Ian Lockart, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Maryam Alavi, Scott Davison, Emilia Prakoso, Miriam T Levy, Jacob George, Gregory J Dore, Mark Danta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure on survival in patients with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been examined, although many studies have been subject to survivor treatment selection bias. We assessed the impact of HCV cure before HCC diagnosis on overall survival. METHODS: Patients with HCV-related HCC at three referral hospitals in Australia were included retrospectively (January 2008 to December 2019). The risk of death following HCC diagnosis among patients who achieved HCV cure before HCC diagnosis, was compared to patients who were viraemic at diagnosis...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Yen-Chun Chen, Ping-Hung Ko, Chi-Che Lee, Chih-Wei Tseng, Kuo-Chih Tseng
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia can rapidly improve in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients receiving direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The role of baseline (BL) thrombopoietin (TPO) in this phenomenon is unclear. METHODS: From June 2016 to February 2019, a total of 104 CHC patients receiving DAA, with a sustained virologic response and BL thrombocytopenia, at Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Significant platelet count improvement and platelet count improvement ratio were analyzed for correlation with BL TPO...
January 21, 2021: BMC Gastroenterology
Milka Mileva, Yana Ilieva, Gabriele Jovtchev, Svetla Gateva, Maya Margaritova Zaharieva, Almira Georgieva, Lyudmila Dimitrova, Ana Dobreva, Tsveta Angelova, Nelly Vilhelmova-Ilieva, Violeta Valcheva, Hristo Najdenski
Plants from the Rosacea family are rich in natural molecules with beneficial biological properties, and they are widely appreciated and used in the food industry, perfumery, and cosmetics. In this review, we are considering Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa alba L., Rosa centifolia L., and Rosa gallica L. as raw materials important for producing commercial products, analyzing and comparing the main biological activities of their essential oils, hydrolates, and extracts. A literature search was performed to find materials describing (i) botanical characteristics; (ii) the phytochemical profile; and (iii) biological properties of the essential oil sand extracts of these so called "old roses" that are cultivated in Bulgaria, Turkey, India, and the Middle East...
January 19, 2021: Biomolecules
Arshad Altaf, Safdar Kamal Pasha
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set an ambitious target to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030. Pakistan is one of the focused countries because of the high prevalence of HCV. The prices of direct-acting antiviral drugs(DAA)have significantly reduced to between 11-25 dollars for a month's treatment. To achieve the 2030 elimination target, Pakistan has to provide treatment to one million HCV-infected patients every year, beginning from 2018. This short report highlights a key barrier to achieve this target,i...
December 2020: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Rosanna Villani, Antonino Davide Romano, Moris Sangineto, Gaetano Serviddio
After direct-acting antiviral (DAA) approval, a larger number of diabetic patients with chronic HCV infection have been treated. Cardiovascular risk and insulin resistance significantly change after successful clearance of HCV. Therefore, HCV therapy could potentially improve diabetes microvascular complications including nephropathy. We assessed kidney function after antiviral treatment completion in diabetic (N = 96) and non-diabetic patients (N = 187). Assessment of renal function was performed by serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline, at treatment completion and 12 weeks after treatment...
January 20, 2021: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Brian J Boyarsky, Alexandra T Strauss, Dorry L Segev
A wide gap between the increasing demand for organs and the limited supply leads to immeasurable loss of life each year. The organ shortage could be attenuated by donors with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). The transplantation of organs from HIV+ deceased donors into HIV+ individuals (HIV D+ /R+) was initiated in South Africa in 2010; however, this practice was forbidden in the USA until the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act in 2013. HIV D+/R+ transplantation is now practiced in the USA as part of ongoing research studies, helping to reduce waiting times for all patients on the waitlist...
January 20, 2021: World Journal of Surgery
Saeed M El-Nahaas, Normeen Hany Rady, Shimaa Malek, Khaled Serag
BACKGROUND: Interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10) is chemokine biomarker of liver inflammation, elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. AIMS: Investigating if changes in serum IP-10 levels in response to directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs) treatment for chronic HCV patients are paralleled by changes in liver stiffness measurements (LSM), and assessing role of using serum IP-10 as a noninvasive accurate method to predict changes in hepatic necro-inflammation and fibrosis...
