Trevor Tucker
A model of cerebral pulsatile blood through multiple arterial bifurcations is developed, based on the physics of wave propagation in compliant vessels. The model identifies the conditions for the optimum antegrade flow of blood into the arterioles as a function of the areas and stiffnesses of the arteries. The model predicts and quantifies the reduction in vessel diameter which occurs in progressing from the large central arteries into the arterioles. It also predicts and quantifies the change in vessel compliance which occurs in progressing from the large central arteries, through the small arteries, into the arterioles...
January 22, 2021: Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express
Daniel Gebrezgiabhier, Yang Liu, Adithya S Reddy, Evan Davis, Yihao Zheng, Albert J Shih, Aditya S Pandey, Luis E Savastano
OBJECTIVE: Endovascular removal of emboli causing large vessel occlusion (LVO)-related stroke utilizing suction catheter and/or stent retriever technologies or thrombectomy is a new standard of care. Despite high recanalization rates, 40% of stroke patients still experience poor neurological outcomes as many cases cannot be fully reopened after the first attempt. The development of new endovascular technologies and techniques for mechanical thrombectomy requires more sophisticated testing platforms that overcome the limitations of phantom-based simulators...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jeyakumar Balakrishnan, Suganya Kannan, Ambujam Govindasamy
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of the most important fatty acids that plays a critical role in maintaining proper brain function and cognitive development. Deficiency of DHA leads to several neurodegenerative disorders and, therefore, dietary supplementations of these fatty acids are essential to maintain cognitive health. However, the complete picture of how DHA is incorporated into the brain is yet to be explored. In general, the de novo synthesis of DHA is poor, and targeting the brain with specific phospholipid carriers provides novel insights into the process of reduction of disease progression...
December 4, 2020: Nutrition Research
Asya Izraelit Wallach, Maria J Borja, Duan Chen, Rachel Eisenberg, Yasha S Modi, Cen Zhang, Timothy M Shepherd, Avindra Nath, Bryan Smith, Jose U Scher, Catherine Cho, Ilya Kister
Recurrent episodes of neurological dysfunction and white matter lesions in a young adult raise suspicion for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, occlusive retinopathy, hearing loss and absence of CSF oligoclonal bands are atypical for MS and should make the clinician consider an alternative diagnosis. We describe a man with hearing loss, visual signs and symptoms, and an accumulating burden of brain lesions, who was treated for a clinical diagnosis of MS for nearly two decades. Genetic testing revealed a unifying diagnosis...
January 19, 2021: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Lillie Tien, Dan-Victor Giurgiutiu, Erin F Switzer, Jeffrey A Switzer
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the occurrence of ischemic stroke after blunt cerebrovascular injuries and discuss the neurologist's role in preventing and managing ischemic strokes in this trauma population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed and included data from 2016 to 2019 from a Level I trauma center. Demographics, injury mechanism, ischemic stroke occurrence, interventions, and neurology consultations were examined and descriptive statistics were utilized to characterize the nature of ischemic strokes and their management...
January 19, 2021: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Xiaoying Lin, Jiating Zhao, Wei Zhang, Lina He, Liming Wang, Hong Li, Quancheng Liu, Liwei Cui, Yuxi Gao, Chunying Chen, Bai Li, Yu-Feng Li
Mercury (Hg) is one of the chemicals that bring serious adverse effects to the environment and human beings. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin while inorganic Hg (IHg) is not. Early screening of the neurotoxicity of chemicals may help reduce the occurrence of neurological disorders by minimizing chemical exposure. This work proposed the combined application of gut microbiome, metabolomics and metallomics to differentiate the neurotoxicity between MeHg and IHg in rats. It was found that MeHg caused down-regulated Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and up-regulated Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia at phylum level, while MeHg caused up-regulated Verrucomicrobiaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Lachnospiraceae and down-regulated Rikenellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Sutterellaceae, Anaeroplasmataceae and Coriobacteriaceae in feces than IHg did at family level; Besides, MeHg brought metabolites change in activation of gut-brain axis pathway than IHg did, such as Glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), Dopamine (DA) and Tryptophan...
