Allan R Martin, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Muhammad A Akbar, Anna C Rienmueller, Jetan H Badhiwala, Jefferson R Wilson, Lindsay A Tetreault, Aria Nouri, Eric M Massicotte, Michael G Fehlings
OBJECTIVE: Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is among the most common pathologies affecting the spinal cord but its natural history is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate functional outcomes in patients with DCM who were managed nonoperatively as well as the utility of quantitative clinical measures and MRI to detect deterioration. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed DCM or recurrent myelopathic symptoms after previous surgery who were initially managed nonoperatively were included...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Anna Lindner, Verena Rass, Bogdan-Andrei Ianosi, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Mario Kofler, Max Gaasch, Alberto Addis, Paul Rhomberg, Bettina Pfausler, Ronny Beer, Erich Schmutzhard, Claudius Thomé, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: Recent guidelines recommend targeting a systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mm Hg in the early management of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The optimal SBP targets for ICH patients after hematoma evacuation (HE) remain unclear. Here, the authors aimed to define the optimal SBP range based on multimodal neuromonitoring data. METHODS: Forty poor-grade ICH patients who had undergone HE and then monitoring of intracerebral pressure, brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2), and cerebral metabolism (via cerebral microdialysis [CMD]) were prospectively included...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery
Takahisa Hishiya, Tetsuhiro Ishikawa, Mitsutoshi Ota
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH)-related vertebral fractures essentially require operative treatment due to severe fracture site instability and high potential risk of posttraumatic neurological deficit. However, the optimal surgical procedure remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of posterior spinal fixation with penetrating endplate screws (PESs) for DISH-related thoracolumbar fractures. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective, single-center, observational study...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Grégoire Boulouis, Sarah Stricker, Sandro Benichi, Jean-François Hak, Florent Gariel, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Nicolas Garcelon, Annie Harroche, Quentin Alias, Lorenzo Garzelli, Fanny Bajolle, Nathalie Boddaert, Philippe Meyer, Thomas Blauwblomme, Olivier Naggara
OBJECTIVE: The clinical outcome of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH) is rarely reported in a comprehensive way. In this cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis of patients with pICH, the authors aimed to describe the basic clinical outcomes of pICH. METHODS: Children who received treatment for pICH at the authors' institution were prospectively enrolled in the cohort in 2008; data since 2000 were retrospectively included, and data through October 2019 were analyzed...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Dulip Jayasinghe, Lydia Wilcox, Bernard Schoonakker
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is poorly predicted by markers of hypoxic ischaemic (HI) delivery. Repeated examination of infants with HI markers facilitates diagnostic certainty of HIE severity. When infants with HIE are nursed at incubator ambient air-temperature set to achieve normothermia, there is sometimes associated hyperthermia, a predictor of poor outcome. An alternative is to nurse infants without external heat (passive hypothermia, PH). We report a retrospective cohort-study to determine the safety of PH during the assessment of infant eligibility for therapeutic hypothermia (TH)...
March 18, 2021: Early Human Development
Jithangi Wanigasinghe, Carukshi Arambepola, Shalini Sri Ranganathan, Kasun Jayasundara, Ashangi Weerasinghe, Piyumi Wickramarachchi
BACKGROUND: This article explores the role of initial treatment on control of spasms and other epilepsies at four years in children previously treated for West syndrome. METHODS: The Sri Lanka Infantile Spasm Study is a prospective clinical trial evaluating response to intra-muscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) versus oral prednisolone. A previous report documented response through age 12 months. This article provides four-year follow-up data. RESULTS: At age four years, 65 of the original 97 were available for follow-up; another 13 had died, and 19 moved and could not be contacted...
March 8, 2021: Pediatric Neurology
Nandakumar Nagaraja
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a widely used imaging technique to evaluate patients with stroke. It can detect brain ischemia within minutes of stroke onset. However, DWI has few potential pitfalls that should be recognized during interpretation. DWI lesion could be reversible in the early hours of stroke and the entire lesion may not represent ischemic core. False negative DWI could lead to diagnosis of DWI negative stroke or to a missed stroke diagnosis. Ischemic stroke mimics can occur on DWI with non-cerebrovascular neurological conditions...