January 18, 2021: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Joanna Sztuba-Solinska, Devadatta Gosavi
Coronaviruses are the causative agents of mild to severe respiratory and intestinal infections in humans. They are the largest RNA viruses, which genomes and encoded RNAs are known to fold into the highly-order structures that play essential roles in the viral replication and infectivity cycle. The recent outbreaks of new pathogenic coronaviruses steered researchers’ attention into the possibility of targeting their RNAs directly with novel RNA-specific drugs and therapeutic strategies. In this manuscript, we highlight the recent biochemical and biophysical methodological advancements that yielded more in-depth insight into the structural and functional composition of coronaviruses cis-acting RNA motifs...
December 31, 2020: Postepy Biochemii
Tristan Rossignol, Sadri Znaidi, Murielle Chauvel, Rebecca Westgate, Laurence Decourty, Florence Menard-Szczebara, Sylvie Cupferman, Maria Dalko-Scisba, Rosemary Barnes, Jean-Yves Maillard, Cosmin Saveanu, Christophe d'ENFERT
Preservatives increase the shelf life of cosmetic products by preventing growth of contaminating microbes, including bacteria and fungi. In recent years, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) has recommended the ban or restricted use of a number of preservatives due to safety concerns. Here, we characterize the antifungal activity of Ethylzingerone (Hydroxyethoxyphenyl butanone, HEPB), an SCCS-approved new preservative for use in rinse-off, oral care and leave-on cosmetic products. We show that HEPB significantly inhibits growth of Candida albicans , Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae , acting fungicidally against C...
January 19, 2021: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Maria A Corcorran, Judith I Tsui, John D Scott, Julia C Dombrowski, Sara N Glick
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized management of hepatitis C virus (HCV), but treatment uptake remains low among persons who inject drugs (PWID). We report the continuum of care for HCV and describe predictors of treatment with DAAs among PWID in Seattle. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2018 Seattle area National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) survey of PWID. Persons ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past year and completed the core NHBS survey, a local survey supplement, and rapid HCV antibody testing were included...
January 11, 2021: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Naoyuki Hino, Ryu Sasaki, Youichi Takahashi, Makiko Koike, Masanori Fukushima, Masafumi Haraguchi, Takuya Honda, Satoshi Miuma, Eisuke Ozawa, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Tatsuki Ichikawa, Kazuhiko Nakao
Objective The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) level is known to increase following the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection using direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This study aimed to investigate the changes in the lipid profiles, including small-dense LDL cholesterol (sdLDL), in HCV patients treated with DAAs. Patients We retrospectively assessed 67 HCV patients who achieved sustained virological response with DAA administration and were observed for more than 2 years, of whom 32 were on daclatasvir/asunaprevir, 14 were on sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, and 21 were on sofosbuvir/ribavirin...
2021: Internal Medicine
Muhammad Usman Ashraf, Hafiz Muhammad Salman, Muhammad Farhan Khalid, Muhammad Haider Farooq Khan, Saima Anwar, Samia Afzal, Muhammad Idrees, Safee Ullah Chaudhary
Hepatitis C is an inflammatory liver disease caused by the single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) hepatitis C virus (HCV). The genetic diversity of the virus and quasispecies produced during replication have resulted in viral resistance to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) as well as impediments in vaccine development. The recent adaptation of CRISPR-Cas as an alternative antiviral approach has demonstrated degradation of viral nucleic acids in eukaryotes. In particular, the CRISPR-effector Cas13 enzyme has been shown to target ssRNA viruses effectively...
January 19, 2021: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Kate Seear, Suzanne Fraser, Adrian Farrugia, Kylie Valentine
Australia's recent investment in, and optimism about, direct-acting antivirals to treat hepatitis C brings with it the promise of new drug futures, including the possibility of a post-hepatitis C world and a revolution in the lives of people affected by the disease. But is the situation more complicated than we might assume? What expectations are being produced about post-cure lives? And what is being overlooked along the way? We argue that hepatitis C policy, practice and research can instantiate a problematic orientation towards medicine and 'the future' and explore ways of moving beyond these orientations...