December 30, 2020: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Danny Spampinato, Esin Avci, John Rothwell, Lorenzo Rocchi
BACKGROUND: it is well-known that the cerebellum is critical for the integrity of motor and cognitive actions. Applying non-invasive brain stimulation techniques over this region results in neurophysiological and behavioural changes, which have been associated with the modulation of cerebellar-cerebral cortex connectivity. Here, we investigated whether online application of cerebellar transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) results in changes to this pathway. METHODS: thirteen healthy individuals participated in two sessions of cerebellar tACS delivered at different frequencies (5Hz and 50Hz)...
January 19, 2021: Brain Stimulation
Isabella Zsoldos, Charlotte Sinding, Ambre Godet, Stéphanie Chambaron
Attentional automatic processes and cerebral activity may differ between individuals with different weight statuses in the presence of food stimuli (e.g. odors, pictures). In the present study, we used an implicit olfactory priming paradigm to test the influence of non-attentively perceived food odors on the cerebral activity underlying the processing of food pictures, in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A pear odor and a pound cake odor were used as primes, respectively priming sweet low-energy-density foods and high-energy-density foods...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience
Tadashi Yamazaki, Jun Igarashi, Hiroshi Yamaura
Performance of supercomputers has been steadily and exponentially increasing for the past 20 years, and is expected to increase further. This unprecedented computational power enables us to build and simulate large-scale neural network models composed of tens of billions of neurons and tens of trillions of synapses with detailed anatomical connections and realistic physiological parameters. Such "human-scale" brain simulation could be considered a milestone in computational neuroscience and even in general neuroscience...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience
Mohammad A A Fakhree, Irene B M Konings, Jeroen Kole, Alessandra Cambi, Christian Blum, Mireille M A E Claessens
Alpha-synuclein (αS) is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that is abundantly present in the brain and is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). In spite of its abundance and its contribution to PD pathogenesis, the exact cellular function of αS remains largely unknown. The ability of αS to remodel phospholipid model membranes combined with biochemical and cellular studies suggests that αS is involved in endocytosis. To unravel with which route (s) and stage (s) of the endocytic pathway αS is associated, we quantified the colocalization between αS and endocytic marker proteins in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, using an object based colocalization analysis...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience
Herminio M Guajardo, Rita J Valentino
Stress-induced activation of locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) projections to the prefrontal cortex are thought to promote cognitive responses to stressors. LC activation by stressors is modulated by endogenous opioids that restrain LC activation and facilitate a return to baseline activity upon stress termination. Sex differences in this opioid influence could be a basis for sex differences in stress vulnerability. Consistent with this, we recently demonstrated that µ-opioid receptor (MOR) expression is decreased in the female rat LC compared to the male LC, and this was associated with sexually distinct consequences of activating MOR in the LC on cognitive flexibility...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Denise Ribeiro Gobbo, Lais da Silva Pereira, Jozélia Gomes Pacheco Ferreira, José Anchieta de Castro Horta-Junior, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Susana Isabel Sá
During puberty, sexual hormones induce crucial changes in neural circuit organization, leading to significant sexual dimorphism in adult behaviours. The ventrolateral division of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMHvl) is the major neural site controlling the receptive component of female sexual behaviour, which is dependent on ovarian hormones. The inputs to the VMHvl, originating from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), transmit essential information to trigger such behaviour. In this study, we investigated the projection pattern of the MeA to the VMHvl in ovariectomized rats at early puberty...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Huixiang Yang, Zhenfei Hu, Fumihito Imai, Yuxiang Yang, Kenji Ogawa
Previous studies have reported that real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback using motor imagery can modulate the activity of several motor-related areas. However, the differences in these modulatory effects on distinct motor-related target regions using the same experimental protocol remain unelucidated. This study aimed to compare neurofeedback effects on the primary motor area (M1) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Of the included participants, 15 received blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals from their left M1, and the other 15 received signals from their left PMv...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Hamed Ghazvini, Fatemeh Tirgar, Mehdi Khodamoradi, Zeinab Akbarnejad, Raheleh Rafaiee, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhosseini Tamijani, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Vahid Sheibani
