neural activity at rest. SZ patients were hypothesis-driven stratified according to the presence or absence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH; n = 34 without vs 42 with AVH) according to the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale...
October 24, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Otto Lilja-Lund, Karin Kockum, Per Hellström, Lars Söderström, Lars Nyberg, Katarina Laurell
The association between morphology of the brain and symptoms of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is largely unknown. We investigated how ventricular expansion (width of the temporal horns [TH], callosal angle [CA], and Evans' index [EI]) related to symptom severity in suspected iNPH. Participants (n = 168; 74.9 years ± SD 6.7; 55% females) from the general population underwent neurological examination, computed tomography, and neuropsychological testing. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that wide TH was independently associated with all examined iNPH symptoms (p < 0...
October 23, 2020: Scientific Reports
Natasha Ting Lee, Carly Selan, Joanne S J Chia, Sharelle A Sturgeon, David K Wright, Akram Zamani, Melrine Pereira, Harshal H Nandurkar, Maithili Sashindranath
Stroke is caused by obstructed blood flow (ischaemia) or unrestricted bleeding in the brain (haemorrhage). Global brain ischaemia occurs after restricted cerebral blood flow e.g. during cardiac arrest. Following ischaemic injury, restoration of blood flow causes ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury which worsens outcome. Secondary injury mechanisms after any stroke are similar, and encompass inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and apoptosis. We developed a new model of transient global forebrain I/R injury (dual carotid artery ligation; DCAL) and compared the manifestations of this injury with those in a conventional I/R injury model (middle-cerebral artery occlusion; MCAo) and with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH; collagenase model)...
October 23, 2020: Scientific Reports
Nellwyn Hagan, John L Kane, Deepak Grover, Lisa Woodworth, Charlotte Madore, Jacqueline Saleh, Jose Sancho, Jinyu Liu, Yi Li, Jonathan Proto, Matija Zelic, Amy Mahan, Michael Kothe, Andrew A Scholte, Maria Fitzgerald, Barbara Gisevius, Aiden Haghikia, Oleg Butovsky, Dimitry Ofengeim
Microglia serve as the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) by providing continuous surveillance of the CNS microenvironment and initiating defense mechanisms to protect CNS tissue. Upon injury, microglia transition into an activated state altering their transcriptional profile, transforming their morphology, and producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. These activated microglia initially serve a beneficial role, but their continued activation drives neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS, and activated microglia and macrophages play a significant role in mediating disease pathophysiology and progression...
October 23, 2020: Cell Death & Disease
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Theresa E Bjorness, Kimberly H Cox, Alex Sonneborn, Robert W Greene, Joseph S Takahashi
Patients with sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei , have disruptions in both sleep timing and sleep architecture. However, the underlying cause of these sleep disturbances is not well understood. Here we assessed the sleep architecture of male mice infected with T. brucei and found that infected mice had drastically altered sleep patterns. Interestingly, T. brucei infected mice also had a reduced homeostatic sleep response to sleep deprivation, a response modulated by the adenosine system...
October 22, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Yuki Hori, David J Schaeffer, Atsushi Yoshida, Justine C Cléry, Lauren K Hayrynen, Joseph S Gati, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
Understanding the similarity of cortico-subcortical networks topologies between humans and nonhuman primate species is critical to study the origin of network alternations underlying human neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. The New World common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) has become popular as a non-human primate model for human brain function. Most marmoset connectomic research, however, has exclusively focused on cortical areas, with connectivity to subcortical networks less extensively explored...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience
Linford Fernandes, Marc Randall, Luis Idrovo
Headache is a common neurological referral and a frequent cause for acute hospital admissions. Despite peripheral nerve blocks being widely used in headache and pain services to treat patients with headache disorders, there is no readily accessible resource with instructions for the delivery of peripheral nerve blocks. Here we provide a practical approach for administering peripheral nerve blocks and cover the current evidence base for such procedures in different headache disorders. We provide instructions and an audiovisual guide for administering greater and lesser occipital, supratrochlear, supraorbital and auriculotemporal nerves blocks, and give information on their adverse effects and potential complications...
October 23, 2020: Practical Neurology
Milavec Helena, Ravikumar Nivetha, Syn Li-Xun Nicholas, Soekojo Cinnie Yentia, Chng Wee Joo, Kumar Naresh
INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most frequent primary malignancy of the spine. We aimed to investigate the clinical presentation, surgical indications and outcomes, complications, survival, and its influencing factors in surgically treated MM patients with symptomatic involvement of the spine (SIS). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Out of 350 MM patients treated at our institution over a period of 12 years (2006-2018), we identified 24 patients who were surgically treated for SIS...
October 23, 2020: International Journal of Spine Surgery
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