April 3, 2021: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Danijela Petković Ramadža, Marija Zekušić, Tamara Žigman, Ana Škaričić, Ana Bogdanić, Gordana Mustać, Katarina Bošnjak-Nađ, David Ozretić, Kousaku Ohno, Ksenija Fumić, Ivo Barić
Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) is a severely debilitating disorder characterized by multisystemic manifestations and neurodegeneration. Enzyme replacement therapy alleviates visceral signs and symptoms but has no effect on neurological features. Ambroxol has been suggested as an enzyme enhancement agent. Some studies have confirmed its effectiveness in preventing the progression of neurological manifestations of neuronopathic Gaucher disease. In this study, we report two GD3 siblings in whom ambroxol combined with enzyme replacement therapy was initiated at different stages of the disease...
March 31, 2021: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Hana H Kutlikova, Shawn N Geniole, Christoph Eisenegger, Claus Lamm, Gerhard Jocham, Bettina Studer
Recent research suggests that when we lack a sense of control, we are prone to motivational failures and early quitting in competitions. Testosterone, on the other hand, is thought to boost competitiveness. Here we investigate the interaction between these factors, testing the testosterone's potential to enhance persistence in a competition against a stronger opponent, depending on experimentally manipulated perceived control. Healthy participants were administered a single dose of testosterone or placebo. They first underwent a task designed to either induce low or high perceived control and then entered a costly competition against a progressively stronger opponent that they could quit at any time...
April 1, 2021: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Meng-Ling Chen, Chih-Chun Lin, Liana S Rosenthal, Puneet Opal, Sheng-Han Kuo
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of dominantly-inherited cerebellar ataxias, among which CAG expansion-related SCAs are most common. These diseases have very high penetrance with defined disease progression, and emerging therapies are being developed to provide either symptomatic or disease-modifying benefits. In clinical trial design, it is crucial to incorporate biomarkers to test target engagement or track disease progression in response to therapies, especially in rare diseases such as SCAs. In this article, we review the available rating scales and recent advances of biomarkers in CAG-repeat SCAs...
April 1, 2021: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Halle Quang, Stephanie Wong, Masud Husain, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Muireann Irish, Fiona Kumfor
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterised by predominant language and communication impairment. However, behavioural changes, such as apathy, are increasingly recognised. Apathy is defined as a reduction in motivation and goal-directed behaviour. Recent theoretical models have suggested that apathy can be delineated into multiple dimensions: executive apathy (i.e., deficits in maintaining goals and organisation), emotional apathy (i.e., emotional blunting and indifference) and initiation apathy (i...
March 16, 2021: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Andrew H Farkas, Rebekah L Trotti, Elizabeth A Edge, Ling-Yu Huang, Aviva Kasowski, Olivia F Thomas, Eli Chlan, Maria P Granros, Kajol K Patel, Dean Sabatinelli
Humor is a ubiquitous aspect of human behavior that is infrequently the focus of neuroscience research. To localize human brain structures associated with the experience of humor, we conducted quantitative activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta analyses of 57 fMRI studies (n = 1248) reporting enhanced regional brain activity evoked by humorous cues versus matched control cues. We performed separate ALE analyses of studies that employed picture-driven, text-based, and auditory laughter cues to evoke humor...
March 11, 2021: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Alaa M Hammad, Ghadeer M S Swiss, F Scott Hall, Suhair Hikmat, Youssef Sari, T M Al-Qirim, H A Amawi
Tobacco exposure has been linked to neuroinflammation and adaptive/maladaptive changes in neurotransmitter systems, including in glutamatergic systems. We examined the effects of waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) on inflammatory mediators and astroglial glutamate transporters in mesocorticolimbic brain regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). The behavioral consequences of WTS exposure on withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior were assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests...