January 13, 2021: International Journal on Drug Policy
Mariantonietta Di Stefano, Giuseppina Faleo, Ahmed Mohamed Farhan Mohamed, Simona Morella, Serena Rita Bruno, Paolo Tundo, Josè Ramon Fiore, Teresa Antonia Santantonio
Currently, treatment of chronic hepatitis C is based on a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) which achieve HCV clearance in more than 95% of patients. Despite this high rate of cure, treatment failures can occur in about 3-5% of treated patients. Resistance associated substitutions (RAS) are commonly detected after virological failure, although their role in real-life DAA failures is still debated. This study aimed to evaluate in real-life DAA-failing patients the prevalence of clinically relevant RASs for the different DAA classes and to identify possible predictors...
December 16, 2020: New Microbiologica
Su-Hsin Chang, Massini Merzkani, Krista L Lentine, Mei Wang, David A Axelrod, Siddiq Anwar, Mark A Schnitzler, Jason Wellen, William C Chapman, Tarek Alhamad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidneys from hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremic donors have become more commonly accepted for transplant, especially after effective direct-acting antiviral therapy became available in 2014. We examined the contemporary trend of kidney discard from donors with HCV seropositivity and viremia. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network were used to identify deceased donor kidneys recovered for transplant...
January 15, 2021: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Mohd Ishtiaq Anasir, Faisal Zarif, Chit Laa Poh
Viruses from the genus Enterovirus (EV) of the Picornaviridae family are known to cause diseases such as hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), respiratory diseases, encephalitis and myocarditis. The capsid of EV is an attractive target for the development of direct-acting small molecules that can interfere with viral entry. Some of the capsid binders have been evaluated in clinical trials but the majority have failed due to insufficient efficacy or unacceptable off-target effects. Furthermore, most of the capsid binders exhibited a low barrier to resistance...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Biomedical Science
S Mondschein, N Yankovic, O Matus
OBJECTIVES: We develop a patient prioritization scheme for treating patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and study under which scenarios it outperforms the current practices in Spain and Chile. STUDY DESIGN: We use simulation to evaluate the performance of prioritization rules under two HCV patient cohorts, constructed using secondary data of public records from Chile and Spain, during 2015-2016. METHODS: We use the results of a mathematical model, which determines individual optimal HCV treatment policies as an input for constructing a patient prioritization rule, when limited resources are present...
January 12, 2021: Public Health
Mohamed Mourad, Fanny Lebosse, Philippe Merle, Massimo Levrero, Teresa Antonini, Mickaël Lesurtel, Christian Ducerf, Fabien Zoulim, Jean-Yves Mabrut, Kayvan Mohkam
Prognostic models of liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly derive from LT cohorts with numerous hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. The AFP model, which is currently used in France to select LT candidates, was derived from a cohort of LT performed between 1988 and 2001, including a majority of HCV-positive recipients. The emergence of new direct-acting antiviral therapies and subsequent decrease of HCV incidence may change the generalizability of such models. We performed an external validation of the AFP model in a cohort of recipients transplanted between 2005 and 2018...
January 15, 2021: Transplant International
Kristina M Brooks, Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Mary Morrow, Samantha MaWhinney, Sarah E Rowan, David Wyles, Joshua Blum, Ryan Huntley, Lana M Salah, Arya Tehrani, Lane R Bushman, Peter L Anderson, Jennifer J Kiser
Background: Hepatitis C virus treatment in persons who use drugs (PWUD) is often withheld due to adherence and reinfection concerns. In this study, we report treatment outcomes, technology-based adherence data, and adherence predictors in PWUD and/or alcohol. Methods: INCLUD was a prospective, open-label study of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks in PWUD aged 18-70 years. Participants were randomized to wireless (wirelessly observed therapy) or video-based directly observed therapy (vDOT)...
January 2021: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Catherine Choi, Youssef Botros, Jamil Shah, Pei Xue, Anja Jones, Mark Galan, Raquel Olivo, Mumtaz Niazi, Flavio Paterno, James Guarrera, Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos
Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy is often well-tolerated, and adverse events from DAA therapy are uncommon. We report a case of a woman who underwent orthotopic liver transplant for chronic hepatitis C infection and later developed alloimmune hepatitis shortly after starting DAA therapy for recurrent hepatitis C infection. The patient developed acute alloimmune hepatitis approximately 2 weeks after starting treatment with sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir. This case report proposes a dysregulation of immune surveillance due to the DAA stimulation of host immunity and rapid elimination of hepatitis C viral load as a precipitating factor for the alloimmune process, leading to alloimmune hepatitis in a post-transplant patient who starts on DAA...
December 28, 2020: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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