Methamphetamine (METH) may cause long‒lasting neurotoxic effects and cognitive impairment. On the other hand, the ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone have neuroprotective effects. In the current study, we aimed to examine the effects of estrogen and progesterone on anxiety‒like behavior and neuronal damage in METH‒exposed ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy, the animals received estrogen (1 mg/kg, i.p.), or progesterone (8 mg/kg, i.p.), or estrogen plus progesterone (with the same doses), or vehicle during 7 consecutive days (days 22‒28)...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Satish Bodakuntla, Carsten Janke, Maria M Magiera
Neurodegenerative diseases lead to a progressive demise of neuronal functions that ultimately results in neuronal death. Besides a large variety of molecular pathways that have been linked to the degeneration of neurons, dysfunctions of the microtubule cytoskeleton are common features of many human neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, it is unclear whether microtubule dysfunctions are causative, or mere bystanders in the disease progression. A so-far little explored regulatory mechanism of the microtubule cytoskeleton, the posttranslational modifications of tubulin, emerge as candidate mechanisms involved in neuronal dysfunction, and thus, degeneration...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Maria F Ramirez, A Gorur, Juan P Cata
Pain is a common and devastating symptom among cancer patients. It can be caused by the cancer itself or by certain therapies like surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Opioids are the first line of treatment for moderate to severe cancer-related pain. Opioids alone or in combination with non-opioid analgesics and adjuvant medications are important components for pain management during the perioperative period for cancer patients. Opioids act on the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), which is expressed in cancer cells and non-malignant cells of the tumor microenvironment...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Seung Hyun Lee, Young Taek Han, Dong Seok Cha
In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of damaurone D (DaD), a dihydropyranoaurone compound, on dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that DaD treatment could successfully increase the survival rate of the worms under MPP+ exposure. Additionally, DaD protected against the MPP+ -induced neurodegeneration in all eight DA neurons of the worms. Similarly, diminished DA neuronal damage was observed in the DaD-fed transgenic mutant overexpressing tyrosine hydroxylase...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Carolina Luft, Isadora Perez Levices, Mariana Severo da Costa, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio
Studies have shown that an adverse environment in utero influences fetal growth and development, leading to several neuroendocrine and behavioral changes in adult life. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in the long-term benefits of pregestational exercise are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise before the gestational period on memory behavior and gene expression in the hippocampus of adult mice submitted to prenatal stress. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS), and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS)...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Patrick J Hunt, Fabiola N Andújar, Deborah A Silverman, Moran Amit
Cancer neurobiology is an emerging discipline that inevitably unfurls new perspectives in oncology. The role that nerves play in cancer progression resonates with the long-reported dependency of tumors on neuro-molecular mechanisms that remain insufficiently elucidated. Whereas interactions between neurotrophic growth factors and receptors have been heavily studied in the nervous system, their expression in cancers and their impact on tumor cell growth and metastasis through their corresponding signaling pathways has been undervalued...
January 19, 2021: Neuroscience Letters
Mengjie Jia, Xue Yang, Tianhui Yang, Xinyang Deng, Jia Liang, Jing Bi, Peng Wang
Glycosyltransferases are enzymes that catalyze the formation of a variety of glycoconjugates. Glycoconjugates play vital roles in the nervous system. β-1, 3-Galactosyltransferase 2 (B3galt2) is one of the major types of glycosyltransferases, which has not been reported in ischemia induced-brain injury. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of B3galt2 exerts and its underlying mechanism in cerebral ischemia in mice. Wild-type (WT) and heterozygous B3galt2 knockout (B3galt2-/+ ) mice were subjected to 90 min transient focal cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
January 19, 2021: Brain Research Bulletin
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