April 6, 2021: Neuroscience
Xuemei Li, Xinyu Zhou, Teng Teng, Li Fan, Xueer Liu, Yajie Xiang, Yuanliang Jiang, Peng Xie, Dan Zhu
Major depressive disorder is a serious and complex mental illness, and multiple brain regions are involved in its pathogenesis. There is increasing evidence that the amygdala is involved in depression; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we applied a combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomic and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic to study changes in the amygdala in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression...
April 6, 2021: Neuroscience
Seyedeh Nazanin Hajjari, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Dariush Shanehbandi, Shahram Teimourian, Ali Shahbazi, Mehdi Mehdizadeh
Beta-secretase (BACE1) and gamma-secretase activating protein (GSAP) are pivotal enzymes in the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Beta-amyloid (Aß) formation is considered one of the main reasons for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In our preliminary study, a series of microRNAs (miRs) with possible interaction with BACE1 and/or GSAP was selected using computational analysis. Our results showed that miR-4422-5p had a reduced level in the serum of AD patients. In this study, the effect of miR-4422-5p using miR-4422-5p mimic and inhibitor on BACE1 and GSAP were investigated, and a probable novel early diagnostic marker for AD was introduced...
April 6, 2021: Neuroscience
Katharina Schönhoff, Eva-Lotta von Rüden, Ines Koska, Isabel Seiffert, Heidrun Potschka
Experimental and clinical data suggest an impact of serotonergic signaling on seizure susceptibility and epilepsy-associated psychiatric comorbidities. Previous µPET studies revealed increased binding of 5-HT1A receptor ligand [18 F]MPPF in two rat models with spontaneous recurrent seizures. These findings raised the question whether these alterations are due to altered 5-HT1A receptor expression or a modification of extracellular serotonin concentrations. 5-HT1A receptor expression rates were quantitatively analyzed in rat brain tissue from an electrical and a chemical post-status epilepticus model...
April 6, 2021: Neuroscience
Bryan S Barker, Jay Spampanato, Hilary S McCarren, Kyle Berger, Cecelia E Jackson, David T Yeung, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Benzodiazepines are the primary treatment option for organophosphate (OP)-induced status epilepticus (SE), but these antiseizure drugs (ASDs) lose efficacy as treatment is delayed. In the event of a mass civilian or military exposure, significant treatment delays are likely. New ASDs that combat benzodiazepine-resistant, OP-induced SE are critically needed, particularly if they can be efficacious after a long treatment delay. This study evaluated the efficacy of the Kv 7 channel modulator, retigabine, as a novel therapy for OP-induced SE...
April 6, 2021: Neuroscience
Armand A Jacques, Kelli L Summers, Merritt W Brown, William Risher
A 38-year-old man presented to the emergency room in the trauma bay for multiple ballistic injuries to the right neck. He was hemodynamically stable, protecting his airway, and neurologically intact. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed absent filling the right internal carotid artery from its origin to the circle of Willis, which was intact, as well as absent petrous carotid canal on the right. The patient was diagnosed with right internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis and discharged in several days...
April 6, 2021: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Danielle N Jones, Mary Ann Raghanti
Although it has been nearly 100 years since the first description of monoamine oxidase, we are still learning about its role in the healthy brain and how it is altered in various disease states. The present review provides a survey of our current understanding of monoamine oxidases, with a focus on their contributions to neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disease. Important species differences in monoamine oxidase function and development in the brain are highlighted. Sex-specific monoamine oxidase regulatory mechanisms and their implications for various neurological disorders are also discussed...
April 6, 2021: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
A Förster, Ana Ramos, H Wenz, J Böhme, C Groden, A Alonso
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gadolinium leakage in ocular structures (GLOS) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) is a novel imaging marker in acute ischemic stroke and other neurological disorders. METHODS: In patients with transient neurovascular symptoms who underwent repeated MRI with intravenous contrast agent administration, the presence of acute ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) as well as the frequency and pattern of blood-brain barrier and blood-retina barrier impairment as demonstrated by the hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) and GLOS respectively on postcontrast FLAIR were evaluated...
April 6, 2021: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
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